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Experimental Analysis of Self-injury With and Without Protective Equipment
Outcomes of experimental analyses during which protective equipment (PE) was placed on three participants were compared to those during which PE was not provided to them. Experimental analysis conditions were presented using a multielement format, and the effects of PE were evaluated using a withdrawal design. Results of experimental analysis without PE suggested that self-injurious behavior (SIB) was maintained by negative reinforcement for two participants and nonsocial mechanisms for the third participant. However, SIB was eliminated either immediately or eventually for all participants when PE was provided during experimental analysis. Thus, outcomes of assessments with PE did not match those without PE, and no conclusion about variables associated with SIB could be drawn from experimental analyses with PE alone. Therefore, the present findings do not support the use of PE as an alternative to standard methods for conducting experimental analysis (i.e., without PE).
An Experimental Analysis of the Efficacy of Anxiety-Relief Conditioning
One of the newer techniques to be utilized in the treatment of a variety of behavioral disorders is anxiety-relief conditioning (Thorpe, Schmidt, Brown, and Castell, 1964; Solyom and Miller, 1967; Wolpe and Lazarus, 1966). In its theoretical formulation, reciprocal inhibition by anxiety-relief is similar to Wolpe's reciprocal inhibition by progressive relaxation (Solyom and Miller, 1967). Whereas Wolpe's method utilizes Jacobsonian relaxation principles to provide the medium through which anxiety is reciprocally inhibited, the procedure employed in anxiety-relief conditioning utilizes the relief following termination of an aversive stimulus to set an occasion which will permit reciprocal inhibition to take place. Many of the problems encountered in relaxation induction and control are thus avoided (Wolpe, 1958; Thorpe et al., 1964). Anxiety-relief conditioning appears to have been successful in patients that previously had been unsuccessfully treated by psychotherapy and chemotherapy for as long as 20 years (Myers, 1957; Thorpe et al., 1964; Solyom and Miller, 1967). Solyom and Miller reported successfully treating six of seven phobic patients who complained of severe depression, difficulty in interpersonal relationships and anxiety attacks when meeting people, as well as excessive fear of crowded places. These patients had an average length of illness of 11.1 years, ranging from 2 to 20 years. Patients were treated for a mean of 19.5 sessions with no evidence of symptom substitution or reappearance of the phobic fear upon follow-up (Solyom and Miller, 1967). Although the authors cited above have all reported case studies of successful therapeutic applications of anxiety-relief conditioning techniques, there have been few experimental studies of the efficacy of this technique. A recent experiment failed to refute the hypothesis that noxious stimulation and/or habituation, rather than aversion-relief, contribute to the beneficial therapeutic effects noted. This study left unanswered the question of which variables contribute to aversion-relief conditioning (Solyom, L., McClure, Heseltine, Ledwidge, and Solyom, C., 1972). The present study was undertaken to further explore the relevant variables in aversion-relief conditioning. It was hypothesized that reduction of fear to a phobic stimulus would be significantly greater among subjects who viewed the phobic stimulus while experiencing the pleasant sensation associated with aversion-relief than among subjects who viewed the phobic stimulus after the effects of aversion-relief had presumably dissipated.
Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Polycarbocyclic Compounds
Part I. Diels-Alder cycloadditions of 1,2,3,4,9,9-hexachloro-1α,4α,4aα,8aβ-tetrahydro-l,4-methanonaphthalene (32) and 1,2,3,4,9,9-hexachloro-lα,4α,6,7- tetrahydro-l,4-methanonaphthalene (33) to 4-methyl- and 4-phenyl-l,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione [MTAD and PTAD, respectively] and to N-methylmaleimide (NMM) have been studied. The structures of several of the resulting cycloadducts were determined by X-ray crystallographic methods. The observed stereoselectivity of each of these Diels-Alder reactions was further investigated via application of theoretical methods. Thus, semiempirical (AMI) and ab initio molecular orbital calculations were used to calculate relative energies. Ab initio calculations were employed to perform frontier molecular orbital analyses of diene-dienophile interactions.
Experimental and Theoretical Study of Electronic Transitions in Phosphorus, Phosphoryl, and Thiophosphoryl Trichlorofluorides
This thesis is an investigation of the vacuum uv spectra of the phosphorus, phosphoryl, and thiophosphoryl trichlorofluorides in the region 1250 to 3000A. Assignments for absorption bands are made utilizing results from photoelectron spectra and ab initio calculations, oscillator strengths for absorption bands, and CNDO/2 molecular orbital calculations. Results from CNDO/2 calculations are compared with theoretical calculations, and experimental data are discussed with regard to the bonding in the compounds.
An Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Reaction Between NH(X3Σ-) + SO(X3Σ-)
Article on an experimental and theoretical study of the reaction between NH(X3Σ–) + SO(X3Σ–).
An Experimental Comparison of Pupil Progress in Reading and Language Skills in Two Fourth Grades on the Basis of the Regular and Remedial Teaching Procedures
The purpose of this experimental study is to make a comparison of the progress made in reading and language skills by the regular teaching procedure and the remedial teaching procedure to see whether any significant differences would be manifested in pupil progress when taught by the remedial teaching procedure.
An Experimental Comparison of Pupil Progress in Seventh-Grade Arithmetic on the Basis of the Formal and the Activity Programs of Teaching Procedure
This thesis describes the experiment made by the author in two of her seventh-grade arithmetic classes comparing the effectiveness of the formal and activity methods of teaching on the progress of the students.
An Experimental Course in Elementary Science for the Intermediate Grades
It is the purpose of this thesis to show as nearly as possible how a course in elementary science was worked out and carried on to meet the interests and needs of the pupils in a small rural school.
An Experimental Course in Movement Preparation for Beginning Performers
This is a course outline for the first semester of movement training for beginning performers in theatre, part of a two-year course of study based on the Becque-Todd method of movement development. Emphasis is on a psychophysiological approach to developing new motor habits. The introduction presents the history, background, basic premises on which the course is based, and the techniques and tools used. Each subsequent chapter represents a unit of work on a specific problem, each taking one or more class periods.
Experimental Determination of L, Ostwald Solubility Solute Descriptor for Illegal Drugs By Gas Chromatography and Analysis By the Abraham Model
The experiment successfully established the mathematical correlations between the logarithm of retention time of illegal drugs with GC system and the solute descriptor L from the Abraham model. the experiment used the method of Gas Chromatography to analyze the samples of illegal drugs and obtain the retention time of each one. Using the Abraham model to calculate and analyze the sorption coefficient of illegal drugs is an effective way to estimate the drugs. Comparison of the experimental data and calculated data shows that the Abraham linear free energy relationship (LFER) model predicts retention behavior reasonably well for most compounds. It can calculate the solute descriptors of illegal drugs from the retention time of GC system. However, the illegal drugs chosen for this experiment were not all ideal for GC analysis. HPLC is the optimal instrument and will be used for future work. HPLC analysis of the illegal drug compounds will allow for the determination of all the solute descriptors allowing one to predict the illegal drugs behavior in various Abraham biological and medical equations. the results can be applied to predict the properties in biological and medical research which the data is difficult to measure. the Abraham model will predict more accurate results by increasing the samples with effective functional groups.
Experimental Determination of the Scattering Cross-section of Ogives and Prolate Spheroids at Microwave Frequencies
Because of the great difficulty of obtaining exact numerical values of cross-section, and because of the inherent uncertainties in interpreting and evaluating the approximate methods, accurate experimental cross-section data would be extremely useful to the radar engineer. It was with this purpose in mind that the present long-range research program in microwave scattering was undertaken. Of immediate interest were the scattering properties of the prolate spheroid, the ogive (formed by rotating the minor segment of a circle around the chord), and, for comparison, the long cylinder.
The Experimental Draw-a-Group Projective Technique for Measuring Interpersonal Responsiveness
The purpose of this study is to present an exploratory investigation into the possibility of developing a projective technique for measuring interpersonal responsiveness. The projective technique explored here is a form of drawing analysis based on the drawing of a group made by each subject in a tested population.
