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Music of the Spheres: Astronomy and Shamanism in the Music of Urmas Sisask
In 1619, Johannes Kepler published his magnum opus Harmonices mundi in which the astronomer derived distinct pitches and scales for each known planet in the solar system from calculations of various aspects of their orbital motions. This was the first theoretical realization of the ancient tradition of musica universalis (also called musica mundana), or music of the celestial bodies. It was not until the Estonian composer Urmas Sisask (b. 1960) began his compositional career by deriving his own “planetary scale,” however, that the theoretical musica universalis came into audible existence. Sisask’s work represents a distinctive musical voice among today’s choral composers, and although he is steadily gaining attention for his unique compositional style, only limited information exists about the specifics of his background, his interest in astronomy and shamanism, and the subsequent influence these interests have had on his choral music. At once traditional and modern, he bridges the gap between ancient Estonian folk song and the present. Through an application of exotic techniques including extreme repetition, ritualistically driving rhythms and sudden changes in timbre and texture; coupled with his own peculiarly crafted “planetary scale,” Urmas Sisask has created a completely unique body of work which is examined in this study by looking at representative works from his choral oeuvre including Gloria Patri…24 hymns for mixed choir, Magnificat, Ave Sol, and Benedictio.
Music Performance Program Enrollment and Course Availability for Educationally Disadvantaged versus Non-Educationally Disadvantaged High School Students in Texas
The purpose of this study was to measure music performance program enrollments and course availability for educationally disadvantaged and non-educationally disadvantaged groups (grades 9-12) in Texas, and to further examine relationships which could help music educators understand the role which music performance programs play in the lives of educationally disadvantaged students. Data analyzed were collected by Texas' Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS). Educationally disadvantaged groups under consideration included economically disadvantaged, at risk (as defined by Texas Education Agency guidelines), limited English proficient, as well as Black and Hispanic students. Separate analyses were conducted for band, choir, and orchestra. Subjects included 907,327 students from 1,048 school districts.
Music Preferences 1980 Versus 1989 and Their Relationship With Selected Environment and Listener Variables
The purpose of this study was to determine differences between the same subjects' music preferences at the elementary and high school levels, and the relationship between these findings and the following variables: peer preferences, musical training, excerpt familiarity, grade, gender, and race.
Music preferences, music and non-music media use, and leisure involvement of Hong Kong adolescents.
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The study sought to determine the relationships of preference responses to grade, gender, familiarity, musical training, peers'/parents' listening habits, music media use, and listening contexts. Grade six through nine Hong Kong students (N = 310) completed the audio preference test followed by verbal responses to training, peers'/parents' preferences, leisure/music media involvement, and listening context. Results indicated: The preferred genres, in descending order, were Western pop/rock, Cantopop/rock, Western classical; the disliked genres were jazz, Chinese, and non- Western/non-Chinese. Preference correlated strongly with genre familiarity. Pop genres were the most familiar to all adolescents. The students' preference toward Western pop/rock and Cantopop/rock associated with several listening contexts: solitary listening, having great freedom to choose one's desired music for listening, listening to music in one's room, and listening to music as background activity. The adolescents expressed that their leisure activities were spent with their family and friends. However, they made it clear that music listening was a personal activity that very likely was listened to alone. On all listening occasions, the girls exhibited a more positive response than the boys did. With four to five hours daily leisure time, the adolescents watched TV for three to four hours while spending less than two hours on listening to recorded music, and less than an hour on listening to radio music, MTV/karaoke, and music websites. Cantopop/rock was the most pursued music style in terms of the records bought, concerts attended outside of school, their peers', and parents' most-listened-to music. Some weak correlations of preference with grade and gender were identified: the grade six students showed more tolerance to Chinese and non-Western/non-Chinese music. Boys preferred jazz more than the girls did. Private music study and extracurricular musical experiences related to Western classical and non-Western/non-Chinese music preferences whereas school music training failed to show any association with students' musical preference.
Music student teaching in Texas: A Delphi study of issues in the new millennium.
