Latest content added for UNT Digital Library Partner: UNT Librarieshttp://digital.library.unt.edu/explore/partners/UNT/browse/?fq=str_degree_discipline:Physics&display=brief2016-06-28T16:28:55-05:00UNT LibrariesThis is a custom feed for browsing UNT Digital Library Partner: UNT LibrariesA Search for Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Patterns in Select Proxy Data with a Goal to Understanding Temperature Variation2016-06-28T16:28:55-05:00http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc849601/<p><a href="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc849601/"><img alt="A Search for Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Patterns in Select Proxy Data with a Goal to Understanding Temperature Variation" title="A Search for Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Patterns in Select Proxy Data with a Goal to Understanding Temperature Variation" src="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc849601/small/"/></a></p><p>In this work over 200 temperature proxy data sets have been analyzed to determine if periodic and or quasi-periodic patterns exist in the data sets. References to the journal articles where data are recorded are provided. Chapter 1 serves an introduction to the problem of temperature determination in providing information on how various proxy data sources are derived. Examples are given of the techniques followed in producing proxy data that predict temperature for each method used. In chapter 2 temperature proxy data spanning the last 4000 years, from 2,000 BCE to 2,000 CE, are analyzed to determine if overarching patterns exist in proxy data sets. An average of over 100 proxy data sets was used to produce Figure 4. An overview of the data shows that several “peaks” can be identified. The data were then subjected to analysis using a series of frequency modulated cosine waves. This analysis led to a function that can be expressed by equation 3. The literature was examined to determine what mathematical models had been published to fit the experimental proxy data for temperature. A number of attempts have been made to fit data from limited data sets with some degree of success. Some other papers have used a sinusoidal function to best fit the changes in the temperature. After consideration of many published papers and reviewing long time streams of proxy data that appeared to have sine wave patterns, a new model was proposed for trial. As the patterns observed showed “almost” repeating sine cycles, a frequency modulated sine wave was chosen to obtain a best fit function. Although other papers have used a sinusoidal function to best fit the changes in the temperature, the “best fit” was limited. Thus, it was decided that a frequency modulated sine wave may be a better model that would provide a more precise fit. This proved to be the case and the more than 240 temperature proxy data sets were analyzed using Equation 3. In chapter 3 the time span for the proxy data was extended to cover the period of time 12,000 BCE to 2000 CE. The data were then tested by using the equation above to search for periodic/quasi-periodic patterns. These results are summarized under select conditions of time periods. In chapter 4 the interval of time is extended over 1,000,000 years of time to test for long period “periodic” changes in global temperature. These results are provided for overall analysis. The function f(x) as described above was used to test for periodic/quasi-periodic changes in the data. Chapter 5 provides an analysis of temperature proxy data for an interval of time of 3,000,000 years to establish how global temperature has varied during the last three million years. Some long-term quasi-periodic patterns are identified. Chapter 6 provides a summation of the model proposed for global temperature that can be expected if similar trends continue over future years as have prevailed for the past few million years. Data sets that were used in this work are tabulated in the appendices of this paper.</p>Quantum Coherent Control and Propagation in Lambda System2016-06-28T16:28:55-05:00http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc849750/<p><a href="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc849750/"><img alt="Quantum Coherent Control and Propagation in Lambda System" title="Quantum Coherent Control and Propagation in Lambda System" src="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc849750/small/"/></a></p><p>Strong coherence in quasi-resonant laser driven system interferes with effective relaxations, resulting in behaviors like, coherent population trapping and Electromagnetically induced transparency. The Raman system can optimize this utilizing excited coherence in the lambda system when exposed to counter- intuitive pump-stokes pulses. The phenomenon can result in complete population transfer between vibrational levels called Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage(STIRAP). STIRAP and CHIRAP have been studied with Gaussian and chirped pulses. The optical propagation effects in dense medium for these phenomenon is studied to calculate the limitations and induced coherences. Further, the effect of rotational levels has been investigated. The molecular vibrational coherence strongly depends on the effect of rotational levels. The change in coherence interaction for ro-vibrational levels are reported and explained. We have considered the effects on the phase of radiation related to rotational mechanical motion of quantum system by taking advantages in ultra strong dispersion medium provided by quantum coherence in lambda system. The enhanced Fizeau effect on a single atom is observed.