An Experimental Examination of the Effects of Fraud Specialist and Audit Mindsets on Fraud Risk Assessments and on the Development of Fraud-Related Problem Representations
Fraud risk assessment is an important audit process that has a direct impact on the effectiveness of auditors' fraud detection in an audit. However, prior literature has shown that auditors are generally poor at assessing fraud risk. The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) suggests that auditors may improve their fraud risk assessment performance by adopting a fraud specialist mindset. A fraud specialist mindset is a special way of thinking about accounting records. While auditors think about the company's recorded transactions in terms of the availability of supporting documentations and the authenticity of the audit trail, fraud specialists think instead of accounting records in terms of the authenticity of the events and activities that are behind the reported transactions. Currently there is no study that has examined the effects of the fraud specialist mindset on auditors' fraud risk assessment performance. In addition, although recent studies have found that fraud specialists are more sensitive than auditors in discerning fraud risk factors in situation where a high level of fraud risk is present, it remains unclear whether the same can be said for situation where the risk of fraud is low. Thus, the purpose of my dissertation is to examine the effects of fraud specialist and audit mindsets on fraud risk assessment performance. In addition, I examined such effects on fraud risk assessment performance in both high and low fraud risk conditions. The contributions of my dissertation include being the first to experimentally examine how different mindsets impact fraud-related judgment. The results of my study have the potential to help address the PCAOB's desire to improve auditors' fraud risk assessment performance though the adoption of the fraud specialist mindset. In addition, my study contributes to the literature by exploring fraud-related problem representation as a possible mediator of mindset on fraud risk assessment performance. I executed my dissertation by conducting an experiment in which mindset (fraud specialist or audit) was induced prior to the completion of an audit case (high or low in fraud risk). A total of 85 senior-level accounting students enrolled in two separate auditing classes participated in my study. The results from my experimental provide empirical support that it is possible to improve auditors' fraud risk assessment through adapting the fraud specialist mindset. My study also provides preliminary evidence that individuals with the fraud specialist mindset developed different problem representations than those with the audit mindset.
An Experimental Examination Of The Effects Of Goal Framing And Time Pressure On Auditors’ Professional Skepticism
Professional skepticism is a critical component of audit practice and current auditing standards direct auditors to remain skeptical throughout the duration of each audit engagement. Despite the importance and prevalence of an emphasis on professional skepticism throughout auditing standards, evidence indicates that auditors often fail to exercise an appropriate degree of professional skepticism. Prior accounting research suggests that auditors’ professionally skeptical behavior is affected by individual personality traits as well as situational (state) influences, whereby both factors contribute to auditor professional skepticism. Yet, prior research has primarily focused on trait skepticism; and little research to date has investigated the concept of state skepticism. The purpose if this research study is to experimentally investigate the impact of time pressure and trait skepticism on state skepticism, and to test a potential debiasing procedure on the impact of time pressure on state skepticism. In addition, this study examines the influence of both skepticism types on skeptical behavior.This research offers several contributions to accounting literature and practice. First, I contribute to the existing debate regarding the influences of professional skepticism by providing evidence that professional skepticism may be categorized as a temporary state, induced by situational aspects, in addition to being classified as an enduring trait. Second, I identify certain situational conditions which create differences in the level of state professional skepticism exhibited within an auditing context. Lastly, my findings may also be important to audit firms as they consider tools within their training arsenal equipped to promote an appropriate level of professional skepticism among employees. If auditor skepticism can be influenced by the frames they are provided, then audit firms may create an environment that promotes consistency in auditors’ application of professional skepticism, simply by engaging in goal framing.
An Experimental Investigation into the Interaction Between Modality Preference and Instruction Mode in the Learning of Spelling Words by Upper-Elementary Learning Disabled Students
This study investigated the effects of selected spelling teaching methods on spelling mastery of upper-elementary, learning disabled students. It also examined the value of assessing learning disabled students' modality preferences for diagnostic/prescriptive purposes.The study's significance is that it sought to (a) determine whether students classified as learning disabled can identify their preferred learning modes; (b) determine whether matching modes of instruction to students' modality reference(s) results in greater achievement; and (c) identify a systematic way of prescribing instruction for learning disabled students.
An Experimental Investigation of Information Systems Project Escalation: An Examination of Contributory Factors in a Business Environment
The purpose of this research is to continue examining the project management process. The management of projects is complicated. It is the complexity of the process that makes a project so difficult to control. This research examines the effect of particular facets of the project manager's skill set and operating environment on management decisions.
Experimental Investigation of the Relation Between Intelligence Quotients, English Scores, Reading Scores, and English Marks at N.T.S.T.C.; and a Suggestion for the Use of These Instruments in Predicting Academic Success in English
"The problem here is to determine the scholastic prediction in English at the college freshman level by means of the correlation coefficients of the following test scores and marks at North Texas State Teachers College..."--1.