The preparation of prospective music educators is a very complex undertaking that culminates with the student teaching practicum. However, the music student teaching experience may have less predictable expectations and results than the curriculum that precedes the event. The two-fold purpose of this study was (a) to investigate the music student teaching practicum in the State of Texas in an effort to establish current levels of success as perceived by the music educators involved in the process and (b) to identify any potentially problematic areas which might be in need of attention or revision. Thirty-six music educators (12 university supervisors, 12 cooperating teachers and 12 student teachers) who were recently involved in the music student teaching practicum in Texas were chosen as the sample in this two-round Delphi study. The first round Delphi survey, based on related literature, achieved consensus on 79% of the 108 item responses, and 15 of the 22 unresolved items reached consensus in round two of the Delphi process. The 34 sample members who completed the study ranked a final item in the second Delphi round concerning suggestions for the improvement of student teaching. The respondents showed a very high opinion of the music student teaching practicum. However, the cooperating teachers' responses were often lower, hence the recommendation that collaborative efforts between universities and public schools be strengthened. Recommendations for improvement were also made advocating: (a) adequate rehearsal time to be afforded the student teacher, (b) expectations to be clearly defined and articulated, (c) classroom management, measurement and media, and content area reading classes to be taught by music faculty, (d) videotaping to be used in the teacher-training and student teaching process, and (e) the length of the student teaching practicum to be extended. Five additional recommendations for improvement were made in areas deemed less urgent.
Musical Arrangements and Questions of Genre: A Study of Liszt's Interpretive Approaches
Through his exceptional creative and performing abilities, Franz Liszt was able to transform compositions of many kinds into unified, intelligible, and pleasing arrangements for piano. Nineteenth-century definitions of "arrangement" and "Klavierauszug," which focus on the process of reworking a composition for a different medium, do not adequately describe Liszt's work in this area. His piano transcriptions of Schubert's songs, Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique and the symphonies of Beethoven are not note-for-note transcriptions; rather, they reinterpret the originals in recasting them as compositions for solo piano. Writing about Liszt's versions of Schubert's songs, a Viennese critic identified as "Carlo" heralded Liszt as the creator of a new genre and declared him to have made Schubert's songs the property of cultured pianists. Moreover, Liszt himself designated his work with Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique and the symphonies of Beethoven "Partitions de piano": literally, piano scores. As is well known, concepts of genre in general create problems for musicologists; musical arrangements add a new dimension of difficulty to the problem. Whereas Carl Dahlhaus identifies genre as a tool for interpreting composers' responses to the social dimension of music in the fabric of individual compositions, Jeffrey Kallberg perceives it as a "social phenomenon shared by composers and listeners alike." The latter concept provides a more suitable framework for discussing the genre of transcriptions, for their importance derives in large part from relationships between the original and the derivative works, both as constructed by Liszt and perceived by critics and audiences. During the nineteenth and early twentieth century's, Liszt's transcriptions of songs and symphonies were construed as both compositions for pianists and subsets of the originals. Consequently, these compositions should be studied for their own musical value as well as for the light that they shed on the original works. Liszt's transcriptions are derivative and at the same time created distinct genres.
Musical Borrowing: Referential Treatment in American Popular Music
This thesis examines the relationships between popular contemporary musical styles and classic-era art music. Analysis of pop-rock songs, and their referential treatment in art rock, classical music, and society will be examined. Pop-rock musicians borrow from the masters of the past and from each other. Rock guitarists such as Eddie Van Halen employ a virtuosic technique suggestive of Liszt and Paganini. The group Rush borrowed freely from opera seria. Frank Zappa referenced contemporary musicians as well as classical techniques. Referential treatment in popular music and the recent advancements in technology, have challenged copyright law. How these treatments and technologies affect copyright legislators and musicians will be discussed.
The Musical Language of Joan Tower: An Energy Line Analysis of Island Prelude for Oboe and Wind Quartet
This dissertation provides an analysis of Island Prelude based on a method of analysis prescribed by the composer. The method, Energy Line Analysis, is essential to an enlightened performance. The content of this dissertation includes: biographical information, compositional influences, Joan Tower style periods, her works involving the oboe in a major role, and an Energy Line Analysis chart of Island Prelude. Island Prelude represents Joan Tower's musical language, the understanding of which is essential in an interpretation of her music.
The Musical Value of Ten Band Class Methods for Junior High School Level
The purpose of this thesis is to present a detailed evaluation of the musical value in ten leading class band methods suitable for use in the junior high school. Presentation of tone production, mechanics of the instruments, and placement of beginning tones are discussed only when the value of the music is directly involved.
al-Muʾtamar al-awwal lil-Ittiḥād al-ʻĀmm lil-Fannānīn al-Tashkīlīyīn al-ʻArab
Proceedings of the first conference for the Arab Artists Association in Baghdad, Iraq.