</p>Charged Particle Transport and Confinement Along Null Magnetic Curves and in Various Other Nonuniform Field Configurations for Applications in Antihydrogen Production2016-06-28T16:28:55-05:00http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc849779/<p><a href="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc849779/"><img alt="Charged Particle Transport and Confinement Along Null Magnetic Curves and in Various Other Nonuniform Field Configurations for Applications in Antihydrogen Production" title="Charged Particle Transport and Confinement Along Null Magnetic Curves and in Various Other Nonuniform Field Configurations for Applications in Antihydrogen Production" src="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc849779/small/"/></a></p><p>Comparisons between measurements of the ground-state hyperfine structure and gravitational acceleration of hydrogen and antihydrogen could provide a test of fundamental physical theories such as CPT (charge conjugation, parity, time-reversal) and gravitational symmetries. Currently, antihydrogen traps are based on Malmberg-Penning traps. The number of antiprotons in Malmberg-Penning traps with sufficiently low energy to be suitable for trappable antihydrogen production may be reduced by the electrostatic space charge of the positrons and/or collisions among antiprotons. Alternative trap designs may be needed for future antihydrogen experiments. A computational tool is developed to simulate charged particle motion in customizable magnetic fields generated by combinations of current loops and current lines. The tool is used to examine charged particle confinement in two systems consisting of dual, levitated current loops. The loops are coaxial and arranged to produce a magnetic null curve. Conditions leading to confinement in the system are quantified and confinement modes near the null curve and encircling one or both loops are identified. Furthermore, the tool is used to examine and quantify charged particle motion parallel to the null curve in the large radius limit of the dual, levitated current loops. An alternative to new trap designs is to identify the effects of the positron space in existing traps and to find modes of operation where the space charge is beneficial. Techniques are developed to apply the Boltzmann density relation along curved magnetic field lines. Equilibrium electrostatic potential profiles for a positron plasma are computed by solving Poisson's equation using a finite-difference method. Equilibria are computed in a model Penning trap with an axially varying magnetic field. Also, equilibria are computed for a positron plasma in a model of the ALPHA trap. Electric potential wells are found to form self-consistently. The technique is expanded to compute equilibria for a two-species plasma with an antiproton plasma confined by the positron space charge. The two-species equilibria are used to estimate timescales associated with three-body recombination, losses due to collisions between antiprotons, and temperature equilibration. An equilibrium where the three-body recombination rate is the smallest is identified.</p>Nonlinear and Quantum Optics Near Nanoparticles2016-03-20T10:34:12-05:00http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822820/<p><a href="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822820/"><img alt="Nonlinear and Quantum Optics Near Nanoparticles" title="Nonlinear and Quantum Optics Near Nanoparticles" src="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822820/small/"/></a></p><p>We study the behavior of electric fields in and around dielectric and metal nanoparticles, and prepare the ground for their applications to a variety of systems viz. photovoltaics, imaging and detection techniques, and molecular spectroscopy. We exploit the property of nanoparticles being able to focus the radiation field into small regions and study some of the interesting nonlinear, and quantum coherence and interference phenomena near them. The traditional approach to study the nonlinear light-matter interactions involves the use of the slowly varying amplitude approximation (SVAA) as it simplifies the theoretical analysis. However, SVVA cannot be used for systems which are of the order of the wavelength of the light. We use the exact solutions of the Maxwell's