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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Serial/Series Title: NACA Special Report
 Collection: Technical Report Archive and Image Library
Model tests of a wing-duct system for auxiliary air supply
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53112/
Tests of a heated low-drag airfoil
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53383/
Wind-Tunnel Development of Ailerons for the Curtiss XP-60 Airplanem Special Report
An investigation was made in the LWAL 7- by 10-foot tunnel of internally balanced, sealed ailerons for the Curtiss XP-60 airplane. Ailerons with tabs and. with various amounts of balance were tested. Stick forces were estimated for several aileron arrangements including an arrangement recommended for the airplane. Flight tests of the recommended arrangement are discussed briefly in an appendix, The results of the wind-tunnel and flight tests indicate that the ailerons of large or fast airplanes may be satisfactorily balanced by the method developed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65169/
NACA Radio Ground-Speed System for Aircraft, Special Report
A method that utilizes the Doppler effect on radio signals for determining the speed of an airplane and the distance traveled by the airplane has been developed and found to operate satisfactorily. In this method, called the NACA radio ground-speed system, standard readily available radio equipment is used almost exclusively and extreme frequency stability of the transmitters is not necessary. No complicated equipment need be carried in the airplane, as the standard radio transmitter is usually adequate. Actual flight tests were made in which the method was used and the results were consistent with calibrated air speed indications and stop-watch measurements. Inasmuch as the fundamental accuracy of the radio method is far better than either of the checking systems used, no check was made on the limitations of the accuracy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65161/
Determination of Flight Paths of an SBD-1 Airplane in Simulated Diving Attacks, Special Report
An investigation has been made to determine the motions of and the flight paths describe by a Navy dive-bombing airplane in simulated diving attacks. The data necessary to evaluate these items, with the exception of the atmospheric wind data, were obtained from automatic recording instruments installed entirely within the airplane. The atmospheric wind data were obtained from the ground by the balloon-theodolite method. The results of typical dives at various dive angles are presented in the form of time histories of the motion of the airplane as well as flight paths calculated with respect to still air and with respect to the ground. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65195/
The Effect of Compressibility on the Growth of the Laminar Boundary Layer on Low-Drag Wings and Bodies
The development of the laminar boundary layer in a compressible fluid is considered. Formulas are given for determining the boundary-layer thickness and the ratio of the boundary-layer Reynolds number to the body Reynolds number for airfoils and bodies of revolution. It i s shown that the effect of compressibility will profoundly alter the Reynolds number corresponding to the upper limit of the range of the low-drag coefficients . The available data indicate that for low-drag and high critical compressibility speed airfoils and bodies of revolution, this effect is favorable. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65159/
Experimental investigation of a new type of low-drag wing-nacelle combination
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53096/
An Electrical-Type Indicating Fuel Flowmeter
An electrical-type meter has been developed for measuring mass rates of flow of gasoline or other nonconducting fluids. Its temperature dependence is small over a large range and it has no known vibrational or viscosity errors. The maximum temperature rise is less than 5 C. The rates of flow, measurable within 1% with the present instrument, are approximately 100 to 1,000 or more pounds of gasoline per hour when a potentiometer is used, or 100 to 300 pounds per hour when a deflection-type meter is used. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65091/
Study of Turning Performance of a Fighter-Type Airplane Particularly as Affected by Flaps and Increased Supercharging, Special Report
Results of a study to determine the effects on turning performance due to various assumed modifications to a typical Naval fighter airplane are presented. The modifications considered included flaps of various types, both part and full space, increased supercharging, and increased wing loading. The calculations indicated that near the low-speed end of the speed range, the turning performance, as defined by steady level turns at a given speed, would be improved to some extent by any of the flaps considered at altitudes up to about 25,000 feet. (If turning is not restricted to the conditions of no loss of speed or altitude, more rapid turning can, of course, be accomplished with the aid of flaps, regardless of altitude.) Fowler flaps and NACA slotted flaps appeared somewhat superior to split or perforated split flaps for maneuvering purposes, particularly if the flap position is not adjustable. Similarly, better turning performance should be realized with full-span than with part-span flaps. Turning performance over the lower half of the speed range would probably not be materially improved at any altitude by increased supercharging of the engine unless the propeller were redesigned to absorb the added power more effectively; with a suitable propeller the turning performance at high altitudes could probably be greatly improved with increased supercharging. A reduction in wing area with the aspect ratio held constant would result in impairment of turning performance over practically the entire speed range at all altitudes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65186/
Effects of Direction of Propeller Rotation on the Longitudinal Stability of the 1/10-Scale Model of the North American XB-28 Airplane with Flaps Neutral, Special Report