An Experimental Investigation of the Relation Between the Percentage of Possible Gain in Reading Comprehension and Academic Success in Major Fields of Study
Determination of gains made in reading comprehension and the relationship of these gains to the academic success of 545 college freshmen of North Texas State Teachers College is the main consideration of this study.
An Experimental Investigation of the Relationship Between Perception of Parental Acceptance and Social Acceptability of Adolescents
The purpose of this study is twofold. One is that of developing an instrument for determining a child's concept of how he is thought of by his mother and his father; in other words, a method of measuring parental acceptance as it is perceived by the child, himself. The development of this instrument will be discussed in Chapter IV. The second purpose of this study is that of determining whether or not there is any significant relationship between the child's perception of parental acceptance and the social acceptability of the child, as measured by a sociometric instrument.
An Experimental Investigation of the Relative Effectiveness of Two Methods of Teaching Mechanical Drawing
The purpose of this study was twofold: First, to analyze two methods of teaching mechanical drawing in the seventh grade by conducting an experiment to determine by which method the greatest amount of achievement was obtained by the students in the ability to visualize, sketch, letter, and understand three-view drawing; and second, to recommend a work plan and certain teaching techniques for teaching mechanical drawing in the seventh grade of the Santa Fe, New Mexico Junior High School, based upon the method by which the greater amount of achievement was indicated in the study.
An Experimental Investigation of the Value of Music Workbooks in Junior High Music Classes
This study is an experimental investigation of two groups of junior high school students in an effort to evaluate the advantages of workbooks in their music classes. The comparison was made with two classes composed of thirty-two students each from the two junior high schools in the Beaumont Independent School District. One class used the workbooks in conjunction with the regular singing and appreciation work, but the other class did not use formal workbooks. They discussed the theory and notation of the music in relation to the work they were doing.
An Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Learning Style and Presentation Methods on Knowledge Acquisition in a University Classroom Environment
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of four learning styles (accommodator, assimilator, converger, and diverger) and two different presentation methods (traditional and computer-based) on knowledge acquisition in a university classroom.
An Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Web-Based Instruction/Training on Cognitive and Psychomotor Learning
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of web-based instruction (WBI) on cognitive and psychomotor learning. The subjects of the study received two types of instructional methods, WBI (experimental group) and traditional classroom instruction (control group). Each group received 30 minutes of instruction on "Soldering a Circuit Board." The researcher chose this content subject because it involved both cognitive and psychomotor objectives, which suited the purpose of this study. It was hypothesized that there would be no significant difference between the two methods of instruction, and also that there would be no significant interaction effects between methods of instruction and gender. Forty-six subjects from a population of students enrolled in summer classes offered by the Applied Technology, Training and Development (ATTD) program at the University of North Texas voluntarily participated in this study. Random assignment of subjects was applied in this study. A subject matter expert delivered the content for both the experimental and control groups. To measure cognitive variable, a 10 item, multiple-choice test was administered immediately after instruction. To measure the psychomotor variable, a 15-item checklist was utilized by trained judges to evaluate learners’ performances while soldering. The 2 x 2 factorial model with interaction was used in this study. The analysis was run for each of the dependent variables, cognitive and psychomotor learning. Although there was not a statistically significant difference in the main effects of method of instruction or interaction effects between method and gender, the results imply that students in the traditional-classroom instruction group performed better than those in the WBI group in psychomotor learning. Perhaps, this trend would be statistically significant if the sample size were larger. This study provides empirical evidence for the effectiveness of WBI in delivering cognitive and psychomotor objectives. The outcome of this study supports the need for more research on the effects of WBI on learning domains.
An Experimental Study in Developing Initiative in Children
The problem of this study is to find the causes for lack of initiative in a group of second grade pupils in the Era School, and to discover, from reading books and magazine articles, what techniques are most successful in developing initiative in the children.
