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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Decade: 1930-1939
 Serial/Series Title: NACA Special Report
 Collection: Technical Report Archive and Image Library
Tandem Air Propellers

Tandem Air Propellers

Date: August 1, 1937
Creator: Lesley, E.P.
Description: Tests of 2-blade, adjustable-pitch, counterrotating tandem model propellers, adjusted to absorb equal power at maximum efficiency, were made at Stanford University. The characteristics, for 15 degrees, 25 degrees, 35 degrees, and 45 degrees pitch settings at 0.75 R of the forward propeller and for 8 1/2%, 15% and 30% diameter spacings, were compared with those of 2-blade and 4-blade propellers of the same blade form. The tests showed that the efficiency of the tandem propellers was from 0.5% to 4% greater than that of a 4-blade propeller and, at the high pitch settings, not appreciable inferior to that of a 2-blade propeller. It was found that the rear tandem propeller should be set at a pitch angle slightly less than that of the forward propeller to realize the condition of equal power at maximum efficiency. Under this condition the total power absorbed by the tandem propellers was from 3% to 9% more than that absorbed by the 4-blade propeller and about twice that absorbed by a 2-blade propeller.
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Tandem Air Propellers - II

Tandem Air Propellers - II

Date: October 1, 1939
Creator: Lesley, E. P.
Description: Tests of three-blade, adjustable-pitch counterrotating tandem model propellers, adjusted to absorb equal power at maximum efficiency of the combination, were made at Stanford University. The aerodynamic characteristics, for blade-angle settings of 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, and 65 degrees at 0.75R of the forward propeller and for diameters spacings of 8-1/2, 15 and 30% were compared with those of three-blade and six-blade propellers of the same blade form. It was found that, in order to realize the condition of equal power at maximum efficiency, the blade angles for the rear propeller must be generally less than for the forward propeller, the difference increasing the blade angle. The tests showed that, at maximum efficiency, the tandem propellers absorb about double the power of three-blade propellers and about 8% more power than six-blade propellers having the pitch of the forward propeller of the tandem combination. The maximum efficiency of the tandem propellers was found to be from 2-15% greater than for six-blade propellers, the difference varying directly with blade angle. It was also found that the maximum efficiency of the tandem propellers was greater than that of a three-blade propeller for blade angles at 0.75R of 25 degrees or more. The difference ...
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Wing-Nacelle-Propeller Tests - Comparative Tests of Liquid-Cooled and Air-Cooled Engine Nacelles

Wing-Nacelle-Propeller Tests - Comparative Tests of Liquid-Cooled and Air-Cooled Engine Nacelles

Date: January 1, 1934
Creator: Wood, Donald H.
Description: This report gives the results of measurements of the lift, drag, and propeller characteristics of several wing and nacelle combinations with a tractor propeller. The nacelles were so located that the propeller was about 31% of the wing chord directly ahead of the leading edge of the wing, a position which earlier tests (NASA Report No. 415) had shown to be efficient. The nacelles were scale models of an NACA cowled nacelle for a radial air-cooled engine, a circular nacelle with the V-type engine located inside and the radiator for the cooling liquid located inside and the radiator for the type, and a nacelle shape simulating the housing which would be used for an extension shaft if the engine were located entirely within the wing. The propeller used in all cases was a 4-foot model of Navy No. 4412 adjustable metal propeller. The results of the tests indicate that, at the angles of attack corresponding to high speeds of flight, there is no marked advantage of one type of nacelle over the others as far as low drag is concerned, since the drag added by any of the nacelles in the particular location ahead of the wing is very small. ...
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Engine Operation in Flight for Minimum Fuel Consumption

Engine Operation in Flight for Minimum Fuel Consumption

Date: November 1, 1939
Creator: Reuter, George
Description: Engine and airplane performance data have been gathered from various sources and analyzed to determine indications of the most economical methods of flight operation from a consideration of fuel expenditure. The analysis includes the influence of such facts as fuel-air ratio, engine speed, engine knock, altitude, cylinder cooling, spark timing, and limits of cruising brake mean effective pressure. The results indicate that the cheapest power is obtained with approximately correct mixture at low engine speed and highest permissible manifold pressure. If more power is desired, the methods of obtaining it are, in order of fuel economy: (a) increasing the engine speed and maintaining safe cylinder temperatures by cooling; (b) retarding the spark or cooling further to permit higher manifold pressure; and, (c) riching the mixture. The analysis further shows that the maximum time endurance of flight occurs at the air speed corresponding to minimum thrust horsepower required and with minimum practicable engine speed. Maximum mileage per pound of fuel is obtained at slightly higher air speed. The fuel-air ratio should be approximately the theoretically correct ratio in both cases. For an engine equipped with a geared supercharger, as in the example presented, and with knock as the limiting condition, a ...
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Experiments on the Recovery of Waste Heat in Cooling Ducts, Special Report

Experiments on the Recovery of Waste Heat in Cooling Ducts, Special Report

Date: May 1, 1939
Creator: Silverstein, Abe
Description: Tests have been conducted in the N.A.C.A. full-scale wind tunnel to investigate the partial recovery of the heat energy which is apparently wasted in the cooling of aircraft engines. The results indicate that if the radiator is located in an expanded duct, a part of the energy lost in cooling is recovered; however, the energy recovery is not of practical importance up to airplane speeds of 400 miles per hour. Throttling of the duct flow occurs with heated radiators and must be considered in designing the duct outlets from data obtained with cold radiators in the ducts.
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Investigation of an Electrically Heated Airplane Windshield for Ice Prevention, Special Report