The effects of direction of propeller rotation on factors affecting the longitudinal stability of the XB-28 airplane were measured on a 1/10-scale model in the 7- by 10-foot tunnel of the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory. The main effect observed was that caused by regions of high downwash behind the nacelles (power off as well as power on with flaps neutral). The optimum direction of propeller rotation, both propellers rotating up toward the fuselage, shifted this region off the horizontal tail and thus removed its destabilizing effect. Rotating both propellers downward toward the fuselage moved it inboard on the tail and accentuated the effect, while rotating both propellers right hand had an intermediate result. Comparisons are made of the tail effects as measured by force tests with those predicted from the point-by-point downwash and velocity surveys in the region of the tail. These surveys in turn are compared with the results predicted from available theory. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65184/
Preliminary Investigation of the Effect of Compressibility on the Maximum Lift Coefficient, Special Report
Preliminary data are presented on the variation of the maximum lift coefficient with Mach number. The data were obtained from tests in the 8-foot high-speed tunnel of three NACA 16-series airfoils of 1-foot chord. Measurements consisted primarily of pressure-distribution measurements in order to illustrate the nature of the phenomena. It was found that the maximum lift coefficient of airfoils is markedly affected by compressibility even at Mach numbers as low as 0.2. At high Mach numbers pronounced decrease of the maximum lift coefficient was found. The magnitude of the effects of compressibility on the maximum lift coefficient and the low speeds at which these effects first appear indicate clearly that consideration of the take-off thrust for propellers will give results seriously in error if these considerations are based on the usual low-speed maximum-lift-coefficient data generally used. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65198/
Preliminary Wind-Tunnel Tests of the Effect of Nacelles on the Characteristics of a Twin-Engine Bomber Model with Low-Drag Wing, Special Report
Tests were made in the NACA 19-foot pressure tunnel of a simplified twin-engine bomber model with an NACA low-drag wing primarily to obtain an indication of the effects of engine nacelles on the characteristics of the model both with and without simple split trailing-edge flaps. Nacelles with conventional-type cowlings representative of those used on an existing high-performance airplane and with NACA high-speed type E cowlings were tested. The tests were made without propeller slipstream. The aerodynamic effects of adding the nacelles to the low-drag wing were similar to the effects commonly obtained by adding similar nacelles to conventional wings. The maximum lift coefficient without flaps was slightly increased, but the increment in maximum lift due to deflecting the flaps was somewhat decreased. The stalling characteristics were improved by the presence of the nacelles. Addition of the nacelles had a destabilizing effect on the pitching moments, as is usual for nacelles that project forward of the wing. The drag increments due to the nacelles were of the usual order of magnitude, with the increment due to the nacelles with NACA type E cowlings approximately one-third less than that of the nacelles with conventional cowlings with built-in air scoops. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65177/
Tests of an NACA 66,2-420 Airfoil of 5-Foot Chord at High Speed, Special Report
This report covers tests of a 5-foot model of the NACA 66,2-420 low-drag airfoil at high speeds including the critical compressibility speed. Section coefficients of lift, drag, and pitching moment, and extensive pressure-distribution data are presented. The section drag coefficient at the design lift coefficient of 0.4 increased from 0.0042 at low speeds to 0.0052 at a Mach number of 0.56 (390 mph at 25,000 ft altitude). The critical Mach number was about 0.60. The results cover a Reynold number range from 4 millions to 17 millions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65196/
Flight Measurements of the Aileron Characteristics of a Grumman F4F-3 Airplane
The aileron characteristics of a Grumman F4F-3 airplane were determined in flight by means of NACA recording and indicating instruments. The results show that the ailerons met NACA minimum requirements for satisfactory control throughout a limited speed range. A helix angle of approximately 0.07 radian was produced with flaps down at speeds from 90 to 115 miles per hour indicated airspeed and with flaps up from 115 to 200 miles per hour. With flaps up at 90 miles per hour, the helix angle dropped to 0.055 radian; above 200 miles per hour heavy aileron stick forces seriously restricted maneuverability in roll. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65202/
A profile-drag investigation in flight on an experimental fighter-type airplane the North American XP-51
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc53386/
Tests of a Highly Cambered Low-Drag-Airfoil Section with a Lift-Control Flap, Special Report
Tests were made in the NACA two-dimensional low turbulence pressure tunnel of a highly cambered low-drag airfoil (NACA 65,3-618) with a plain flap designed for lift control. The results indicate that such a combination offers attractive possibilities for obtaining low profile-drag coefficients over a wide range of lift coefficients without large reductions of critical speed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65162/
Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an NACA Low-Drag Tapered Wing with Straight Trailing Edge and Simple Split Flaps, Special Report
An investigation was conducted in the NACA 19-foot pressure wind tunnel of a tapered wing with straight railing edge having NACA 66 series low-drag airfoil sections and equipped with full-span and partial-span simple split flaps. The airfoil sections used were the NACA 66,2-116 at the root and the 66,2-216 at the tip. The primary purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect of the split flaps on the aerodynamic characteristics of the tapered wing. Complete lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficients were determined for the plain wing and for each flap arrangement through a Reynold number range of 2,600,000 to 4,600,000. The results of this investigation indicate that values of maximum lift coefficient comparable to values obtained on tapered wings with conventional sections and similar flap installations can be obtained from wings with the NACA low-drag sections. The increment of maximum lift due to the split flap was found to vary somewhat with Reynold number over the range investigated. The C(sub L)max of the wing alone is 1.49 at a Reynolds number of 4,600,000; whereas with the partial-span simple split flap it is 2.22 and with the full-span arrangement, 2.80. Observations of wool tufts on the wing indicate that the addition of split flaps did not appreciable alter the pattern of the stall; even though the stall did occur more abruptly than with the wing alone. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65192/