An Experimental Study in Teaching Mathematical Concepts Utilizing Computer-Assisted Instruction in Business Machines
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An Experimental Study of Bifurcated (Weekend and Weekday) and Unitary (Past Week) Retrospective Assessments of Sleep
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Discordance between weekday and weekend sleep schedules is common (Bonnet & Arand, 1995; Breslau, Roth, Rosenthal, & Andreski, 1997; Machado, Varella, & Andrade, 1998; Strauch & Meier, 1988; Tsai & Li, 2004). Brief retrospective self-report measures are essential for epidemiological research studies (Moul, Hall, Pilkonis, & Buysse, 2004), but self-reports are prone to error in recall, and the greater the variability in nightly sleep, the less reliable are retrospective reports (Babkoff, Weller, & Lavidor, 1996). More accurate self-report responses may be possible if measures prompt participants to consider variations in sleep schedules that are consistent (i.e., weekday and weekend sleep schedules). The current study experimentally examined whether Bifurcated (Weekday and Weekend) retrospective assessments of sleep are more accurate than Unitary (Past Week) assessments. Participants were randomly assigned to complete one of the two versions (Bifurcated vs. Unitary) of the Sleep Questionnaire. One hundred and thirty-one participants were included in the analyses. Results of a a series of analyses demonstrated that the Bifurcated version of the Sleep Questionnaire provided more accurate and less variable estimates of total sleep time than the Unitary version of the Sleep Questionnaire. Differences between the versions of the Sleep Questionnaire for other sleep variables were less consistent, and the increased length of the Bifurcated version of the Sleep Questionnaire may have contributed to increased missing and unusable data in this group. Overall, the findings suggest that in both research and clinical work, retrospective measures that examine weekday and weekend sleep separately may offer advantages over retrospective measures that do not differentiate between weekday and weekend sleep.
An Experimental Study of Collision Broadening of some Excited Rotational States of the Bending Vibration of Methyl Cyanide
A double modulation microwave spectrometer is used to evaluate the linewidth parameters for some excited rotational components in the bending vibration v_8 of 13CH3 13C 15N and 13CH3C15N isotopomers of methyl cyanide. The linewidth parameters for self-broadening of the ΔJ=2←1 rotational components for the ground v_8 , 1v_8, and the 2v_8 vibrations were determined over a pressure range of 1 to 13 mtorr and at a temperature of 300 K. The double modulation technique is used to explore the high eighth derivative of the line shape profile of the spectral line. This technique proved to give good signal-to-noise ratios and enabled the recovery of weak signals. An experimental method is developed to correct for source modulation broadening. The tests of the ratios of the two inner peak's separation of the eighth derivative of the line showed that they were up to 95% similar to those for a Lorentzian line shape function. The line shapes were assumed to be Lorentzian for the theoretical analysis of the derivative profiles and comparisons were made between experiment and theory on this basis. Dipole moments for vibrationally excited states were calculated from linewidth parameters and show systematic decrease with the increase of excitation. Impact parameters were calculated using the "hard sphere" model of the kinetic theory of gases. The results were many times larger than the size of the molecule itself. This suggests that the dominant interaction is a long range dipole-dipole force interaction.
An Experimental Study of Critial Thinking in Student-Centered Teaching
The problem of this study was to determine the effectiveness of student-centered teaching in producing significant changes in certain critical thinking abilities among selected freshmen students at North Texas State College.
An Experimental Study of Intonation Factors of the Cornet and Trumpet
Many musicians have theorized that intonation would be improved if all players in a band or orchestral section used instruments of identical dimensions and material. This study consists of a test taken under experimental conditions comparing the Conn 38A cornets used in the North Texas State University Concert Band with a random selection of trumpets, using the same performers for both sets of instruments.
An Experimental Study of Personality Development in the Stenography Class of the Edinburg High School
The purpose of this study is (1) to make a survey of all personality training procedures in an attempt to adapt those methods to the instructional problems of schools having a large Latin-American enrollment, and (2) to correlate personality development with the study of stenography and job finding by giving it specific emphasis in such a course.
An Experimental Study of Student Progress in General Mathematics
The purpose of this investigation is to make an experimental study of the compiled data obtained from the results of three standardized tests that were administered to two groups of general mathematics students during one semester; and to determine, if possible, by the scores, whether the prescribed course in mathematics makes for any significant increases, or losses in student progress.