Mutation of Polaris, an Intraflagellar Transport Protein, Shortens Neuronal Cilia
Primary cilia are non-motile organelles having 9+0 microtubules that project from the basal body of the cell. While the main purpose of motile cilia in mammalian cells is to move fluid or mucus over the cell surface, the purpose of primary cilia has remained elusive for the most part. Primary cilia are shortened in the kidney tubules of Tg737orpk mice, which have polycystic kidney disease due to ciliary defects. The product of the Tg737 gene is polaris, which is directly involved in a microtubule-dependent transport process called intraflagellar transport (IFT). In order to determine the importance of polaris in the development of neuronal cilia, cilium length and numerical density of cilia were quantitatively assessed in six different brain regions on postnatal days 14 and 31 in Tg737orpk mutant and wildtype mice. Our results indicate that the polaris mutation leads to shortening of cilia as well as decreased percentage of ciliated neurons in all brain regions that were quantitatively assessed. Maintainance of cilia was especially affected in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Furthermore, the polaris mutation curtailed cilium length more severely on postnatal day 31 than postnatal day 14. These data suggests that even after ciliogenesis, intraflagellar transport is necessary in order to maintain neuronal cilia. Regional heterogeneity in the effect of this gene mutation on neuronal cilia suggests that the functions of some brain regions might be more compromised than others.
Mutation Rate Analysis of the Human Mitochondrial D-loop and its Implications for Forensic Identity Testing
To further facilitate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis for human identity testing, a better understanding of its mutation rate is needed. Prior to the middle 1990's the mutation rate applied to a forensic or evolutionary analysis was determined by phylogenetic means, This method involved calculating genetic distances as determined by amino acid or DNA sequence variability within or between species. The mutation rate as determined by this method ranged from 0.025-0.26 nucleotide substitutions/ site/ myr (million years). With the recent advent of mtDNA analysis as a tool in human identity testing an increased number of observations have recently come to light calling into question the mutation rate derived from the phylogenetic method. The mutation rate as observed from forensic analysis appears to be much higher than that calculated phylogenetically. This is an area that needs to be resolved in human identity testing. Mutations that occur within a maternal lineage can lead to a possible false exclusion of an individual as belonging to that lineage. A greater understanding of the actual rate of mutation within a given maternal lineage can assist in determining criteria for including or excluding individuals as belonging to that lineage. The method used to assess the mutation rate in this study was to compare mtDNA sequences derived from the HVI and HVII regions of the D-loop from several different maternal lineages. The sequence information was derived from five unrelated families consisting of thirty-five individuals. One intergenerational mutational event was found. This derives to approximately 1.9 nucleotide substitutions/ site/ myr. This mutation rate was very consistent with several other similar studies. This increased mutation rate needs to be considered by forensic testing laboratories performing mtDNA sequence analysis prior to formulating any conclusive results.
Mutual Influences in Romantic Attachment, Religious Coping, and Marital Adjustment
This study examined associations among romantic attachment anxiety and avoidance, positive and negative religious coping, and marital adjustment in a community sample of 81 heterosexual couples. Both spouses completed the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR), a brief measure of religious coping (Brief RCOPE), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and a demographic questionnaire as part of a larger study. Multilevel modeling (MLM) for the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was used. Attachment avoidance was inversely related to positive religious coping. In contrast, attachment anxiety was directly related to negative religious coping. Positive religious coping buffered the relationship between attachment avoidance and marital adjustment. In contrast, attachment anxiety was detrimental to marital adjustment regardless of positive religious coping, and positive religious coping was related to higher marital adjustment only in the context of low attachment anxiety. Surprisingly, the spouse's attachment anxiety was inversely related to the respondent's marital adjustment only when the respondent reported low levels of negative religious coping, whereas in the context of high negative religious coping, the partner's attachment anxiety was related to higher marital adjustment. Results support using attachment theory to conceptualize religious coping and the consideration of both attachment and religious coping constructs in counseling.
My Crown Is in My Heart, Not on My Head: Heart Burial in England, France, and the Holy Roman Empire From Medieval Times to the Present
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Heart burial is a funerary practice that has been performed since the early medieval period. However, relatively little scholarship has been published on it in English. Heart burial began as a pragmatic way to preserve a body, but it became a meaningful tradition in Western Europe during the medieval and early modern periods. In an anthropological context, the ritual served the needs of elites and the societies they governed. Elites used heart burial not only to preserve their bodies, but to express devotion, stabilize the social order and advocate legitimacy, and even gain heaven. Heart burial assisted in the elite Christian, his or her family, and society pass through the liminal period of death. Over the centuries, heart burial evolved to remain relevant. The practice is extant to the present day, though the motivations behind it are very different from those of the medieval and early modern periods.
