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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Country: Iraq
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA): Origin, Characteristics, and Institutional Authorities
Responsibility for overseeing reconstruction in post-conflict Iraq initially fell to the Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance (ORHA). Established in early 2003, ORHA had been replaced by June of that year by the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA). On June 28, 2004, CPA ceased operations. Whether CPA was a federal agency is unclear. Some executive branch documents supported the notion that it was created by the President. Another possibility is that the authority was created by, or pursuant to, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1483. This report discusses the issue of CPA's status as an agency, including the uncertain circumstances regarding its creation and demise, as well as relevant legislation and subsequent lawsuits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10420/
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA): Origin, Characteristics, and Institutional Authorities
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA or “the authority”) was established approximately one month after United States and coalition forces took control of Baghdad in Iraq on April 9, 2003.1 The authority’s mission was “to restore conditions of security and stability, to create conditions in which the Iraqi people can freely determine their own political future, (including by advancing efforts to restore and establish national and local institutions for representative governance) and facilitating economic recovery, sustainable reconstruction and development. This report discusses two views on how the authority was established, reviews selected characteristics of the authority, identifies statutory reporting requirements concerning the authority and the reconstruction of Iraq, and explores several policy issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6482/
The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11
This report analyzes war funding for the Department of Defense (DOD) and tracks funding for USAID and Veteran's Affairs (VA) Medical funding. Information on costs helps Congress to assess the FY2010 Supplemental for war costs for the Department of Defense (DOD) and State/USAID FY2011 war requests; conduct oversight of past war costs; and consider the longer-term costs implications of the buildup of troops in Afghanistan and potential problems in the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99090/
Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress
This report will examine logistical support contracts for troop support services (also known as service contracts) in Iraq and Afghanistan, primarily administered through a smaller program, the United States Air Force Contract Augmentation Program (AFCAP) and a larger program, the United States Army's Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP). This report will focus primarily on contracts involving Department of Defense (DOD) appropriated funds, although some projects involve a blending of funds from other agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29689/
Defense Logistical Support Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan: Issues for Congress
This report examines logistical support contracts for troop support services in Iraq and Afghanistan (for Afghanistan, beginning with LOGCAP IV) administered through the U.S. Army's Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26254/
Department of Defense Contractors in Afghanistan and Iraq: Background and Analysis
This report provides a detailed analysis of contractor personnel trends and contracting dollars obligated in U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM), Afghanistan, and Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99010/
Department of Defense Contractors in Afghanistan and Iraq: Background and Analysis
This report provides a detailed analysis of contractor personnel trends and contracting dollars obligated in U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM), Afghanistan, and Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40080/
Department of Defense Fuel Costs in Iraq
This report discusses the Department of Defense (DOD) fuel costs in Iraq. It analyzes the disparity between the higher price of fuel supplied to the United States Central Command compared to Iraq's civilian population that has been a point of contention. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94246/
Department of Defense Fuel Costs in Iraq
Since the invasion of Iraq in 2003, the average price of fuels purchased for military operations in Iraq has steadily increased. The disparity between the higher price of fuel supplied to the United States Central Command compared to Iraq's civilian population has been a point of contention. Several factors contribute to the disparity, including the different types of fuel used by the military compared to Iraqi civilians, the Iraqi government's price subsidies, and the level pricing that the DOD's Defense Logistics Agency charges for military customers around the world. The Iraqi government has been pressured to reduce its fuel subsidy and black market fuel prices remain higher than the official subsidized price. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10776/
The Department of Defense's Use of Private Security Contractors in Afghanistan and Iraq: Background, Analysis, and Options for Congress
This report examines current private security contractor (PSC) trends in Afghanistan and Iraq, steps the Department of Defense (DOD) has taken to improve oversight and management, and the impact that using private security personnel can have on military operations. It also reviews steps Congress has taken to exercise oversight over the use of PSCs and includes options for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103066/
The Department of Defense's Use of Private Security Contractors in Afghanistan and Iraq: Background, Analysis, and Options for Congress
This report examines current PSC trends in Afghanistan and Iraq, steps DOD has taken to improve oversight and management, and the impact using private security personnel can have on military operations. It also reviews steps Congress has taken to exercise oversight over the use of PSCs and includes options for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40082/
