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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1930-1939
 Year: 1937
 Serial/Series Title: NACA Technical Reports
 Collection: Technical Report Archive and Image Library
Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 23012 and 23021 airfoils with 20-percent-chord external-airfoil flaps of NACA 23012 section

Aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 23012 and 23021 airfoils with 20-percent-chord external-airfoil flaps of NACA 23012 section

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Platt, Robert C & Abbott, Ira H
Description: Report presents the results of an investigation of the general aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 23012 and 23021 airfoils, each equipped with a 0.20c external flap of NACA 23012 section. The tests were made in the NACA 7 by 10-foot and variable-density wind tunnels and covered a range of Reynolds numbers that included values corresponding to those for landing conditions of a wide range of airplanes. Besides a determination of the variation of lift and drag characteristics with position of the flap relative to the main airfoil, complete aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil-flap combination with a flap hinge axis selected to give small hinge moments were measured in the two tunnels. Some measurements of air loads on the flap itself in the presence of the wing were made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel.
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Air flow around finned cylinders

Air flow around finned cylinders

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Brevoort, M J & Rollin, Vern G
Description: Report presents the results of a study made to determine the air-flow characteristics around finned cylinders. Air-flow distribution is given for a smooth cylinder, for a finned cylinder having several fin spacings and fin widths, and for a cylinder with several types of baffle with various entrance and exit shapes. The results of these tests show: that flow characteristics around a cylinder are not so critical to changes in fin width as they are to fin spacing; that the entrance of the baffle has a marked influence on its efficiency; that properly designed baffles increase the air flow over the rear of the cylinder; and that these tests check those of heat-transfer tests in the choice of the best baffle.
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Air flow in the boundary layer near a plate

Air flow in the boundary layer near a plate

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Dryden, Hugh L.
Description: The published data on the distribution of speed near a thin flat plate with sharp leading edge placed parallel to the flow (skin friction plate) are reviewed and the results of some additional measurements are described. The purpose of the experiments was to study the basic phenomena of boundary-layer flow under simple conditions.
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Air propellers in yaw

Air propellers in yaw

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Lesley, E P; Worley, George F & Moy, Stanley
Description: Report presents the results of tests conducted at Stanford University of a 3-foot model propeller at four pitch settings and at 0 degree, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 30 degrees yaw. In addition to the usual propeller coefficients, cross-wind and vertical forces and yawing, pitching, and rolling moments were determined about axes having their origin at the intersection of the blade axis and the axis of rotation. The tests showed that the maximum efficiency was reduced only slightly for angles of yaw up to 10 degrees but that at 30 degrees yaw the loss in efficiency was about 10 percent. In all cases the cross-wind force was found to be greater than the cross-wind component of the axial thrust. With a yawed propeller an appreciable thrust was found for v/nd for zero thrust at zero yaw. Yawing a propeller was found to induce a pitching moment that increased in magnitude with yaw.
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Aircraft accidents.method of analysis

Aircraft accidents.method of analysis

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: unknown
Description: This report is a revision of NACA-TR-357. It was prepared by the Committee on Aircraft Accidents. The purpose of this report is to provide a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military.
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Aircraft compass characteristics

Aircraft compass characteristics

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Peterson, John B. & Smith, Clyde W.
Description: A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.
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Airfoil section characteristics as affected by variations of the Reynolds number

Airfoil section characteristics as affected by variations of the Reynolds number

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N & Sherman, Albert
Description: Report presents the results of an investigation of a systematically chosen representative group of related airfoils conducted in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel over a wide range of Reynolds number extending well into the flight range. The tests were made to provide information from which the variations of airfoil section characteristics with changes in the Reynolds number could be inferred and methods of allowing for these variations in practice could be determined. This work is one phase of an extensive and general airfoil investigation being conducted in the variable-density tunnel and extends the previously published researches concerning airfoil characteristics as affected by variations in airfoil profile determined at a single value of the Reynolds number.
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Alternating-current equipment for the measurement of fluctuations of air speed in turbulent flow

Alternating-current equipment for the measurement of fluctuations of air speed in turbulent flow

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Mock, W. C., Jr.
Description: Recent electrical and mechanical improvements have been made in the equipment developed at the National Bureau of Standards for measurement of fluctuations of air speed in turbulent flow. Data useful in the design of similar equipment are presented. The design of rectified alternating-current power supplies for such apparatus is treated briefly, and the effect of the power supplies on the performance of the equipment is discussed.
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An analysis of lateral stability in power-off flight with charts for use in design

An analysis of lateral stability in power-off flight with charts for use in design

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Zimmerman, Charles H
Description: The aerodynamic and mass factors governing lateral stability are discussed and formulas are given for their estimation. Relatively simple relationships between the governing factors and the resulting stability characteristics are presented. A series of charts is included with which approximate stability characteristics may be rapidly estimated. The effects of the various governing factors upon the stability characteristics are discussed in detail. It is pointed out that much additional research is necessary both to correlate stability characteristics with riding, flying, and handling qualities and to provide suitable data for accurate estimates of those characteristics of an airplane while it is in the design stage.
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An analysis of the factors that determine the periodic twist of an autogiro rotor blade, with a comparison of predicted and measured results