Compressibility Effects in Aeronautical Engineering
Compressible-flow research, while a relatively new field in aeronautics, is very old, dating back almost to the development of the first firearm. Over the last hundred years, researches have been conducted in the ballistics field, but these results have been of practically no use in aeronautical engineering because the phenomena that have been studied have been the more or less steady supersonic condition of flow. Some work that has been done in connection with steam turbines, particularly nozzle studies, has been of value, In general, however, understanding of compressible-flow phenomena has been very incomplete and permitted no real basis for the solution of aeronautical engineering problems in which.the flow is likely to be unsteady because regions of both subsonic and supersonic speeds may occur. In the early phases of the development of the airplane, speeds were so low that the effects of compressibility could be justifiably ignored. During the last war and immediately after, however, propellers exhibited losses in efficiency as the tip speeds approached the speed of sound, and the first experiments of an aeronautical nature were therefore conducted with propellers. Results of these experiments indicated serious losses of efficiency, but aeronautical engineers were not seriously concerned at the time became it was generally possible. to design propellers with quite low tip. speeds. With the development of new engines having increased power and rotational speeds, however, the problems became of increasing importance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc64993/
Radiator Design and Installation - II, Special Report
A mathematical analysis of radiator design has been made. The volume of the radiator using least total power has been expressed in a single formula which shows that the optimum radiator volume is independent of the shape of the radiator and which makes possible the construction of design tables that give the optimum radiator volume per 100-horsepower heat dissipation as a function of the speed, of the altitude, and of one parameter involving characteristics of the airplane. Although, for a given set of conditions, the radiator volume using the least total power is fixed, the frontal area, or the length of the radiator needs to be separately specified in order to satisfy certain other requirement such as the ability to cool with the pressure drop available while the airplane is climbing. In order to simplify the specification for the shape of the radiator and in order to reduce the labor involved in calculating the detailed performance of radiators, generalized design curves have been developed for determining the pressure drop, the mass flow of air, and the power expended in overcoming the cooling drag of a radiator from the physical dimensions of the radiator. In addition, a table is derived from these curves, which directly gives the square root of the pressure drop required for ground cooling as a function of the radiator dimensions, of the heat dissipation and of the available temperature difference. Typical calculations using the tables of optimum radiator volume and the design curves are given. The jet power that can be derived from the heated air is proportional to the heat dissipation and is approximately proportional to the square of the airplane speed and to the reciprocal of the absolute temperature of the atmosphere. A table of jet power, per 100 horsepower of heat dissipation at various airplane speeds and altitudes is presented. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65172/
A Brief Study of the Speed Reduction of Overtaking Airplanes by Means of Air Brakes, Special Report
As an aid to airplane designers interested in providing pursuit airplanes with decelerating devices intended to increase the firing time when overtaking another airplane, formulas are given relating the pertinent distances and speeds in horizontal flight to the drag increase required. Charts are given for a representative parasite-drag coefficient from which the drag increase, the time gained, and the closing distance may be found. The charts are made up for three values of the ratio of the final speed of the pursuing airplane to the speed of the pursued airplane and for several values of the ratio of the speed of the pursued airplane to the initial speed of the pursuing airplane. Charts are also given indicating the drag increases obtainable with double split flaps and with conventional propellers. The use of the charts is illustrated by an example in which it is indicated that either double split flaps or, under certain ideal conditions, reversible propellers should provide the speed reductions required. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65165/
Estimated Effect of Ring Cowl on the Climb and Ceiling of an Airplane, Special Report
Although the application of a ring cowl to an airplane with an air-cooled engine increases the maximum L/D and the high speed to an appreciable extent, the performance in climb and ceiling is not increased as much as one would expect without analyzing the conditions. When a ring cowl is installed on an airplane, the propeller is set at a higher pitch to allow the engine to turn its rated r.p.m. at the increased high speed. V/nD is increased and the propeller efficiency at high speed is increased slightly. The ratio of r.p.m. at climbing speed, V(sub c) , to the r.p.m. at maximum speed, V (sub m) is dependent upon the ratio of V(sub c) to V(sub m). The increase in V(sub c) for all airplane with ring cowl i s not as great as the increase in V(sub m), so that the ratio V(sub c)/V(sub m) is less than for the airplane without ring. Consequently the r.p.m. and full throttle thrust power available are less at V(sub c) for the airplane with ring cowl and in spite of the increase in L/D due to the installation of the ring, the excess thrust power available for climbing is not appreciably changed. The same method of reasoning accounts for the small increase in absolute ceiling in spite of a large increase in L/D maximum. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65147/
Definition of Method of Measurement of Supporting and Control Surface Areas, Special Report
Definitions of methods of measurements of supporting and control surface areas are presented. Methods for measuring the supporting surface, i.e., the wing area, and the control surfaces, i.e., the horizontal tail area, the vertical tail area, and the trailing control surface areas are defined. Illustrations of each of the areas are included. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65140/