My diary North and South. By William Howard Russell.
Map showing the eastern part of the United States circa 1863 to accompany text of "My Diary North and South."
My InfoQuest and the Handheld Librarian
This presentation discusses My InfoQuest, a service that lets you text a question to a librarian and receive a quick response on your mobile device.
My Land, My Life
My Land, My Life is a documentary film about the woman, Jo Angela Lamb, who lives and works on Frying Pan Ranch in Texas Panhandle. the film explores the complexity of a ranch woman's experience that breaks the spell of the stereotyped image of American cowgirls. It also reflects on women ranchers’ relationship with their family members and their relationship with the land.
"My Vagina" and other stories.
This thesis includes seven short stories and a critical afterword. The afterword places the stories in their literary historical context in regards to creative nonfiction. It goes on to discuss the craft of fictionalizing autobiographical stories. Each of the stories should stand alone, though they follow the narrator's life for a number of years. Harlin Anderson is the narrator of all the stories.
My Whine, Your Wine
Grapes hold the flavors of the lands where they grow, and when you make wine from them, those flavors of the land come through. Tasting wine from a place you've been can bring you back to that place with aromas and notes indicative of that place. A bottle of wine changes every day, and how it will taste depends on the moment you choose to release it from the glass walls. I have a vested interest in wine, because it is a living thing. I am compelled to make wine because its characteristics are like personality traits. Although some of those characteristics are harsh at times, I appreciate them all. Each trait plays an important role in the balance, the overall personality. Like my own personality flaws, wine's harsh tones can smooth over time. My relationship with wine is constantly evolving, with every new varietal, vintage, batch and blend. Believe me, after some of the jobs I had before my first day at Su Vino, I cherish every moment of my winemaking career. My Whine, Your Wine is the story of how it all started.
MYB5 and MYB14 Play Pivotal Roles in Seed Coat Polymer Biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula
Article discussing MYB5 and MYB14 playing pivotal roles in seed coat polymer biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula.
Mycielski-Regular Measures
Let μ be a Radon probability measure on M, the d-dimensional Real Euclidean space (where d is a positive integer), and f a measurable function. Let P be the space of sequences whose coordinates are elements in M. Then, for any point x in M, define a function ƒn on M and P that looks at the first n terms of an element of P and evaluates f at the first of those n terms that minimizes the distance to x in M. The measures for which such sequences converge in measure to f for almost every sequence are called Mycielski-regular. We show that the self-similar measure generated by a finite family of contracting similitudes and which up to a constant is the Hausdorff measure in its dimension on an invariant set C is Mycielski-regular.
Mystical Elements in Emerson's Thought
It is the main purpose of this thesis to ascertain just to what extent Emerson's writing do contain mystical elements.
Myth and History in Two Plays by Nicholas Rowe
The purpose of this study is to examine two plays by Nicholas Rowe, eighteenth-century English poet, dramatist, editor, and translator, in order to ascertain their historical content, as opposed to their mythological and fictional content.
Myth in Alan Sillitoe's Saturday Night and Sunday Morning
The purpose of this thesis is to point out the three levels of mythic structure contained in Saturday Night and Sunday Morning, a novel published in 1958 by the British novelist Alan Sillitoe. The novel has been criticized almost solely in its role as a work dealing exclusively with the English proletariat; the critics have ignored mythic content in the novel, and in doing so have missed valuable meaning and structure which each myth adds to the novel.
Myth in the Early Collaborations of Benjamin Britten and William Plomer
Although the most well-known collaborations of William Plomer and Benjamin Britten are the three church parables (or church operas) - Curlew River, The Burning Fiery Furnace, and The Prodigal Son - by the time of the completion of Curlew River in 1964, the librettist and composer had been working together for well over a decade. During that time, they had completed the opera Gloriana and had considered collaborating on three other projects: one a children's opera on Beatrix Potter's The Tale of Mr. Tod, one on an original story of Plomer's called "Tyco the Vegan," and one on a Greek myth (possibly Arion, Daedalus and Icarus, or Phaëthon). Far from being footnotes to the parables, these early collaborations established Plomer and Britten's working relationship and brought to light their common interests as well as their independent ones. Their successive early collaborations, therefore, can be thought of as a conversation through creative expression. This metaphor of conversation can be applied both to successive collaborations and to the completed Gloriana, in that the libretto and the music can be seen as representing different interpretations of both major and minor characters in the opera, including Elizabeth I and Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex. In Gloriana, Britten employed at least three specifically musical methods of challenging the meaning of the libretto: instrumental commentary, textural density, and dramatically significant referential pitches. Plomer and Britten's conversation, carried out through these early collaborations, touches on the function of art, activism, and modern morality, but it is best circumscribed by the concept of myth. Two divergent and very influential interpretations of myth - Matthew Arnold's "sweetness and light" and primal liberation (deduced from Nietzsche) - can be usefully applied to Plomer and Britten's unfolding conversation. The implications of Plomer and Britten's adoption of myth as the topic and language of their collaborative conversation are vast and must be considered in order to understand more fully their work together.