equations to obtain the fields created due to metal and dielectric nanoparticles, and study nonlinear and quantum optical phenomena near these nanoparticles. We begin with the theoretical description of the electromagnetic fields created due to the nonlinear wavemixing process, namely, second-order nonlinearity in an nonlinear sphere. The phase-matching condition has been revisited in such particles and we found that it is not satisfied in the sphere. We have suggested a way to obtain optimal conditions for any type and size of material medium. We have also studied the modifications of the electromagnetic fields in a collection of nanoparticles due to strong near field nonlinear interactions using the generalized Mie theory for the case of many particles applicable in photovoltaics (PV). We also consider quantum coherence phenomena such as modification of dark states, stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), optical pumping in $4$-level atoms near nanoparticles by using rotating wave approximation to describe the Hamiltonian of the atomic system. We also considered the behavior of atomic and the averaged atomic polarization in $7$-level atoms near nanoparticles. This could be used as a prototype to study any $n-$level atomic system experimentally in the presence of ensembles of quantum emitters. In the last chapter, we suggested a variant of a pulse-shaping technique applicable in stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS) for detection of atoms and molecules in multiscattering media. We used discrete-dipole approximation to obtain the fields created by the nanoparticles.</p>Fractional Calculus and Dynamic Approach to Complexity2016-03-20T10:34:12-05:00http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822832/<p><a href="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822832/"><img alt="Fractional Calculus and Dynamic Approach to Complexity" title="Fractional Calculus and Dynamic Approach to Complexity" src="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822832/small/"/></a></p><p>Fractional calculus enables the possibility of using real number powers or complex number powers of the differentiation operator. The fundamental connection between fractional calculus and subordination processes is explored and affords a physical interpretation for a fractional trajectory, that being an average over an ensemble of stochastic trajectories. With an ensemble average perspective, the explanation of the behavior of fractional chaotic systems changes dramatically. Before now what has been interpreted as intrinsic friction is actually a form of non-Markovian dissipation that automatically arises from adopting the fractional calculus, is shown to be a manifestation of decorrelations between trajectories. Nonlinear Langevin equation describes the mean field of a finite size complex network at criticality. Critical phenomena and temporal complexity are two very important issues of modern nonlinear dynamics and the link between them found by the author can significantly improve the understanding behavior of dynamical systems at criticality. The subject of temporal complexity addresses the challenging and especially helpful in addressing fundamental physical science issues beyond the limits of reductionism.</p>Variational Calculations of Positronium Scattering with Hydrogen2016-03-20T10:34:12-05:00http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822803/<p><a href="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822803/"><img alt="Variational Calculations of Positronium Scattering with Hydrogen" title="Variational Calculations of Positronium Scattering with Hydrogen" src="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822803/small/"/></a></p><p>Positronium-hydrogen (Ps-H) scattering is of interest, as it is a fundamental four-body Coulomb problem. We have investigated low-energy Ps-H scattering below the Ps(n=2) excitation threshold using the Kohn variational method and variants of the method with a trial wavefunction that includes highly correlated Hylleraas-type short-range terms. We give an elegant formalism that combines all Kohn-type variational methods into a single form. Along with this, we have also developed a general formalism for Kohn-type matrix elements that allows us to evaluate arbitrary partial waves with a single codebase. Computational strategies we have developed and use in this work will also be discussed.With these methods, we have computed phase shifts for the first six partial waves for both the singlet and triplet states. The 1S and 1P phase shifts are highly accurate results and could potentially be viewed as benchmark results. Resonance positions and widths for the 1S-, 1P-, 1D-, and 1F-waves have been calculated.We present elastic integrated, elastic differential, and momentum transfer cross sections using all six partial waves and note interesting features of each. We use multiple effective range theories, including several that explicitly take into account the long-range van der Waals interaction, to investigate scattering lengths for the 1,3S and 1,3P partial waves and effective ranges for the 1,3S-wave.