The Effect of Surface Irregularities on Wing Drag. I. Rivets and Spot Welds, 1, Rivets and Spot Welds
Tests have been conducted in the NACA 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel to determine the effect of exposed rivet heads and spot welds on wing drag. Most of the tests were made with an airfoil of 5-foot chord. The air speed was varied from 80 to 500 miles per hour and the lift coefficient from 0 to 0.30. The increases in the drag of the 5-foot airfoil varied from 6%, due to countersunk rivets, to 27%, due to 3/32-inch brazier-head rivets, with the rivets in a representative arrangement. The drag increases caused by protruding rivet heads were roughly proportional to the height of the heads. With the front row of rivets well forward, changes in spanwise pitch had negligible effects on drag unless the pitch was more than 2.5% of the chord. Data are presented for evaluating the drag reduction attained by removing rivets from the forward part of the wing surface; for example, it is shown that over 70% of the rivet drag is caused by the rivets on the forward 30% of the airfoil in a typical case. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65149/
Method of Determining the Weights of the Most Important Simple Girders
This paper presents a series of tables for the simple and more common types of girders, similar to the tables given in handbooks under the heading "Strength of Materials," for determining the moments, deflections, etc., of simple beams. Instead of the uniform cross section there assumed, the formulas given here apply only to girders of "uniform strength," i.e., it is assumed that a girder is so dimensioned that a given load subjects it to a uniform stress throughout its whole length. This principle is particularly applicable to very strong structures. Girders of uniform strength are the lightest girders conceivable, because any girder, all of whose members are stressed to the limit, can not be surpassed by a lighter girder, if the two girders have the same form. The weight G of a member of length l, cross section F and specific gravity gamma is: G = Flgamma. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65146/
Relative Efficiencies and Design Charts for Various Engine-Propeller Combinations, Special Report
The relative efficiencies of various engine-propeller combinations were the subject of a study that covered the important flight conditions, particularly the take-off. Design charts that graphically correlate the various propeller parameters were prepared to facilitate the solution of problems and also to c1arify the conception of the relationships of the various engine-propeller design factors. It is shown that, among the many methods for improving the take-off thrust, the use of high-pitch, large-diameter controllable propellers turning at low rotational speeds is probably the most generally promising. With such a combination the take-off thrust may be further increased, at the expense of a small loss in cruising efficiency, by compromise designs wherein the pitch setting is slightly reduced and the diameter is further increased. The degree of compromise necessary to accomplish the maximum possible take-off improvement depends on such design factors as overspeeding and overboosting at take-off as well as depending on the design altitude. Both overspeeding and designing for altitude operation have the same effect on the take-off thrust as compromising in that the propulsive efficiency is increased thereby; boosting the engine, however, has the reverse effect on the propulsive efficiency, although the brake horsepower is increased. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65143/
Preliminary Wind-Tunnel and Flight Tests of a Balanced Split Flap, Special Report
One disadvantage that has been apparent in the operation of split flaps as used to date is the time and effort required to operate them. In this communication an investigation is being made of possible means for balancing them aerodynamically to make their operation easier. Several arrangements have been tested in the 7 by 210 foot wind tunnel, and the results of the wind-tunnel tests as well as preliminary flight tests on one of the more promising forms are given in this paper. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65117/
The Relative Hydrodynamic Resistance of Various Types of Rivet Heads from Tests of Planning Surfaces, Special Report
The Committee was requested to investigate the effect of various types of rivet heads on hydrodynamic resistance. The proposal was made to obtain the resistance of the various types of rivets by tests of planing surfaces on which the full size rivets would be arranged. The testing methods, results and conclusions are given. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65114/
Propeller-Design Problems of High-Speed Airplanes, Special Report
It is shown that on the basis of existing high-speed airfoil data, propeller efficiencies appreciably in excess of 40% do not appear possible at speeds above 500 miles per hour at 20,000 feet. The assumption that present propeller-blade thicknesses cannot be reduced radically, is implied. Until the reliability and applicability of the airfoil data are established, this conclusion must not be regarded as infallible. Dive tests with airplanes equipped with thrust meters and torque meters are proposed to provide an urgently needed check. The design of high-speed propellers is dictated wholly by compressibility considerations. The blade width, thickness, and pitch distribution; also the airfoil sections, the lift coefficient, the propeller diameter, and rpm must all be adjusted if reasonable efficiencies are to be maintained at airplane speeds that are now being approached. Research is urgently needed on: 1) airfoils at subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds; 2) propellers at high forward speeds in wind tunnels; 3)propellers in free flight at high speeds; and 4) jet propulsion and related devices. The breakdown of propeller efficiency indicated by airfoil data, should serve as an incentive for accelerated research on jet propulsion. This device may extend the attainable speed of current airplanes to the neighborhood of 550 miles per hour at 20,000 feet. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65119/
Ice Prevention on Aircraft by Means of Impregnated Leather Covers, Special Report
