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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1930-1939
 Year: 1934
 Serial/Series Title: NACA Technical Reports
 Collection: Technical Report Archive and Image Library
The aerodynamic forces and moments exerted on a spinning model of the NY-1 airplane as measured by the spinning balance

The aerodynamic forces and moments exerted on a spinning model of the NY-1 airplane as measured by the spinning balance

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Bamber, M J & Zimmerm, N, C h
Description: A preliminary investigation of the effects of changes in the elevator and rudder settings and of small changes in attitude upon the aerodynamic forces and moments exerted upon a spinning airplane was undertaken with the spinning balance in the 5-foot vertical tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The tests were made on a 1/12-scale model of the ny-1 airplane. Data by which to fix the attitude, the radius of spin, and the rotational and air velocities were taken from recorded spins of the full-scale airplane. Two spinning conditions were investigated. All six components of the aerodynamic reaction were measured and are presented in coefficient form refereed to airplane axes. The results indicate that the change in yawing moment produced by the rudder with the elevator up was the only component of force or moment produced by the elevator and rudder that could not have been balanced in an actual spin by small changes in attitude and angular velocity.
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Aircraft power-plant instruments

Aircraft power-plant instruments

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Sontag, Harcourt & Brombacher, W. G.
Description: This report supersedes NACA-TR-129 which is now obsolete. Aircraft power-plant instruments include tachometers, engine thermometers, pressure gages, fuel-quantity gages, fuel flow meters and indicators, and manifold pressure gages. The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described. A bibliography of important articles is included.
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Airfoil section characteristics as affected by protuberances

Airfoil section characteristics as affected by protuberances

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Jacobs, Eastman N
Description: The drag and interference caused by protuberance from the surface of an airfoil have been determined in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel at a Reynolds number approximately 3,100,000. The effects of variations of the fore-and-aft position, height, and shape of the protuberance were measured by determining how the airfoil section characteristics were affected by the addition of the various protuberances extending along the entire span of the airfoil. The results provide fundamental data on which to base the prediction of the effects of actual short-span protuberances. The data may also be applied to the design of air brakes and spoilers.
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The calculation of take-off run

The calculation of take-off run

Date: January 1934
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.
Description: A comparatively simple method of calculating length of take-off run is developed from the assumption of a linear variation in net accelerating force with air speed and it is shown that the error involved is negligible.
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A comparison between the theoretical and measured longitudinal stability characteristics of an airplane

A comparison between the theoretical and measured longitudinal stability characteristics of an airplane

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Soule, Hartley A & Wheatley, John B
Description: This report covers an investigation of the application of the theory of dynamic longitudinal stability, based on the assumption of small oscillations, to oscillations an airplane is likely to undergo in flight. The investigation was conducted with a small parasol monoplane for the fixed-stick condition. The period and damping of longitudinal oscillations were determined by direct measurements of oscillations in flight and also by calculation in which the factors that enter the theoretical stability equation were determined in flight. A comparison of the above-mentioned characteristics obtained by these two methods indicates that the theory is applicable to the conditions encountered in flight.
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Determination of the theoretical pressure distribution for twenty airfoils

Determination of the theoretical pressure distribution for twenty airfoils

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Garrick, I E
Description: This report gives the theoretical distribution of pressure at lift coefficients of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 for 20 airfoils, calculated on the basis of a rigorous potential theory of arbitrary airfoils. It also provides tables from which the characteristics of the airfoils for any angle of attack in 2-dimensional potential flow are readily calculable. The theoretical values of the angles of zero lift, the lift and moment coefficients, and the ideal angles of attack are listed and some comparisons with experiment are indicated. The results presented may be of value in predicting structural loads and also in a correlation of theoretical pressure gradients with profile resistance.
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The drag of two streamline bodies as affected by protuberances and appendages

The drag of two streamline bodies as affected by protuberances and appendages

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Abbott, Ira H
Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of two airship models conducted to determine the drag coefficients at zero pitch, and the effect of fins and cars and of flat and streamlined protuberances located at various positions along the hull. During the investigation the stern of one model was rounded off to produce a blunter shape. The extreme range of the Reynolds number based on the over-all length of the models was from 1,300,000 to 33,000,000. At large values of the Reynolds number the streamlined protuberance affected the drag very little, and the additional drag caused by the flat protuberance was less than the calculated drag by the protuberance alone. The fins and cars together increased the bare-hull drag about 20 per cent.
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The estimation of maximum load capacity of seaplanes and flying boats

The estimation of maximum load capacity of seaplanes and flying boats

Date: January 1934
Creator: Diehl, Walter S.
Description: This reports presents a method of calculating time and gross load for take-off of seaplanes and flying boats.
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The experimental determination of the moments of inertia of airplanes