Myth in the Fiction of C. S. Lewis
In both his fiction and non-fiction, Lewis comments on myth, its characteristics and strengths, and its relation to Christian doctrine. His use of myth to examine and to illustrate Christian ideas is most important in the space trilogy, the Narnia series of children's books, and Till We Have Faces. These books are the primary sources for this thesis, and they will be examined in chronological order.
The Myth of Emmetropia: Perception in Rhetorical Studies
This thesis sets up the problem of sight in a visual society, with the aim to answer how the visual makes itself known. The conversation starts on visuality, and where there are gaps in understanding. The first of two case studies examines the absence of sight, or blindness, both literal and figurative. Through a study of blind photographers and their work, this chapter examines the nature of perception, and how biological blindness may influence and inform our understanding of figurative blindness. The second case study examines what the improvement of damaged sight has to say about the rhetorical nature of images. This chapter examines various means of improving sight, using literal improvements to sight to understand figurative improvements in vision and perception. The fourth and final chapter seeks to sum up what has been discovered about the rhetorical nature of sight through the ends of the spectrum of sight.
The Myth of Strategic Superiority: Us Nuclear Weapons and Limited Conflicts, 1945-1954
The nuclear age provided U.S. soldiers and statesmen with unprecedented challenges. the U.S. military had to incorporate a weapon into strategic calculations without knowing whether the use of the weapon would be approved. Broad considerations of policy led President Dwight Eisenhower to formulate a policy that relied on nuclear weapons while fully realizing their destructive potential. Despite the belief that possession of nuclear weapons provided strategic superiority, the U.S. realized that such weapons were of little value. This realization did not stop planners from attempting to find ways to use nuclear weapons in Korea and Indochina.
Mythic Archaeologies: The Impact of Visual Culture on the Art and Identity of Four Hopi Artists
This qualitative critical ethnography examines how visual culture impacted the identity and art of four Hopi artists. Sources of data included a personal journal, artists’ interviews, group discussion, art work interpretations, and historical research of Hopi art, visual culture, and issues of native identity. In particular, my analysis focused on issues of power / knowledge relationships, identity construction, and the artist as co-constructor of culture through personal narratives. Implications for art education centered on the concept of storytelling through mythic archaeology situated in identities of past, present, and future.
A Mythic Perspective of Commodification on the World Wide Web
Capitalism's success, according to Karl Marx, is based on continued development of new markets and products. As globalization shrinks the world marketplace, corporations are forced to seek both new customers and products to sell. Commodification is the process of transforming objects, ideas and even people into merchandise. The recent growth of the World Wide Web has caught the attention of the corporate world, and they are attempting to convert a free-share-based medium into a profit-based outlet. To be successful, they must change Web users' perception about the nature of the Web itself. This study asks the question: Is there mythic evidence of commodification on the World Wide Web? It examines how the World Wide Web is presented to readers of three national publications-Wired, Newsweek, and Business Week-from 1993 to 2000. It uses Barthes' two-tiered model of myths to examine the descriptors used to modify and describe the World Wide Web. The descriptors were clustered into 11 general categories, including connectivity, social, being, scene, consumption, revolution, tool, value, biology, arena, and other. Wired articles did not demonstrate a trend in categorical change from 1993 to 2000; the category of choice shifted back and forth between Revolution, Connectivity, Scene, and Being. Newsweek articles demonstrated an obvious directional shift. Connectivity is the dominant myth from 1994 to 1998, when the revolution category dominates. Similarly, Business Week follows the prevailing myth of connectivity from 1994 to 1997. From 1998 on, the competition-related categories of revolution and arena lead all categories. The study finds evidence of commodification on the World Wide Web, based on the trend in categories in Newsweek and Business Week that move from a foundational myth that presents a perception of cooperation in 1994 to one of competition in 1998 and later. The study recommends further in-depth research of the target publications, a review of articles in less-developed countries, and content analysis and ethnography online.