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics is testing the effectiveness of a method to prevent the formation of ice on airplanes. The system makes use of a leather cover that is attached to the leading edge of the wing. A small tube, attached to the inner surface of the leather, distributes to the leading edge a solution that permeates throughout the leather and inhibits the formation of ice on the surface. About 25 pounds of the liquid per hour would be sufficient to prevent ice from forming on a wing of 50-foot span. The additional gross weight of the system will not be excessive. The tests are not yet completed but the method is thought to be practicable for the wing and it may also be adaptable to the propeller. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65116/
A Study of Transparent Plastics for use on Aircraft. Supplement
This supplement to a NACA study issued in May 1937 entitled "A Study of Transparent Plastics for Use on Aircraft", contains two tables. These tables contain data on bursting strengths of plastics, particularly at low temperatures. Table 1 contains the values reported in a table of the original memorandum, and additional values obtained at approximately 25 C, for three samples of Acrylate resin. The second table contains data obtained for the bursting strength when one surface of the plastic was cooled to approximately -35 C. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65113/
Full-Scale Tests of 4- and 6-Blade, Single- and Dual-Rotating Propellers, Special Report
Test of 10-foot diameter, 4- and 6-blade single- and dual-rotating propellers were conducted in the 20-foot propeller-research tunnel. The propellers were mounted at the front end of a streamline body incorporating spinners to house the hub portions. The effect of a symmetrical wing mounted in the slipstream was investigated. The blade angles investigated ranged from 20 degrees to 65 degrees; the latter setting corresponds to airplane speeds of over 500 miles per hour. The results indicate that dual-rotating propellers were from 0 to 6% more efficient than single-rotating ones; but when operating in the presence of a wing the gain was reduced about one-half. Other advantages of dual-rotating propellers were found to include greater power absorption and greater efficiency at the low V/nD operating range of high pitch propellers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65077/
Statistics of the Bureau Veritas
Statistics are indispensable factors for the amelioration of safety. Through the reconciliation of accidents which may appear isolated to interested parties, they permit tracking of typical causes of accidents; conversely, they can prevent, after a serious accident due to some fortuitous cause, the taking of incautious measures under the pressure of public opinion, which always inclines to gauge the gravity of the causes by that of the results. Lastly, they permit appraisal of the efficacy of rules in force. We should add that statistics provide an agency of prevention for future accidents. A careful inspection of all signs of malfunction of material quite often prevents the occurrence of an accident. In this respect, many pilot's report, perfectly normal in every way as far as operation is concerned, can reveal much more interesting technical data than an accident, although it does not diminish the importance of statistics. Therefore, from the inception of its aeronautical service, at the end of 1922, the Bureau Veritas has kept annual statistics of all accidents which occurred in French civil aviation. In order to correctly perform their proper function, the statistics must be exact and sufficiently explicit and complete. To be exact, they must bear on all pertinent events, and on these alone. It is a matter then, first of all, defining the accident in such a way that no sinister detail bearing on the definition may escape control. The consideration of accidents to personnel only has appeared too limited. One of the essential qualities of statistics is to permit the taking of averages and in consequence to apply them ot a sufficiently large number; such is happily not the case in accidents to personnel. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65070/
Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Rectangular Air-Duct Entrances in the Leading Edge of an NACA 23018 Wing, Special Report
A preliminary investigation of a number of duct entrances of rectangular shape installed in the leading edge of a wing was conducted in the NACA 20-foot tunnel to determine the external drag, the available pressure, the critical Mach numbers, and the effect on the maximum lift. The results showed that the most satisfactory entrances, which had practically no effect on the wing characteristics, had their lips approximately in the vertical plane of the leading edge of the wing. This requirement necessitated extending the lips outside the wing contour for all except the small entrances. Full dynamic pressure was found to be available over a fairly wide range of angle of attack. The critical Mach number for a small entrance was calculated to be as high as that for the plain wing but was slightly lower for the larger entrances tested. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65078/
Full-Scale Tests of Several Propellers Equipped with Spinners, Cuffs, Airfoil and Round Shanks, and NACA 16-Series Sections, Special Report
Wind-tunnel tests of several propeller, cuff, and spinner combinations were conducted in the 20 foot propeller-research tunnel. Three propellers, which ranged in diameter from 8.4 to 11.25 feet, were tested at the front end of a streamline body incorporating spinners of two diameters. The tests covered a blade angle range from 20 deg to 65 deg. The effect of spinner diameter and propeller cuffs on the characteristics of one propeller was determined. Test were also conducted using a propeller which incorporated aerodynamically good shank sections and using one which incorporated the NACA 16 series sections for the outer 20 percent of the blades. Compressibility effects were not measured, owing to the low testing speeds. The results indicated that a conventional propeller was slightly more efficient when tested in conjunction with a 28 inch diameter spinner than with a 23 inch spinner, and that cuffs increased the efficiency as well as the power absorption characteristics. A propeller having good aerodynamic shanks was found to be definitely superior from the efficiency standpoint to a conventional round-shank propeller with or without cuffs; this propeller would probably be considered structurally impracticable, however. The propeller incorporating the NACA 16 series sections at the tims were found to have a slightly higher efficiency than a conventional propeller; the take-off characteristics appeared to be equally good. The effects noted above probably would be accentuated at helical speeds at which compressibility effects would enter. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65074/