</p>Complex Numbers in Quantum Theory2016-03-04T16:14:01-06:00http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc804988/<p><a href="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc804988/"><img alt="Complex Numbers in Quantum Theory" title="Complex Numbers in Quantum Theory" src="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc804988/small/"/></a></p><p>In 1927, Nobel prize winning physicist, E. Schrodinger, in correspondence with Ehrenfest, wrote the following about the new theory: “What is unpleasant here, and indeed directly to be objected to, is the use of complex numbers. Psi is surely fundamentally a real function.” This seemingly simple issue remains unexplained almost ninety years later. In this dissertation I elucidate the physical and theoretical origins of the complex requirement. I identify a freedom/constraint situation encountered by vectors when, employed in accordance with adopted quantum representational methodology, and representing angular momentum states in particular. Complex vectors, quite simply, provide more available adjustable variables than do real vectors. The additional variables relax the constraint situation allowing the theory’s representational program to carry through. This complex number issue, which lies at the deepest foundations of the theory, has implications for important issues located higher in the theory. For example, any unification of the classical and quantum accounts of the settled order of nature, will rest squarely on our ability to account for the introduction of the imaginary unit.</p>A Precise Few-nucleon Size Difference by Isotope Shift Measurements of Helium2016-03-04T16:14:01-06:00http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc804828/<p><a href="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc804828/"><img alt="A Precise Few-nucleon Size Difference by Isotope Shift Measurements of Helium" title="A Precise Few-nucleon Size Difference by Isotope Shift Measurements of Helium" src="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc804828/small/"/></a></p><p>We perform high precision measurements of an isotope shift between the two stable isotopes of helium. We use laser excitation of the 2^3 S_1-2^3 P_0 transition at 1083 nm in a metastable beam of 3He and 4He atoms. A newly developed tunable laser frequency selector along with our previous electro-optic frequency modulation technique provides extremely reliable, adaptable, and precise frequency and intensity control. The intensity control contributes negligibly to overall experimental uncertainty by stabilizing the intensity of the required sideband and eliminating the unwanted frequencies generated during the modulation of 1083 nm laser carrier frequency. The selection technique uses a MEMS based fiber switch and several temperature stabilized narrow band (~3 GHz) fiber gratings. A fiber based optical circulator and an inline fiber amplifier provide the desired isolation and the net gain for the selected frequency. Also rapid (~2 sec.) alternating measurements of the 2^3 S_1-2^3 P_0 interval for both species of helium is achieved with a custom fiber laser for simultaneous optical pumping. A servo-controlled retro-reflected laser beam eliminates residual Doppler effects during the isotope shift measurement. An improved detection design and software control makes negligible subtle potential biases in the data collection. With these advances, combined with new internal and external consistency checks, we are able to obtain results consistent with the best previous measurements, but with substantially improved precision. Our measurement of the 2^3 S_1-2^3 P_0 isotope shift between 3He and 4He is 31 097 535.2 (5) kHz. The most recent theoretic calculation combined with this measurement yields a new determination for nuclear size differences between 3He and 4He: ∆r_c=0.292 6 (1)_exp (8)_th (52)_exp fm, with a precision of less than a part in 〖10〗^4 coming from the experimental uncertainty (first parenthesis), and a part in 〖10〗^3 coming from theory. This value is consistent with electron scattering measurement, but a factor of 10 more precise. It is inconsistent (4 sigma) with a recent isotope shift measurement on another helium transition (2^1 S_0-2^3 S_1). Comparisons with ongoing muonic helium measurements may provide clues to the origin of what is currently called the proton puzzle: electronic and muonic measurements of the proton size do not agree. In the future, the experimental improvements described here can be used for higher precision tests of atomic theory and quantum electrodynamics, as well as an important atomic physics source of the fine structure constant.