Investigation of an Electrically Heated Airplane Windshield for Ice Prevention, Special Report

Date: March 1, 1939
Creator: Rodert, Lewis A.
Description: A study was made at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Laboratory of the operation of an electrically heated glass panel, which simulated a segment of an airplane windshield, to determine if ice formations, which usually result in the loss of visibility, could be prevented. Tests were made in the 7- by 3-foot ice tunnel, and in flight, under artificially created ice-forming conditions. Ice was prevented from forming on the windshield model in the tunnel by 1.25 watts of power per square inch with the air temperature at 23 F and a velocity of 80 miles per hour. Using an improved model in flight, ice was prevented by 1.43 watts of power per square inch of protected area and 2 watts per inch concentrated in the rim, with the air temperature at 26 F and a velocity of 120 miles per hour. The removal of a preformed ice cap was effected to a limited extent in the tunnel by the use of 1.89 watts of power per square inch when the temperature and velocity were 25 F and 80 miles per hour, respectively. The results indicate that service tests with an improved design are justified.
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Large-Scale Boundary-Layer Control Tests on Two Wings in the NACA 20-Foot Wind Tunnel, Special Report

Large-Scale Boundary-Layer Control Tests on Two Wings in the NACA 20-Foot Wind Tunnel, Special Report

Date: April 1, 1935
Creator: Freeman, Hugh B.
Description: Tests were made in the N.A.C.A. 20-foot wind tunnel on: (1) a wing, of 6.5-foot span, 5.5-foot chord, and 30 percent maximum thickness, fitted with large end plates and (2) a 16-foot span 2.67-foot chord wing of 15 percent maximum thickness to determine the increase in lift obtainable by removing the boundary layer and the power required for the blower. The results of the tests on the stub wing appeared more favorable than previous small-scale tests and indicated that: (1) the suction method was considerably superior to the pressure method, (2) single slots were more effective than multiple slots (where the same pressure was applied to all slots), the slot efficiency increased rapidly for increasing slot widths up to 2 percent of the wing chord and remained practically constant for all larger widths tested, (3) suction pressure and power requirements were quite low (a computation for a light airplane showed that a lift coefficient of 3.0 could be obtained with a suction as low as 2.3 times the dynamic pressure and a power expenditure less than 3 percent of the rated engine power), and (4) the volume of air required to be drawn off was quite high (approximately 0.5 cubic ...
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Tests of Airfoils Designed to Delay the Compressibility Burble

Tests of Airfoils Designed to Delay the Compressibility Burble

Date: June 1, 1939
Creator: Stack, John
Description: Development of airfoil sections suitable for high-speed applications has generally been difficult because little was known of the flow phenomenon that occurs at high speeds. A definite critical speed has been found at which serious detrimental flow changes occur that lead to serious losses in lift and large increases in drag. This flow phenomenon, called the compressibility burble, was originally a propeller problem, but with the development of higher speed aircraft serious consideration must be given to other parts of the airplane. Fundamental investigations of high-speed airflow phenomenon have provided new information. An important conclusion of this work has been the determination of the critical speed, that is, the speed at which the compressibility burble occurs. The critical speed was shown to be the translational velocity at which the sum of the translational velocity and the maximum local induced velocity at the surface of the airfoil or other body equals the local speed of sound. Obviously then higher critical speeds can be attained through the development of airfoils that have minimum induced velocity for any given value of the lift coefficient. Presumably, the highest critical speed will be attained by an airfoil that has uniform chordwise distribution of induced velocity ...
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Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Air Inlet and Outlet Openings for Aircraft, Special Report

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Air Inlet and Outlet Openings for Aircraft, Special Report

Date: October 1, 1938
Creator: Rogallo, Francis M. & Gauvain, William E.
Description: An investigation was made in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel of a large variety of duct inlets and outlets to obtain information relative to their design for the cooling or the ventilation systems on aircraft. Most of the tests were of openings in a flat plate but, in order to determine the best locations and the effects of interference, a few tests were made of openings in an airfoil. The best inlet location for a system not including a blower was found to be at the forward stagnation point; for one including a blower, the best location was found to be in the region of lowest total head, probably in the boundary layer near the trailing edge. Design recommendations are given, and it is shown that correct design demands a knowledge of the external flow and of the internal requirements in addition to that obtained from the results of the wind tunnel tests.
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Stability of Castering Wheels for Aircraft Landing Gears, Special Report

Stability of Castering Wheels for Aircraft Landing Gears, Special Report

Date: September 1, 1937
Creator: Kantrowitz, Arthur
Description: In many installations of castering rubber-tired wheels there is a tendency for the wheel to oscillate violently about the spindle axis. This phenomenon, popularly called 'shimmy,' has occurred in some airplane tail wheels and has been corrected in two ways: first by the application of friction in the spindles of the tail wheels; and, second, by locking the wheels while taxiing at high speeds. Shimmy is common with the large wheels used as nose wheels in tricycle landing gears and, since it is impossible to lock the wheels, friction in the nose-wheel spindle has been the sole means of correction. Because the nose wheel is larger than the conventional tail wheel and usually carries a greater load, the larger amounts of spindle friction necessary to prevent shimmy are objectionable. the present paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of the problem of the stability of castering wheels for airplane landing gears. On the basis of simplified assumptions induced from experimental observations, a theoretical study has been made of the shimmy of castering wheels. The theory is based on the discovery of a phenomenon called 'kinematic shimmy' and is compared quantitatively with the results of model experiments. Experimental checks, using a ...
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