Accelerations in Landing with a Tricycle-Type Landing Gear
In connection with the application of stable tricycle-type landing gears to transport airplanes, the question arises as to whether certain passengers may not experience relatively great accelerations in an emergency landing. Since the main landing wheels are behind the center of gravity in this type of gear, a hard-braked landing will cause immediate nosing down of the airplane and, when this motion is stopped due to the front wheel striking the ground, there will be some tendency for the rearmost passengers to be thrown out of their seats, The provided rough calculations are designed to show the magnitudes of the various reactions experienced in a severe landing under these circumstances. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65079/
Experimental Determination of Exhaust Gas Thrust, Special Report
This investigation presents the results of tests made on a radial engine to determine the thrust that can be obtained from the exhaust gas when discharged from separate stacks and when discharged from the collector ring with various discharge nozzles. The engine was provided with a propeller to absorb the power and was mounted on a test stand equipped with scales for measuring the thrust and engine torque. The results indicate that at full open throttle at sea level, for the engine tested, a gain in thrust horsepower of 18 percent using separate stacks, and 9.5 percent using a collector ring and discharge nozzle, can be expected at an air speed of 550 miles per hour. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65076/
Flight Tests on the Lateral Control of an Airplane having a Split Flap which Retracts Ahead of Conventional Ailerons, Special Report
Since the recent more or less extensive adoption of high-lift flaps on airplane wings, the problem of providing satisfactory lateral control without sacrificing a part of the span of the flaps has become one of some importance. The difficulties have been largely a matter of obtaining satisfactory rolling moments with a smoothly graduated action, together with sufficiently small control forces throughout the entire speed range. As part of an investigation including several different lateral-control arrangements to be used with split flaps, the tests reported in this paper were made on one arrangement in which conventional ailerons of narrow chord are used, and a split flap is retracted into the under surface of th wing forward of th ailerons. When the flap is retracted, the arrangement is as sketched in figure 1(a). If a simple form of split flap were used, hinged at its forward edge, the appearance when deflected would be as shown in figure 1(b). The flap if deflected with its leading edge remaining in this forward position would give somewhat less than three fourths of the lift increase of the same flap in the usual rear position. (See reference 1.). If, as shown in figure 1(c), the split flap ahead of th aileron is moved to the rear as the trailing=edge portion is deflected downward, a double advantage is obtained. The deflected flap can be located in the most effective region for high lift (reference 1), and the force required to deflect the flap is reduced. This is the arrangement used in the present tests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65073/
N.A.C.A. Stall-Warning Device
With some airplanes the approach to the stall is accompanied by changes in the behavior, such as tail buffeting or changes in the control characteristics of the airplane so that the pilot obtains a warning of the impending stall. Vith other airplanes it is possible to approach the stall without any perceptible warning other than the reading of the air-speed meter, in which case the danger of inadvertent stalling is considerably greater. Although it is not within the scope of this paper to discuss stalling characteristics, it is desired to point out that in general the danger of inadvertent stalling is greatest with those airplanes that behave worse when the stalling occurs; that is, with airplanes in which the stall starts at the wing tips. A warning of the impending stall is desirable in any case, but is particularly desirable with airplanes of the latter type. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65017/
The Effect of Streamlining the Afterbody of an N.A.C.A. Cowling
The drag and the power cost associated with the changing of the nose of a nacelle from a streamline shape to a conventional N.A.C.A. cowling shape was investigated in the N.A.C.A. 20-foot tunnel. Full-scale propellers and nacelles were used. The increment of drag associated with the change of nose shapes was found to be critically dependent on the afterbody of the nacelle. Two streamline afterbodies were tested. The results fo the tests with the more streamlined afterbody showed that the added drag due to the open-nose cowling was only one-fourth of the drag increase obtained with the other afterbody. The results of this research indicate that the power cost, in excess of that with a streamline nose, of using an N.A.C.A. cowling in front of a well-designed afterbody to enclose a 1,500-horsepower engine in an airplane with a speed of 300 miles per hour amounts to 1.5 percent of the engine power. If the open-nose cowling is credited with 1 percent because it cools the front of the cylinders, the non-useful power cost amounts to only 0.5 percent of the engine power. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65016/
Profile-Drag Investigation of an Airplane Wing Equipped with Rubber Inflatable De-Icer
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics has made profile-drag measurements in flight of a wing which was equipped with a rubber inflatable de-icer and to which various stimulated ice formations were attached. Tuft observations at the stalling speed of the wing with the various drag conditions were made in order to determine the influence on the maximum lift coefficient. The de-icer installation caused an increase of from 10-20% in the profile drag of the plain wing and reduced CL(sub max) about 6%. Simulated ice, when confined to the leading-edge region of the de-icer, had no measurable influence upon the profile drag at the cruising speed. This ice condition, however, reduced the value of CL(sub max) to about three-fourths that of the plain wing. Simulated ice in the form of a ridge along the upper and lower de-icer cap-strips increased the profile drag by about 360% at cruising speed. This condition reduced the CL(sub max) to approximately one-half that of the plain wing value. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65085/