Mythic Themes and Literary Analogues in Lowell's Prometheus Bound
The present study will be concerned primarily with an interpretation of Lowell's derivation of Prometheus Bound as he adapted that play from the Greek playwright Aeschylus' version, with a study of the development of his themes in that play, and with consideration of some of the sources upon which those themes are dependent.
Myths and Movies: a Mythographical Methodology of Motion Picture Analysis
Over the past decade, cinema studies scholars have begun to recognize the value of mythographical methodologies for motion picture analysis; however, most of the scholarly research in this field has focused either on mythic archetypal images or on monomythic narrative structure, rather than combining the two approaches into a unified theory. This essay addresses the problem by proposing a mythographical methodology of motion picture analysis based on Carl Jung's theory of archetypal images and Joseph Campbell's theories concerning the monomythic structure of heroic narratives. Combining the two approaches of myth interpretation results in a more comprehensive methodology for interpreting the mythic elements of motion pictures. This essay illustrates the application of this methodology through a detailed analysis of Terry Gilliam's film, The Fisher King.
Name Authority Control: An institutional repository approach
Presentation for the 2013 Cross Timbers Library Collaborative (CTLC) Conference. This presentation discusses the importance of name authority, how the UNT Name App tool addresses challenges with name authority, the migration and implementation process, and implications for future use.
Namibia: Strengthening the Protected Area Network
The Strengthening the Protected Area Network (SPAN) Project aims to strengthen the management effectiveness of the national protected area (PA) system in Namibia. The Project builds capacity for park management by removing existing barriers hindering the management performance of the PA system. The case study highlights key elements of project success and lessons learned.
A nano-CMOS based universal voltage level converter for multi-VDD SoCs.
Power dissipation of integrated circuits is the most demanding issue for very large scale integration (VLSI) design engineers, especially for portable and mobile applications. Use of multiple supply voltages systems, which employs level converter between two voltage islands is one of the most effective ways to reduce power consumption. In this thesis work, a unique level converter known as universal level converter (ULC), capable of four distinct level converting operations, is proposed. The schematic and layout of ULC are built and simulated using CADENCE. The ULC is characterized by performing three analysis such as parametric, power, and load analysis which prove that the design has an average power consumption reduction of about 85-97% and capable of producing stable output at low voltages like 0.45V even under varying load conditions.
Nano-crystallization Inhibition in 5 Nm Ru Film Diffusion Barriers for Advanced Cu-interconnect
As the semiconductor industries are moving beyond 22 nm node technology, the currently used stacked Ta/TaN diffusion barrier including a copper seed will be unable to fulfill the requirements for the future technologies. Due to its low resistivity and ability to perform galvanic copper fill without a seed layer, ruthenium (Ru) has emerged as a potential copper diffusion barrier. However, its crystallization and columnar nanostructure have been the main cause of barrier failures even at low processing temperatures (300 oC -350 oC). In this study, we have proposed and evaluated three different strategies to improve the performance of the ultrathin Ru film as a diffusion barrier for copper. The first study focused on shallow surface plasma irradiation/amorphization and nitridation of 5 nm Ru films. Systematic studies of amorphization and nitrogen incorporation versus sample bias were performed. XPS, XRD and RBS were used to determine the physico-chemical, crystallization and barrier efficiency of the plasma modified Ru barrier. The nitrogen plasma surface irradiation of Ru films at substrate bias voltage of -350 V showed an improved barrier performance up to 400 oC annealing temperatures. The barrier barely started failing at 450 oC due mainly to nitrogen instability. The second study involved only amorphization of the Ru thin film without any nitrogen incorporation. A low energy ion beam irradiation/amorphization on Ru thin film was carried out by using 60 KeV carbon ions with different irradiation doses. The irradiation energy was chosen high enough so that the irradiation ions pass through the whole Ru thin film and stop in the SiO2/Si support substrate. The C-ion fluence of 5×1016 atoms/cm2 at 60 KeV made the Ru film near amorphous without changing its composition. XRD and RBS were used to determine the relationship between crystallization and barrier efficiency of the carbon irradiated Ru barrier. The amorphized Ru film showed an improved barrier performance up to 400 oC annealing temperatures similar to the plasma nitrided Ru films. The barrier barely began to fail at 450 oC due mainly to crystallization. The third study focused on a study of Al doping of nitrided Ru thin films and their crystallinity with the aim of obtaining a completely amorphous Ru based barrier and stable nitridation. The addition of 4% Al and 14% of nitrogen in Ru produced a near amorphous film. Nitrogen in the film remained stable until the annealing temperature of 450 oC for 10 min in N2 atmosphere. Crystallization growth of the film was inhibited until 450 oC. At 500 oC, the crystallization of the Ru films barely started, but the degree of its crystallization is minimal. The Ru-Al-N film was demonstrated to be an effective diffusion barrier for copper until the annealing temperature of 450 oC and began to fail at 500 oC. The Al doping was shown to stabilize the nitrogen in the Ru thin film barrier inhibiting its crystallization and leading to improved diffusion barrier performance and a gain in processing temperatures of 150 oC -200 oC over the as prepared pure Ru thin film barriers.