FY2009 Spring Supplemental Appropriations for Overseas Contingency Operations
This report discusses the White House's request for supplemental appropriations that include funding for defense, foreign affairs, and domestic fire fighting. The report details the different programs and areas that the appropriations would fund, including operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, preparedness and emergency management measures relating to the swine flu outbreak, border security between the United States and Mexico, benchmark assessment in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and other general defense operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26148/
FY2009 Spring Supplemental Appropriations for Overseas Contingency Operations
This report discusses the White House's request for supplemental appropriations that include funding for defense, foreign affairs, and domestic fire fighting. The report details the different programs and areas that the appropriations would fund, including operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, preparedness and emergency management measures relating to the swine flu outbreak, border security between the United States and Mexico, benchmark assessment in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and other general defense operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26149/
A Guide to U.S. Military Casualty Statistics: Operation New Dawn, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation Enduring Freedom
This report presents statistics regarding U.S. military casualties in the active Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF, Afghanistan), as well as operations that have ended: Operation New Dawn (OND, Iraq) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF, Iraq). It includes statistics on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury (TBI), amputations, evacuations, and the demographics of casualties. Some of these statistics are publicly available at the Department of Defense's (DOD's) website; others have been obtained through contact with experts at the DOD. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282275/
Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and Countermeasures
Since October 2001, Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs, or roadside bombs) have been responsible for many of the more than 2,000 combat deaths in Iraq, and 178 combat deaths in Afghanistan. IEDs are hidden behind signs and guardrails, under roadside debris, or inside animal carcasses, and encounters with these bombs are becoming more numerous and deadly in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Department of Defense (DOD) efforts to counter IEDs have proven only marginally effective, and U.S. forces continue to be exposed to the threat at military checkpoints, or whenever on patrol. IEDs are increasingly being used in Afghanistan, and DOD reportedly is concerned that they might eventually be more widely used by other insurgents and terrorists worldwide. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10213/
Intelligence Issues for Congress
To address the challenges facing the U.S. intelligence community in the 21st century, congressional and executive branch initiatives have sought to improve coordination among the different agencies and to encourage better analysis. This report discusses these challenges and efforts the current and previous Administrations and Congresses have taken and are taking to address them. The report includes criticism of the intelligence community's efforts regarding Iraq, Iran, and other areas. Improved analysis remains a key goal in these discussions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29674/
The Iran-Iraq War: Implications for U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9596/
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses
Much of the debate over U.S. policy toward Iran has centered on the nature of the current regime; some believe that Iran, a country of about 70 million people, is a threat to U.S. interests because hardliners in Iran's regime dominate and set a policy direction intended to challenge U.S. influence and allies in the region. President George W. Bush, in his January 29, 2002, State of the Union message, labeled Iran part of an "axis of evil" along with Iraq and North Korea. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29648/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
This report discusses the relationship between Iraq and Iran in the post-Saddam Hussein era, with particular focus on what Iran's intentions and/or long-term goals may be for increasing its influence in Iraq. The report explores the various strategies that Iran has used to spread its influence throughout Iraq's military and political spheres. The report also addresses the United States' concern over the Iran-Iraq relationship, especially as it concerns armed Shiite factions and U.S. efforts to stabilize Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26330/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
Iran is materially assisting all major Shiite Muslim political factions in Iraq, most of which have longstanding ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran, and their armed militias. The Administration notes growing involvement by Tehran in actively directing training, and arming Shiite militiamen linked, to varying degrees, to hardline cleric Moqtada Al Sadr. Some analysis goes so far as to see a virtual "proxy war" between the United States and Iran inside Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10655/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. The Shiite faction of paramount concern to the Administration is that of Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia has periodically battled U.S. and Iraqi government forces, although it is currently relatively quiescent. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10657/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. Among these factions is that of hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia, according to some observers, serves as a proxy force for Tehran against the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10653/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