Wing-Nacelle-Propeller Tests - Comparative Tests of Liquid-Cooled and Air-Cooled Engine Nacelles
This report gives the results of measurements of the lift, drag, and propeller characteristics of several wing and nacelle combinations with a tractor propeller. The nacelles were so located that the propeller was about 31% of the wing chord directly ahead of the leading edge of the wing, a position which earlier tests (NASA Report No. 415) had shown to be efficient. The nacelles were scale models of an NACA cowled nacelle for a radial air-cooled engine, a circular nacelle with the V-type engine located inside and the radiator for the cooling liquid located inside and the radiator for the type, and a nacelle shape simulating the housing which would be used for an extension shaft if the engine were located entirely within the wing. The propeller used in all cases was a 4-foot model of Navy No. 4412 adjustable metal propeller. The results of the tests indicate that, at the angles of attack corresponding to high speeds of flight, there is no marked advantage of one type of nacelle over the others as far as low drag is concerned, since the drag added by any of the nacelles in the particular location ahead of the wing is very small. The completely cowled nacelle for a radial air-cooled engine appears to have the highest drag, the liquid-cooled engine appears to have the highest drag, the liquid-cooled engine nacelle with external radiator slightly less drag. The liquid-cooled engine nacelle with radiator in the cowling hood has about half the drag of the cowled radial air-cooled engine nacelle. The extension-shaft housing shows practically no increase in drag over that of the wing alone. A large part of the drag of the liquid-cooled engine nacelle appears to be due to the external radiator. The maximum propulsive efficiency for a given propeller pitch setting is about 2% higher for the liquid-cooled engine nacelle with the radiator in the cowling hood than that for the other cowling arrangements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65101/
Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Wing Cooling Ducts, Special Report
The systematic investigation of wing cooling ducts at the NACA laboratory has been continued with tests in the full-scale wind tunnel on ducts of finite span. These results extend the previous investigation on section characteristics of ducts to higher Reynolds numbers and indicate the losses due to the duct ends. The data include comparisons between ducts completely within the ring and the conventional underslung ducts. Methods of flow regulation were studied and data were obtained for a wide range of internal duct resistance. The results show satisfactory correlation between the finite span and the previously measured section characteristics obtained with full-span ducts. The effects of the various design parameters on the duct characteristics are discussed. The cooling power required for the internal duct installation is shown to be only a small percentage of the engine power. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65107/
Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Air Inlet and Outlet Openings for Aircraft, Special Report
An investigation was made in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel of a large variety of duct inlets and outlets to obtain information relative to their design for the cooling or the ventilation systems on aircraft. Most of the tests were of openings in a flat plate but, in order to determine the best locations and the effects of interference, a few tests were made of openings in an airfoil. The best inlet location for a system not including a blower was found to be at the forward stagnation point; for one including a blower, the best location was found to be in the region of lowest total head, probably in the boundary layer near the trailing edge. Design recommendations are given, and it is shown that correct design demands a knowledge of the external flow and of the internal requirements in addition to that obtained from the results of the wind tunnel tests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65109/
Investigation of an Electrically Heated Airplane Windshield for Ice Prevention, Special Report
A study was made at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Laboratory of the operation of an electrically heated glass panel, which simulated a segment of an airplane windshield, to determine if ice formations, which usually result in the loss of visibility, could be prevented. Tests were made in the 7- by 3-foot ice tunnel, and in flight, under artificially created ice-forming conditions. Ice was prevented from forming on the windshield model in the tunnel by 1.25 watts of power per square inch with the air temperature at 23 F and a velocity of 80 miles per hour. Using an improved model in flight, ice was prevented by 1.43 watts of power per square inch of protected area and 2 watts per inch concentrated in the rim, with the air temperature at 26 F and a velocity of 120 miles per hour. The removal of a preformed ice cap was effected to a limited extent in the tunnel by the use of 1.89 watts of power per square inch when the temperature and velocity were 25 F and 80 miles per hour, respectively. The results indicate that service tests with an improved design are justified. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65106/
Tandem Air Propellers - II
Tests of three-blade, adjustable-pitch counterrotating tandem model propellers, adjusted to absorb equal power at maximum efficiency of the combination, were made at Stanford University. The aerodynamic characteristics, for blade-angle settings of 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, and 65 degrees at 0.75R of the forward propeller and for diameters spacings of 8-1/2, 15 and 30% were compared with those of three-blade and six-blade propellers of the same blade form. It was found that, in order to realize the condition of equal power at maximum efficiency, the blade angles for the rear propeller must be generally less than for the forward propeller, the difference increasing the blade angle. The tests showed that, at maximum efficiency, the tandem propellers absorb about double the power of three-blade propellers and about 8% more power than six-blade propellers having the pitch of the forward propeller of the tandem combination. The maximum efficiency of the tandem propellers was found to be from 2-15% greater than for six-blade propellers, the difference varying directly with blade angle. It was also found that the maximum efficiency of the tandem propellers was greater than that of a three-blade propeller for blade angles at 0.75R of 25 degrees or more. The difference in maximum efficiency again varied directly with blade angle, being about 9% for 65 degrees at 0.75R. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65103/