The experimental determination of the moments of inertia of airplanes

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Soule, Hartley A & Miller, Marvel P
Description: The application of the pendulum method to the experimental determination of the moments of inertia of airplanes is discussed in this report. Particular reference is made to the effects of the air, in which the airplane is immersed, on the swinging tests and to the procedure by which these effects are taken into account. This procedure has been used for some time, and the data on several airplanes for which the moments of inertia have been found are included.
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A flight investigation of the spinning of the NY-1 airplane with varied mass distribution and other modifications, and an analysis based on wind-tunnel tests

A flight investigation of the spinning of the NY-1 airplane with varied mass distribution and other modifications, and an analysis based on wind-tunnel tests

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Scudder, Nathan F
Description: This report presents the results of an investigation of the spinning characteristics of NY-1 naval training biplane. The results of flight tests and an analysis based on wind-tunnel test data are given and compared. The primary purpose of the investigation was the determination in flight of the effect of changes in mass distribution along the longitudinal axis, without change of mass quantity or centroid. Other effects were also investigated, such as those due to wing loading, center-of-gravity position, dihedral of wings, control setting, and the removal of a large portion of the fabric from the fin and rudder. The wind tunnel test results used in the numerical analysis were obtained in the 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel through an angle-of-attack.
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General Potential Theory of Arbitrary Wing Section

General Potential Theory of Arbitrary Wing Section

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Theodorsen, T & Garrick, I E
Description: This report gives the exact treatment of the problem of determining the 2-dimensional potential flow around wing sections of any type. The treatment is based directly on the solution of this problem as advanced by Theodorsen in NACA-TR-411. The problem condenses into the compact form of an integral equation capable of yielding numerical solutions by a direct process.
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Improved apparatus for the measurement of fluctuations of air speed in turbulent flow

Improved apparatus for the measurement of fluctuations of air speed in turbulent flow

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Mock, W C , Jr & Dryden, H L
Description: This report describes recent improvements in the design of the equipment associated with the hot-wire anemometer for the measurement of fluctuating air speeds in turbulent air flow, and presents the results of some experimental investigations dealing with the response of the hot wire to speed fluctuations of various frequencies. Attempts at measuring the frequency of the fluctuations encountered in the Bureau of Standards' 54-inch wind tunnel are also reported. In addition, the difficulties encountered in the use of such apparatus and the precautions found helpful in avoiding them are discussed.
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Increasing the air charge and scavenging the clearance volume of a compression-ignition engine

Increasing the air charge and scavenging the clearance volume of a compression-ignition engine

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Spanogle, J A; Hicks, C W & Foster, H H
Description: The object of the investigation presented in this report was to determine the effects of increasing the air charge and scavenging the clearance volume of a 4-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine having a vertical-disk form combustion chamber. Boosting the inlet-air pressure with normal valve timing increased the indicated engine power in proportion to the additional air inducted and resulted in smoother engine operation with less combustion shock. Scavenging the clearance volume by using a valve overlap of 145 degrees and an inlet-air boost pressure of approximately 2 1/2 inches of mercury produced a net increase in performance for clear exhaust operation of 33 percent over that obtained with normal valve timing and the same boost pressure. The improved combustion characteristics result in lower specific fuel consumption, and a clearer exhaust.
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The interference between struts in various combinations

The interference between struts in various combinations

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Biermann, David & Herrnstein, William H , Jr
Description: This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests made to determine the interference drag arising from various arrangements of streamline struts and round struts, or cylinders. Determinations were made of the interference drag of struts spaced side by side, struts in tandem, tandem struts encased in a single fairing, a strut intersecting a plane, and struts intersecting to form a v. Three sizes of struts were used for most of the tests. These tests show that the interference drag arising from struts in close proximity may be of considerable magnitude, in some instances amounting to more than the drag of the struts themselves.
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Interference on an airfoil of finite span in an open wind tunnel

Interference on an airfoil of finite span in an open wind tunnel

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore
Description: The wall interference on an airfoil of finite span in an open-throat rectangular section has been treated theoretically and the result is presented in a convenient formula. Numerical results are given in tables and diagrams.
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Maneuverability investigation of an O3U-1 observation airplane