Nanoparticles Engineered to Bind Serum Albumin: Microwave Assisted Synthesis, Characterization, and Functionalization of Fluorescently-Labeled, Acrylate-Based, Polymer Nanoparticles
The potential use of polymeric, functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) as drug delivery vectors was explored. Covalent conjugation of albumin to the surface of NPs via maleimide chemistry proved problematic. However, microwave assisted synthesis of NPs was not only time efficient, but enabled the exploration of size control by changing the following parameters: temperature, microwave power, reaction time, initiator concentration, and percentage of monomer used. About 1.5 g of fluorescently-labeled, carboxylic acid-functionalized NPs (100 nm diameter) were synthesized for a total cost of less than $1. Future work will address further functionalization of the NPs for the coupling of albumin (or other targeted proteins), and tests for in vivo biodistribution.
Nanoscale Materials Applications: Thermoelectrical, Biological, and Optical Applications with Nanomanipulation Technology
In a sub-wavelength scale, even approaching to the atomic scale, nanoscale physics shows various novel phenomena. Since it has been named, nanoscience and nanotechnology has been employed to explore and exploit this small scale world. For example, with various functionalized features, nanowire (NW) has been making its leading position in the researches of physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering as a miniaturized building block. Its individual characteristic shows superior and unique features compared with its bulk counterpart. As one part of these research efforts and progresses, and with a part of the fulfillment of degree study, novel methodologies and device structures in nanoscale were devised and developed to show the abilities of high performing thermoelectrical, biological, and optical applications. A single β-SiC NW was characterized for its thermoelectric properties (thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and figure of merit) to compare with its bulk counterpart. The combined structure of Ag NW and ND was made to exhibit its ability of clear imaging of a fluorescent cell. And a plasmonic nanosture of silver (Ag) nanodot array and a β-SiC NW was fabricated to show a high efficient light harvesting device that allows us to make a better efficient solar cell. Novel nanomanipulation techniques were developed and employed in order to fabricate all of these measurement platforms. Additionally, one of these methodological approaches was used to successfully isolate a few layer graphene.
Naphth [2,3-d] Imidazoline-2,4,9-Triones
The study of some acylurea derivatives of 2-amino-3-alkylamino- and -3-arylamino-1,4-naphthoquinones was undertaken to determine the course of reaction under conditions similar to those used by J. R. Hoover and A. R. Day to prepare 2-alkyl-1H-naphth[2,3-d] imidazole-4.9-diones from 2-acylamino-3-amino-1,4-naphthoquinones.
Naphthoquinone Studies
This thesis describes a series of naphthoquinone reactions employing pyridine carboxylic acid derivatives (nicotinic acid derivatives). The products of these reactions will be tested by Parke, Davis and Company for their activity against the tubercle bacillus and other pathogenic microorganisms.
The Napoleonic Wars in the English Novel, 1820-1880
This thesis is a study of the novelists of the Peninsular and Waterloo campaigns (veterans and non-veterans), the novelists of the naval war, and the novelists of the home front in the Napoleonic Wars.
Narcissistic traits and parenting style: A closer look at maladaptive parenting through parent-child observations, parent self-report, and child self-report.