An analysis of the factors that determine the periodic twist of an autogiro rotor blade, with a comparison of predicted and measured results

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Wheatley, John B
Description: Report presents an analysis of the factors that determine the periodic twist of a rotor blade under the action of the air forces on it. The results of the analysis show that the Fourier coefficients of the twist are linear expressions involving only the tip-speed ratio, the pitch setting, the inflow coefficient, the pitching-moment coefficient of the blade airfoil section, and the physical characteristics of the rotor blade and machine. The validity of the analysis was examined by using it to predict the twist of a rotor whose twist characteristics had previously been measured in flight. The agreement between the calculated and experimental results was satisfactory.
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An analytical and experimental study of the effect of periodic blade twist on the thrust, torque, and flapping motion of an autogiro rotor

An analytical and experimental study of the effect of periodic blade twist on the thrust, torque, and flapping motion of an autogiro rotor

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Wheatley, John B
Description: An analysis is made of the influence on autogiro rotor characteristics of a periodic blade twist that varies with the azimuth position of the rotor blade and the results are compared with experimental data. The analysis expresses the influence of this type of twist upon the thrust, torque, and flapping motion of the rotor. The check against experimental data shows that the periodic twist has a pronounced influence on the flapping motion and that this influence is accurately predicted by the analysis. The influence of the twist upon the thrust and torque could be demonstrated only indirectly, but its importance is indicated.
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Blower cooling of finned cylinders

Blower cooling of finned cylinders

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Schey, Oscar W & Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr
Description: Several electrically heated finned steel cylinders enclosed in jackets were cooled by air from a blower. The effect of the air conditions and fin dimensions on the average surface heat-transfer coefficient q and the power required to force the air around the cylinders were determined. Tests were conducted at air velocities between the fins from 10 to 130 miles per hour and at specific weights of the air varying from 0.046 to 0.074 pound per cubic foot. The fin dimensions of the cylinders covered a range in pitches from 0.057 to 0.25 inch average fin thicknesses from 0.035 to 0.04 inch, and fin widths from 0.67 to 1.22 inches.
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Calculated and measured pressure distributions over the midspan section of the NACA 4412 airfoil

Calculated and measured pressure distributions over the midspan section of the NACA 4412 airfoil

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Pinkerton, Robert M
Description: Pressures were simultaneously measured in the variable-density tunnel at 54 orifices distributed over the midspan section of 5 by 30 inch rectangular model of the NACA 4412 airfoil at 17 angles of attack ranging from -20 degrees to 30 degrees at a Reynolds number of approximately 3,000,000. Accurate data were thus obtained for studying the deviations of the results of potential-flow theory from measured results. The results of the analysis and a discussion of the experimental technique are presented.
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Characteristics of six propellers including the high-speed range

Characteristics of six propellers including the high-speed range

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore; Stickle, George W & Brevoort, M J
Description: This investigation is part of an extensive experimental study that has been carried out at full scale in the NACA 20-foot tunnel, the purpose of which has been to furnish information in regard to the functioning of the propeller-cowling-nacelle unit under all conditions of take-off, climbing, and normal flight. This report presents the results of tests of six propellers in the normal and high-speed flight range and also includes a study of the take-off characteristics.
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Cooling characteristics of a 2-row radial engine

Cooling characteristics of a 2-row radial engine

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Schey, Oscar W & Rollin, Vern G
Description: This report presents the results of cooling tests conducted on a calibrated GR-1535 Pratt and Whitney Wasp, Jr. Engine installed in a Vought X04U-2 airplane. The tests were made in the NACA full-scale tunnel at air speeds from 70 to 120 miles per hour, at engine speeds from 1,500 to 2,600 r.p.m., and at manifold pressures from 19 to 33 inches of mercury absolute. A Smith controllable propeller was used to facilitate obtaining the different combinations of engine speed, power, and manifold pressure.
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Cooling of airplane engines at low air speeds

Cooling of airplane engines at low air speeds

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore; Brevoort, M J & Stickle, George W
Description: Report presents the results of a comprehensive experimental study carried out at full scale in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel, the general purpose of which is to furnish information in regard to the functioning of the power plant and propeller unit under different conditions. This report deals particularly with the problem of the cooling of an airplane engines on the ground. The influence of different nose forms, skirts, flaps, propellers, spinners, and special blowers has been investigated.
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Cooling tests of a single-row radial engine with several NACA cowlings

Cooling tests of a single-row radial engine with several NACA cowlings

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Brevoort, M J; Stickle, George W & Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr
Description: The cooling of a single-row radial air-cooled engine using several cowling arrangements has been studied in the NACA 20-foot wind tunnel. The results show the effect of the propeller and several cowling arrangements on cooling for various values of the indicated horsepower in the climb condition. A table giving comparative performance of the various cowling arrangements is presented. The dependence of temperature on indicated horsepower and pressure drop across the baffles is shown by charts. Other charts show the limiting indicated horsepower against the pressure drop across the engine and the heat dissipated at various values of the indicated horsepower.
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Determination of the characteristics of tapered wings