Preliminary Investigation of Certain Laminar-Flow Airfoils for Application at High Speeds and Reynolds Numbers
In order to extend the useful range of Reynolds numbers of airfoils designed to take advantage of the extensive laminar boundary layers possible in an air stream of low turbulence, tests were made of the NACA 2412-34 and 1412-34 sections in the NACA low-turbulence tunnel. Although the possible extent of the laminar boundary layer on these airfoils is not so great as for specially designed laminar-flow airfoils, it is greater than that for conventional airfoils, and is sufficiently extensive so that at Reynolds numbers above 11,000,000 the laminar region is expected to be limited by the permissible 'Reynolds number run' and not by laminar separation as is the case with conventional airfoils. Drag measurements by the wake-survey method and pressure-distribution measurements were made at several lift coefficients through a range of Reynolds numbers up to 11,400,000. The drag scale-effect curve for the NACA 1412-34 is extrapolated to a Reynolds number of 30,000,000 on the basis of theoretical calculations of the skin friction. Comparable skin-friction calculations were made for the NACA 23012. The results indicate that, for certain applications at moderate values of the Reynolds number, the NACA 1412-34 and 2412-34 airfoils offer some advantages over such conventional airfoils as the NACA 23012. The possibility of maintaining a more extensive laminar boundary layer on these airfoils should result in a small drag reduction, and the absence of pressure peaks allows higher speeds to be reached before the compressibility burble is encountered. At lower Reynold numbers, below about 10,000,000, these airfoils have higher drags than airfoils designed to operate with very extensive laminar boundary layers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65087/
Radiator Design and Installation
The fundamental principles of fluid flow, pressure losses, and heat transfer have been presented and analyzed for the case of a smooth tube with fully developed turbulent flow. These equations apply to tubes with large length-diameter ratios where the f1ow is at a high Reynolds Number. The error introduced by using these equations increases as the magnitude of the tube length and the air-flow Reynolds Number approaches the values encountered in modern radiator designs. Accordingly, heat-transfer tests on radiator sections were made and the results are presented in nondimensional form to facilitate their use and for comparison with other heat-transfer data. In addition, pressure losses were measured along smooth tubes of circular, square, and rectangular cross section and the results were also correlated and are presented in nondimensional form. The problem of a radiator design for a particular installation is solved, the experimental heat-transfer and pressure-loss data being used, on a basis of power chargeable to the radiator for form drag, for propelling the weight, and for forcing the air through the radiator. The case of an installation within a wing or an engine nacelle is considered. An illustration of radiator design is carried through for an arbitrary set of conditions. Sufficient detail is given to enable the reader to reproduce the analysis for any given case. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65089/
Wind-Tunnel Tests of Several Model Tractor-Propeller and Pusher-Propeller Wing Extension-Shaft Arrangements, Special Report
Tests were made in the 20-foot propeller-research tunnel to investigate the possibility of obtaining increased net efficiencies of propeller-nacelle units by enclosing the engines in the wings and by using extension shafts. A wing of 5-foot chord was fitted with a propeller drive assembly providing for several axial locations of tractor propellers and pusher propellers. A three-blade 4-foot propeller and a three-blade 3 1/2-foot propeller of special design were tested in this wing with spinners and fairings ranging in diameter from 6 to 16 inches. A 16-inch NACA cowling was tested for comparative purposes. Two types of cuffs were also employed. It was found that the net efficiency of a conventional round-shank propeller mounted on an extension shaft in front of or behind a wing increased with an increase in the diameter of the spinner and the shaft housing within the scope of the tests. The largest spinner used had a diameter that might favorably compare with that of a radial engine cowling. The efficiencies for the pusher position appeared to be more critically affected by spinner size than those for the tractor position. The spinners with large diameters for the pusher position resulted in a higher efficiency than those for the corresponding tractor arrangements; the reverse was true for the small spinners. The use of propeller cuffs in combination with a spinner of small diameter generally resulted in net efficiencies that were comparable with those found for the large-spinner combinations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65167/
Experiments on the Recovery of Waste Heat in Cooling Ducts, Special Report
Tests have been conducted in the N.A.C.A. full-scale wind tunnel to investigate the partial recovery of the heat energy which is apparently wasted in the cooling of aircraft engines. The results indicate that if the radiator is located in an expanded duct, a part of the energy lost in cooling is recovered; however, the energy recovery is not of practical importance up to airplane speeds of 400 miles per hour. Throttling of the duct flow occurs with heated radiators and must be considered in designing the duct outlets from data obtained with cold radiators in the ducts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65134/
Preliminary Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Wing Ducts for Radiators, Special Report
Wing ducts for liquid-cooled engine radiators have been investigated in the N.A.C.A. full-scale wind tunnel on a large model airplane. The tests were made to determine the relative merits of several types of duct and radiator installations for an airplane of a particular design. In the test program the principal duct dimensions were systematically varied, and the results are therefore somewhat applicable to the general problems of wing duct design, although they should be considered as preliminary and only indicative of the inherent possibilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65139/
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