Iran is materially assisting and attempting to influence, in most cases against the United States, major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. The Administration asserts that Tehran is actively directing, training, and arming Shiite militiamen linked, to varying degrees, to hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr. Some analysts see a virtual "proxy war" between the United States and Iran inside Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10654/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran. Among these factions is that of hardline anti-U.S. cleric Moqtada Al Sadr, whose Mahdi Army militia, according to some observers, serves as a proxy force for Tehran against the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10652/
Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq
With a conventional military and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) threat from Saddam Hussein's regime removed, Iran seeks to ensure that Iraq can never again become a threat to Iran, either with or without U.S. forces present in Iraq. By supporting armed Shiite factions, Iran's influence in Iraq has at times hindered U.S. efforts to stabilize Iraq, and has heightened the U.S. threat perception of Iran generally. However, Iran faces difficult choices in Iraq now that its protege Shiite factions, formerly united, are competing and often fighting each other. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10656/
Iran's Influence in Iraq
Iran's influence over the post-Saddam government in Iraq is substantial because the predominant parties in that government have long enjoyed Tehran's sponsorship. An emerging concern is that Iran's influence has extended to support for militant groups in Iraq. U.S. officials say that sophisticated explosive devices are entering Iraq from Iran, suggesting that Iran, or factions within Iran, are backing Iraqi factions that use violence to oppose the U.S. presence in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10215/
Iran's Influence in Iraq
Iran's influence over the post-Saddam government in Iraq is substantial because the predominant parties in that government have long enjoyed Tehran's sponsorship. An emerging concern is that Iran's influence has extended to support for militant groups in Iraq. U.S. officials say that sophisticated explosive devices are entering Iraq from Iran, suggesting that Iran, or factions within Iran, are backing Iraqi factions that use violence to oppose the U.S. presence in Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10214/
Iran's Influence in Iraq
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7968/
Iran's Influence in Iraq
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8312/
Iraq Agriculture and Food Supply: Background and Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7103/
Iraq Casualties: U.S. Military Forces and Iraqi Civilians, Police, and Security Forces
This report presents U.S. military casualties as well as governmental and nongovernmental estimates of Iraqi civilian, police, and security forces casualties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31345/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2470/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2469/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2468/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2472/
Iraq: Compliance, Sanctions, and U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2471/
Iraq: Differing Views in the Domestic Policy Debate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2519/
Iraq: Elections and New Government
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7233/
Iraq: Elections and New Government
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7231/
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9924/
Iraq: Elections, Government, and Constitution
Elections in 2005 for a transition government (January 30, 2005), a permanent constitution (October 15), and a permanent (four year) government (December 15) were concluded despite insurgent violence, progressively attracting Sunni participation. On May 20, a unity government was formed as U.S. officials had been urging, but the government has been unable to reduce sectarian violence, and there are growing signs of fragmentation within it. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10228/
Iraq: International Attitudes to Operation Iraqi Freedom and Reconstruction
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9292/
Iraq-Kuwait: U.N. Security Council Resolutions -- Texts and Votes
The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 1-2, 1990, set into motion a series of actions by the United Nations Security Council. Between August 2 and December 4, 1990, the Council adopted 12 resolutions. The numbers and votes of those resolutions are listed and the full text of each resolution is included in the this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26022/
Iraq-Kuwait: United Nations Security Council Resolutions Test and Votes -- 1991
This report lists the 12 adopted United Nations Security Council resolutions relating to the Iraq-Kuwait situation through October 1991. The texts of these resolutions, along with the votes by members of the Council, are included in this report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26023/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, Illicit Trade, and Investigations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8105/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, Illicit Trade, and Investigations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8313/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, International Sanctions, and Illicit Trade
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5082/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, International Sanctions, and Illicit Trade
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5081/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, International Sanctions, and Illicit Trade
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5080/
Iraq: Oil-for-Food Program, International Sanctions, and Illicit Trade
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3205/
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