Determination of the characteristics of tapered wings

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Anderson, Raymond F
Description: This report presents tables and charts for use in determining the characteristics of tapered wings. Theoretical factors are given from which the following characteristics of tapered wings may be found: the span lift distribution, the induced-angle-of attack distribution, the lift-curve slope, the angle of zero lift, the induced drag, the aerodynamic-center position, and the pitching moment about the aerodynamic center.
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The effect of lateral controls in producing motion of an airplane as computed from wind-tunnel data

The effect of lateral controls in producing motion of an airplane as computed from wind-tunnel data

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Weick, Fred E & Jones, Robert T
Description: This report presents the results of an analytical study of the lateral controllability of an airplane in which both the static rolling and yawing moments supplied by the controls and the reactions due to the inherent stability of the airplane have been taken into account. The investigation was undertaken partly for the purpose of coordinating the results of a long series of wind-tunnel investigations with phenomena observed in flight tests; for this reason a hypothetical average airplane, embodying the essential characteristics of both wind-tunnel models and the full-size test airplanes, was assumed for the study.
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Effect of nozzle design on fuel spray and flame formation in a high-speed compression-ignition engine

Effect of nozzle design on fuel spray and flame formation in a high-speed compression-ignition engine

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Rothrock, A M & Waldron, C D
Description: Fuel was injected from different type of injection nozzles into the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus, operated as a compression-ignition engine. High speed motion pictures were taken of the fuel sprays and combustion. Single-orifice nozzles of 0.008, 0.020, and 0.040 inch diameter, and multiorifice nozzles having 2, 6, and 16 orifices were tested. Nozzles having impinging jets and slit orifices were also included. The photographs indicate that the rate of vapor diffusion from the spray is comparatively slow and that this slow rate of diffusion for combustion chambers with little or no air flow prevents the compression-ignition engine from giving the high performance inherent in the high compression ratios. The sprays from the multiorifice nozzles destroyed the air movement to a greater extent than did those from single orifice nozzles. It is concluded that high performance cannot be realized until the methods of distributing the fuel are improved by means of the injection-nozzle design, air flow, or both.
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Effect of tip shape and dihedral on lateral-stability characteristics

Effect of tip shape and dihedral on lateral-stability characteristics

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Shortal, Joseph A
Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests to determine the effect of wing-tip shape and dihedral on some of the aerodynamic characteristics of Clark Y wings that affect the performance and lateral stability of airplanes. Force tests at several angles of yaw and rotation tests at zero yaw were made. From these tests the rates of change of rolling moment, yawing moment, and cross-wind force coefficients with angle of yaw and the rate of change of rolling moment coefficient with rolling were determined.
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The effect of turbulence on the drag of flat plates

The effect of turbulence on the drag of flat plates

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Schubauer, G B & Dryden, H L
Description: in determining the effect of turbulence on the forces exerted on bodies in the air stream of a wind tunnel, it is commonly assumed that the indications of the standard Pitot-static tube used to determine the air speed are not dependent on the turbulence. To investigate the truth of this assumption, the drag of a normally exposed flat plate, the difference in pressure between the front and rear of a thin circular disk, the rate of rotation of a vane anemometer, and the pressure developed by a standard Pitot-static tube were measured in an air stream for several conditions of turbulence. The results may be interpreted as indicating that there is no appreciable effect of turbulence on the vane anemometer and the standard pitot-static tube, but that there is small effect on the drag of a flat plate and the pressure difference between front and rear of a disk.
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Effects of air-fuel spray and flame formation in a compression-ignition engine

Effects of air-fuel spray and flame formation in a compression-ignition engine

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Rothrock, A M & Waldron, C D
Description: High-speed motion pictures were taken at the rate of 2,500 frames per second of the fuel spray and flame formation in the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus. The compression ratio was 13.2 and the speed 1,500 revolutions per minute. An optical indicator was used to record the time-pressure relationship in the combustion chamber. The air-fuel ratio was varied from 10.4 to 365. The results showed that as the air-fuel ratio was increased definite stratification of the charge occurred in the combustion chamber even though moderate air flow existed. The results also showed the rate of vapor diffusion to be relatively slow.
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Electrical thermometers for aircraft

Electrical thermometers for aircraft

Date: January 1, 1937
Creator: Peterson, John B & Womack, S H J
Description: Electrical thermometers commonly used on aircraft are the thermoelectric type for measuring engine-cylinder temperatures, the resistance type for measuring air temperatures, and the superheat meters of thermoelectric and resistance types for use on airships. These instruments are described and their advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Methods of testing these instruments and the performance to be expected from each are discussed. The field testing of engine-cylinder thermometers is treated in detail.
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