Maneuverability investigation of an O3U-1 observation airplane

Date: January 1934
Creator: Thompson, F. L. & Kirschbaum, H. W.
Description: This report presents the results of maneuverability tests of an O3U-1 observation airplane. This investigation is the third in a series of similar investigations requested by the Bureau of Aeronautics (Navy) for the purpose of comparing the maneuverability of different airplane types and to provide quantitative data for use in establishing a criterion or method for rating the maneuverability of an airplane. The two former investigations were conducted with the fighter types designated F6C-3 and F6C-4 and have been reported previously. Measurement of the air speed, the angular velocity, the linear acceleration, and positions of the controls were made during abrupt single-control maneuvers with three stop positions for each control, during steady horizontal turns for the determination of minimum radius, and during 180 degree turns by various methods. Flight-path coordinates in two dimensions were determined for the 180 degree turns by means of a special camera obscura designed for the previous investigation of the F6C-4 airplane. All maneuvers were performed at an altitude of approximately 3,000 feet.
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The NACA full-scale wind tunnel

The NACA full-scale wind tunnel

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Defrance, Smith J
Description: This report gives a complete description of the full-scale wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
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The NACA high-speed wind tunnel and tests of six propeller sections

The NACA high-speed wind tunnel and tests of six propeller sections

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Stack, John
Description: This report gives a description of the high-speed wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The operation of the tunnel is also described and the method of presenting the data is given. An account of an investigation of the aerodynamic properties of six propeller sections is included.
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The NACA tank : a high-speed towing basin for testing models of seaplane floats

The NACA tank : a high-speed towing basin for testing models of seaplane floats

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Truscott, Starr
Description: This report describes the high-speed model towing basin of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, usually referred to as the NACA Tank. The purpose of this piece of equipment is to enable the Committee to provide information and data regarding the performance of seaplanes on the water analogous to the information furnished concerning the performance of airplanes in the air.
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Negative thrust and torque characteristics of an adjustable-pitch metal propeller

Negative thrust and torque characteristics of an adjustable-pitch metal propeller

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Hartman, Edwin P
Description: This report presents the results of a series of negative thrust and torque measurements made with a 4 foot diameter model of a conventional aluminum-alloy propeller. The tests were made in the 20-foot propeller-research tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The results show that the negative thrust is considerably affected by the shape and size of the body behind the propeller, that the maximum negative thrust increases with decrease in blade-angle setting, and that the drag of a locked propeller may be greatly reduced by feathering it into the wind. Several examples of possible applications of the data are given.
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On the theory of laminar boundary layers involving separation

On the theory of laminar boundary layers involving separation

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Von Karman, TH & Millikan, C
Description: This paper presents a mathematical discussion of the laminar boundary layer, which was developed with a view of facilitating the investigation of those boundary layers in particular for which the phenomenon of separation occurs. The treatment starts with a slight modification of the form of the boundary layer equation first published by Von Mises. Two approximate solutions of this equation are found, one of which is exact at the outer edge of the boundary layer while the other is exact at the wall. The final solution is obtained by joining these two solutions at the inflection points of the velocity profiles. The final solution is given in terms of a series of universal functions for a fairly broad class of potential velocity distributions outside of the boundary layer. Detailed calculations of the boundary layer characteristics are worked out for the case in which the potential velocity is a linear function of the distance from the upstream stagnation point. Finally, the complete separation point characteristics are determined for the boundary layer associated with a potential velocity distribution made up of two linear functions of the distance from the stagnation point. It appears that extensions of the detailed calculations to more complex ...
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Penetration and duration of fuel sprays from a pump injection system

Penetration and duration of fuel sprays from a pump injection system

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Rothrock, A M & Marsh, E T
Description: High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. The pump was used with and without a check valve. The results show that the penetration of the spray tip can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.
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Performance of a fuel-injection spark-ignition engine using a hydrogenated safety fuel

Performance of a fuel-injection spark-ignition engine using a hydrogenated safety fuel

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Schey, Oscar W & Young, Alfred W
Description: This report presents the performance of a single-cylinder test engine using a hydrogenated safety fuel. The safety fuel has a flash point of 125 degrees f. (Cleveland open-dup method), which is high enough to remove most of the fire hazard, and an octane number of 95, which permits higher compression ratios to be used than are permissible with most undoped gasolines.
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Photomicrographic studies of fuel sprays

Photomicrographic studies of fuel sprays

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Lee, Dana W & Spencer, Robert C
Description: A large number of photomicrographs of fuel sprays were taken for the purpose of studying the spray structure and the process of spray formation. They were taken at magnifying powers of 2.5, 3.25, and 10, using a spark discharge of very short duration for illumination. Several types and sizes of nozzles were investigated, different liquids were used, and a wide range of injection pressures was employed. The sprays were photographed as they were injected into a glass-walled chamber in which the air density was varied from 14 atmospheres to 0.0013 atmosphere.
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