</p>Synthesis and Characterization of Ion Beam Assisted Silver Nanosystems in Silicon Based Materials for Enhanced Photocurrent Collection Efficiency2016-02-02T13:35:12-06:00http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc799502/<p><a href="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc799502/"><img alt="Synthesis and Characterization of Ion Beam Assisted Silver Nanosystems in Silicon Based Materials for Enhanced Photocurrent Collection Efficiency" title="Synthesis and Characterization of Ion Beam Assisted Silver Nanosystems in Silicon Based Materials for Enhanced Photocurrent Collection Efficiency" src="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc799502/small/"/></a></p><p>In recent years a great deal of interest has been focused on the synthesis of transitional metal (e.g. Ag, Cu, Fe, Au) nanosystems at the surface to sub-surface regions of Si and SiO2 matrices for fundamental understanding of their structures as well as for development of technological applications with enhanced electronic and optical properties. The applications of the metal nanoparticle or nanocluster (NC) systems range from plasmonics, photovoltaic devices, medical, and biosensors. In all of these applications; the size, shape and distribution of the metallic NCs in the silicon matrix play a key role. Low energy ion implantation followed by thermal annealing (in vacuum or gas environment) is one of the most suitable methods for synthesis of NCs at near surfaces to buried layers below the surfaces of the substrates. This technique can provide control over depth and concentration of the implanted ions in the host matrix. The implanted low energy metal ions initially amorphizes the Si substrates while being distributed at a shallow depth near the substrate surface. When subject to thermal annealing, the implanted ions agglomerate to form clusters of different sizes at different depths depending upon the fluence. However, for the heavier ions implanted with high fluences (~1×1016 - 1×1017 atoms/cm2), there lies challenges for accurately predicting the distribution of the implanted ions due to sputtering of the surface as well as redistribution of the implants within the host matrix. In this dissertation, we report the investigation of the saturation of the concentration of the implanted ion species in the depth profiles with low energies (< 80 keV) metal ions (Ag and Au) in Si (100), while studying the dynamic changes during the ion implantation. Multiple low energies (30-80 keV) Ag ions with different fluences were sequentially implanted into commercially available Si wafers in order to facilitate the formation of Ag NCs with a wide ion distributions range. The light absorption profile according to different sizes of NCs at the near-surface layers in Si were investigated. We have investigated the formation of Ag NCs in the Si matrix as a function of implantation and thermal annealing parameters. The absorbance of light is increased in Ag implanted Si with a significant increase in the current collection in I-V (current-voltage) photo switching measurements. The experimental photovoltaic cells fabricated with the Ag implanted Si samples were optically characterized under AM (air mass) 1.5 solar radiation conditions (~1.0 kW/m2). An enhancement in the charge collection were measured in the annealed samples, where prominent Ag NCs were formed in the Si matrix compared to the as-implanted samples with the amorphous layer. The characterization techniques such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy, XPS-depth profiling, transmission electron microscopy, optical absorption, and I-V (current-voltage) photo switching measurements were employed to understand the underlying science in the observed properties. The results of these investigations are discussed in this research.</p>Electromagnetically Modulated Sonic Structures2016-02-02T13:35:12-06:00http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc799496/<p><a href="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc799496/"><img alt="Electromagnetically Modulated Sonic Structures" title="Electromagnetically Modulated Sonic Structures" src="http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc799496/small/"/></a></p><p>Phononic crystals are structures composed of periodically arranged scatterers in a background medium that affect the transmission of elastic waves. They have garnered much interest in recent years for their macro-scale properties that can be modulated by the micro-scale components. The elastic properties of the composite materials, the contrast in the elastic properties of the composite materials, and the material arrangement all directly affect how an elastic wave will behave as it propagates through the sonic structure. The behavior of an elastic wave in a periodic structure is revealed in its transmission bandstructure, and modification of any the elastic parameters will result in tuning of the band structure. In this dissertation, a phononic crystal with properties that can be modulated using electromagnetic radiation, and more specifically, radio-frequency (RF) light will be presented.</p>