An Experimental Study of Teachers' Verbal and Nonverbal Immediacy, Student Motivation, and Cognitive Learning in Video Instruction
This study used an experimental design and a direct test of recall to provide data about teacher immediacy and student cognitive learning. Four hypotheses and a research question addressed two research problems: first, how verbal and nonverbal immediacy function together and/or separately to enhance learning; and second, how immediacy affects cognitive learning in relation to student motivation. These questions were examined in the context of video instruction to provide insight into distance learning processes and to ensure maximum control over experimental manipulations. Participants (N = 347) were drawn from university students in an undergraduate communication course. Students were randomly assigned to groups, completed a measure of state motivation, and viewed a 15-minute video lecture containing part of the usual course content delivered by a guest instructor. Participants were unaware that the video instructor was actually performing one of four scripted manipulations reflecting higher and lower combinations of specific verbal and nonverbal cues, representing the four cells of the 2x2 research design. Immediately after the lecture, students completed a recall measure, consisting of portions of the video text with blanks in the place of key words. Participants were to fill in the blanks with exact words they recalled from the videotape. Findings strengthened previous research associating teacher nonverbal immediacy with enhanced cognitive learning outcomes. However, higher verbal immediacy, in the presence of higher and lower nonverbal immediacy, was not shown to produce greater learning among participants in this experiment. No interaction effects were found between higher and lower levels of verbal and nonverbal immediacy. Recall scores were comparatively low in the presence of higher verbal and lower nonverbal immediacy, suggesting that nonverbal expectancy violations may have hindered cognitive learning. Student motivation was not found to be a significant source of error in measuring immediacy's effects, and no interaction effects were detected between levels of student motivation, teacher verbal immediacy, and teacher nonverbal immediacy.
An Experimental Study of the Effect of a Career Education Program on Academic Achievement and Attitudes of Fifth-Grade Students
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An Experimental Study of the Electrodeposition of Lead
This thesis aimed to study some of the general principles underlying electrodeposition together with experimental facts regarding the effects of changing constituents of the plating solutions, variations in hydrogen-ion concentrations, and variation in current density used in the electrodeposition of lead.
Experimental Study on Fluidization of Biomass, Inert Particles, and Biomass/Sand Mixtures
Fluidization of biomass particles is an important process in the gasification, pyrolysis and combustion in order to extract energy from biomass. Studies on the fluidization of biomass particles (corn cob and walnut shell), inert particles (sand, glass bead, and alumina), which are added to facilitate fluidization of biomass, and biomass/sand mixture were performed. Experiments were carried out in a 14.5 cm internal diameter cold flow fluidization bed to determine minimum fluidization velocities with air as fluidizing medium. On the of basis of experimental data from both present work and those found in the literature, new correlations were developed to predict minimum fluidization velocity for inert particles as well as biomass particles. It was found that the proposed correlations satisfactorily predict minimum fluidization velocities and was in well agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, effect of weight percentage of biomass in the biomass/sand mixtures was studied. The weight fraction of biomass particles in the mixture was chosen in the range of 0 ~ 100 wt. %. The results show that minimum fluidization velocity of the mixtures increases with an increase in biomass content. Using the present experimental data, a new correlation was developed in terms of mass ratio for predicting values of minimum fluidization velocity of these mixtures. However, the validity of the proposed correlation should be further studied by conducting more experiments using the biomass/sand mixtures of different particle size, shape, and density.
An Experimental Study on Situated and Dynamic Learning Assessment (SDLA) Environment
The current supplementary web based English learning in Taiwan provides online learning resources and gives assessments at the end of each lesson to evaluate learners' online learning results. Based on the testing results, instructors may adjust their in-class instructional method to focus on the students' weaknesses. For the average classroom size of 40 students with one instructor, it is extremely difficult to provide individual learning content for each learner's needs because each student has his or her own weaknesses. This study conducted the situated environment with Vygotsky's dynamic assessment theory to test learner's learning achievements and satisfactions as compared to the current web learning environment. The study finds that when both groups of Taiwanese students used Internet based learning, those that utilized the situated and dynamic learning assessment environment showed a statistically significant higher achievement score than those using only the current online learning environment (p < .01). In addition, learners in the SDLA environment had statistically significant higher satisfaction scores than those in the current web learning environment.
An Experimental Study on the Reading of Comics
It is the purpose of this study to (1) determine the history and status of the comic book; (2) to find out how many and what kinds of comic books two groups of fourth graders of the Perryton school are reading; (3) to set up a well-planned reading program in one of these groups; (4) to compare the amount and kinds of comic books read by the two groups at the end of the experimental period.
An Experimental Study to Ascertain the Amount of Achievement Made in Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary, and Social Studies by the Use of Audio-Visual Aids
The present study is an attempt to obtain, from two groups of students, useful facts with which to evaluate the most effective method of presenting educational materials to junior-high-school students. The study is an attempt to measure and evaluate the achievement made in social studies, reading comprehension, and vocabulary in 1949 and 1950. The following questions form the basis for the present study: What method is best for the purpose of presenting materials to a class? Which method helps to solve the problem of the student most effectively? By which method is greater achievement made? If the two methods prove of equal value, then how much achievement may be attributed to the use of each method?
An Experimental Study to Compare Audio-Tutorial Instruction with Traditional Instruction in Beginning Typewriting
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Experimental Synchronization of Chaotic Attractors Using Control
The focus of this thesis is to theoretically and experimentally investigate two new schemes of synchronizing chaotic attractors using chaotically operating diode resonators. The first method, called synchronization using control, is shown for the first time to experimentally synchronize dynamical systems. This method is an economical scheme which can be viably applied to low dimensional dynamical systems. The other, unidirectional coupling, is a straightforward means of synchronization which can be implemented in fast dynamical systems where timing is critical. Techniques developed in this work are of fundamental importance for future problems regarding high dimensional chaotic dynamical systems or arrays of mutually linked chaotically operating elements.
An Experimental Technique for the Objective Quantification of Body-Image Distortion
The purpose of this study was to develop an experimental technique to objectively measure the deviation between an individual's perception of his body image and his actual image. In addition, this technique was utilized to compare the accuracy of perception of body image between institutionalized and non-institutionalized individuals. Half of each subject category was also compared in terms of performance on an additional perceptual task unrelated to body image.
An Experimental Treatment of Inaccurate Singers in the Intermediate Grades
A study of the causes and remedial treatment of inaccurate singing through experimentation and research was chosen by the writer as a practical problem urgently in need of solution.
Experimental Trichinosis in Birds
This work concerns itself with essentially four experiments: (1) the cecum-injective-infection experiment; (2) the anus-injective-infection experiment; (3) the mouth ingestive-infection with larvae, and (4) the mouth ingestive-infection with the flesh of infected rats.
An Expert System Approach to the Evaluation of Hypertext Engineering : An Experiment with KnowledgePro and MaxThink's
The purpose of this study is to create the prototype expert system, HEES, and to examine its usability and usefulness in evaluating hypertext software.
Expertise Revisited: Reflecting on the Intersection of Science and Democracy in the Case of Fracking
This dissertation aims to explain the conditions under which expertise can undermine democratic decision making. I argue that the root of the conflict between expertise and democracy lies in what I call insufficiently “representative” expertise – that is forms of scientific research that are not relevant to the policy questions at hand and that fail to make visible their hidden values dimensions. I claim that the scholarly literature on the problem of expertise fails to recognize and address the issue correctly, because it does not open the black box of scientific methodologies. I maintain that only by making sense of the methodological choices of experts in the context of policy making can we determine the relevance of research and reveal the hidden socio-political values and consequences. Using the case of natural gas fracking, I demonstrate how expert contributions – even though epistemically sound – can muddle democratic policy processes. I present four case studies from controversies about fracking to show how to contextualize scientific methodologies in the pertinent political process. I argue that the common problem across all case studies is the failure of expertise to sufficiently represent stakeholders’ problems and concerns. In this context, “representation” has three criteria: (1) the operational research questions on which the qualified experts work are relevant to stakeholders’ problems and concerns; (2) the non-epistemic values and consequences of epistemic choices of experts are compatible with social and political values and priorities; and (3) hidden values attached to facts are fully transparent and openly debated. In the conclusion, I propose a normative version of this representation theory that can be used to evaluate the appropriateness of expertise for democratic policy making. Instead of the value-free science ideal, I propose a new ideal to legitimately allow non-epistemic values in scientific reasoning without compromising the soundness of research.
Expertness and Similarity as Factors of Influence in the Preferences of Deaf College Students for Therapists
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Explaining Buyer Opportunism in Business-to-Business Relationships
The interaction among firms in the supply chain is necessary for business process execution and relationship success. One phenomenon of great significance to buyer-supplier relationships is opportunism. Opportunism is defined as behavior that is self-interest seeking with guile. It is manifested in behaviors such as stealing, cheating, dishonesty, and withholding information. Opportunism negatively impacts relational exchange tenets such as trust, commitment, cooperation, and satisfaction. Furthermore, perceptions of opportunism negatively affect firm performance. In lieu of the known negative effects of opportunistic behavior on buyer-supplier relationships, why do agents continue to engage in opportunistic tactics with their exchange partners? A comprehensive examination is necessary in order to understand why sourcing professionals engage in acts of opportunism. Understanding why opportunism occurs will reveal how to deter it, and this remains a gap in the literature. Based on theories in economics, marketing channels, supply chain management, decision science, and psychology, a comprehensive model tested a set of factors hypothesized to drive the use of opportunistic tactics. Factors include buyer-supplier relationship-specific factors, environmental factors, individual personality-related factors, and situational factors. Data was collected via internet survey of sourcing professionals from private industry and government agencies. Common to many studies of ethics, respondents made choices based on two hypothetical vignettes. Two logistic regression models were used to test the hypotheses. Factors found to affect buyer opportunism included buyer power, corporate ethical values, pressure to perform, leadership opportunism, business sector, honesty/integrity, and subjective expected utility. This research contributes to theory by combining several disparate theories to best explain opportunism. A comprehensive evaluation should determine which theory explains the most variance in decision making. The study contributes to practice by identifying those important factors contributing to a sourcing professional's decision to use opportunistic tactics. The ability to manage these factors should improve the probability of relationship success. Additionally, the identification of these factors should help leaders to make more accurate estimates of transaction costs - key knowledge required to make an informed make or buy governance decision.
Explaining Economic Development Strategies Using Product Differentiation Theory: a Reconceptualization of Competition Among City Governments
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Local governments do not operate in a vacuum. Instead, they are part of a complex “polycentric” system of governments where politically autonomous and self-ruled cities compete with one another over taxable wealth. Missing from the scholarship on metropolitan governance is an understanding of the factors driving competition among local governments. The purpose of this dissertation is to fill this gap by examining how interjurisdictional competition over economic development impacts a city’s choice of strategies for attracting business and residential investment and how those strategies affect revenue collection. First, this dissertation examines whether cities, knowing the economic development strategies of their neighboring cities, pursue similar types of businesses? Or do cities strategically target different types of businesses as a way to avoid the negative consequences of competition? Second, this dissertation explores what impact the decision to pursue similar or dissimilar businesses has on the revenue collection of local governments. Using spatial data analysis to analyze a sample of 2,299 cities, this dissertation finds general support for both theoretical frameworks presented. Overall, the findings from both analyses provide unique insights into metropolitan governance and interjurisdictional competition.
Explaining “Everyday Crime”: A Test of Anomie and Relative Deprivation Theory
Every day, individuals commit acts which are considered immoral, unethical, even criminal, often to gain material advantage. Many people consider cheating on taxes, cheating on tests, claiming false benefits, or avoiding transport fare to be wrong, but they do them anyway. While some of these acts may not be formally illegal, they are, at best, considered morally dubious and is labeled “everyday crime.” Anomie theory holds that individuals make decisions based on socialized values, which separately may be contradictory but together, balances each other out, producing behavior considered “normal” by society. When one holds an imbalanced set of values, decisions made on that set may produce deviant behavior, such as everyday crime. RD theory holds that individuals who perceive their own deprivation, relative to someone else, will feel frustration and injustice, and may attempt to ameliorate that feeling with deviant behavior. Data from the 2006 World Values Survey were analyzed using logistic regression, testing both constructs concurrently. An individual was 1.55 times more likely to justify everyday crime for each calculated unit of anomie; and 1.10 times more likely for each calculated unit of RD. It was concluded from this study that anomie and relative deprivation were both associated with the tendency towards everyday crime.
Explaining Juvenile Delinquency: A Test of Robert Agnew's General Strain Theory, Utilizing the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Data
Strain theory has a long academic lineage for explaining criminal and deviant behavior from the classical writings of Emile Durkheim to the contemporary writings of Robert Agnew. The purpose of this research is to conduct an empirical test of Agnew's general strain theory utilizing Wave 1 data from the 1994-1996 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data (Add Health) (N = 6,503). Utilizing the Add Health data set represents a new attempt at empirically evaluating Agnew's theory. Scales were constructed by the author operationalizing the propositions of general strain theory utilizing variables from this data set. Regression was used to find out if juvenile delinquency is associated with Agnew's general strain theory. Research findings show that taken together, the propositions of general strain theory, cumulative measures of failure to achieve goals, loss of valued objects and introduction of stressful events are all statistically significant predictors of juvenile delinquency. Regression and scale correlations indicated a low positive relationship between juvenile delinquency and Agnew's general strain theory propositions. This study represents an attempt in utilizing a data set which has not been used before to empirically test general strain theory.