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The thrust of this paper was two-fold, 1) to confirm a 2-factor model of narcissism in women, and 2) to examine the relationship between narcissistic traits in mothers and several variables associated with parenting efficacy. Participants included 193 mother-child dyads. A 2-factor model of narcissism was confirmed in the present sample of mothers, suggesting that narcissistic traits in women may be manifested in distinct Overt and Covert forms. Contrary to expectations, Covert Narcissistic traits in mothers did not significantly correlate with observed parenting behaviors on the PCIA, including Positive Personal Comments (PPC) towards children, Negative Personal Comments (NPC), and Parental Nurturance. However, children's self-reported maternal rejection on the C-PARQ correlated positively with Covert Narcissistic traits in mothers, as did mother's self-reported dysfunctional parenting attitudes on the AAPI-2. Narcissistic traits in mothers correlated most strongly with risk of child physical abuse on the CAPI (r = .70). Results are also presented for the Overt Narcissism factor, which proved to be less stable as a factor. Overall, results emphasize the need for a more comprehensive understanding of narcissism for women, given its potential Implications for children's healthy development and parenting interventions.
A Narrative Analysis of Korematsu v. United States
This thesis studies the Supreme Court decision, Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944) and its historical context, using a narrative perspective and reviewing aspects of narrative viewpoints with reference to legal studies in order to introduce the present study as a method of assessing narratives in legal settings. The study reviews the Supreme Court decision to reveal its arguments and focuses on the context of the case through the presentation of the public story, the institutional story, and the ethnic Japanese story, which are analyzed using Walter Fisher's narrative perspective. The study concludes that the narrative paradigm is useful for assessing stories in the law because it enables the critic to examine both the emotional and logical reasoning that determine the outcomes of the cases.
The Narrative Art of Edgar Allan Poe
This thesis is focused on the motivations and influences on the writings of Edgar Allan Poe. Poe's work and letters are used to support the hypothesis that his work resulted from a desire to be recognized.
A Narrative Herstory of Women's Studies at the University of North Texas
In the late 1960's the academic field of Women's Studies was created to give women a more equal education and a more accurate reflection of their history and impact on society. At the University of North Texas the effort to implement Women's Studies was not begun seriously until the late 1980's. This paper covers the effort to establish Women's Studies at UNT. My thesis is that this has been a grassroots effort led by professors and students who succeeded not only in establishing Women's Studies but also in changing the face and feeling of the University, creating a more positive environment for women. The bulk of the paper is made up of narrative selections drawn from oral history interviews with key individuals.
Narrative Issues
This thesis covers a series of etchings created between 1998 and 2000 in completion of the requirements for graduation. The paper covers the origins and implications of the symbology within the artwork as well as the natural settings displayed. It also speaks of the mythos of art and symbols, as well as my strategy in Art making.
The Narrator of the Short Poetry of Thomas Hardy
Throughout the poetry of Thomas Hardy, excluding The Dynasts, there reappears a characteristic and constant narrator device which Hardy employs to force the reader to maintain perspective and objectivity upon the action of the poems and to provide a framework of attitudes and conclusions by which the reader can judge the content of the poems.
Nathaniel Hawthorne's Use of Witch and Devil Lore
Nathaniel Hawthorne's personal family history, his boyhood in the Salem area of New England, and his reading of works about New England's Puritan era influenced his choice of witch and Devil lore as fictional material. The witchcraft trials in Salem were evidence (in Hawthorne's interpretation) of the errors of judgment and popular belief which are ever-present in the human race. He considered the witch and Devil doctrine of the seventeenth century to be indicative of the superstition, fear, and hatred which governs the lives of men even in later centuries. From the excesses of the witch-hunt period of New England history Hawthorne felt moral lessons could be derived.
National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program Report to Congress: An Integrated Assessment
This report presents scientific analysis of the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of federal programming to reduce acid rain.
A national analysis of faculty salary and benefits in public community colleges, academic year 2003-2004.
This study provides a detailed description of full-time faculty salary and fringe benefits in US public community colleges by state and by 2005 Carnegie basic classification type for the academic year 2003-2004. This classification is used to analyze data from the National Center for Education Statistics' Integrated Postsecondary Educational Data System (IPEDS). Further analysis clusters states into the following groupings: states with/without collective bargaining agreements, states with/without local appropriations, large megastates versus nonmegastates (using the methodology developed by Grapevine at Illinois State University), and the impact of California on the nation's salaries and fringe benefits. The analysis showed high level of variation of salaries paid by the type of community college (rural, suburban, and urban serving) in the US. The nation's average salary for full-time faculty was $52,598. Rural serving small institutions faculty salary was $18,754 or 45 % less than the nation's average. Salaries in colleges with collective bargaining agreement were higher than in colleges without collective bargaining agreements. Faculty teaching in suburban serving colleges with local taxation had the highest salaries, $61,822 within colleges with access to local support. Suburban serving multiple colleges in megastates had the highest faculty salary average, $64,540 as compared to $42,263 for rural serving colleges in non-megastates. California may be a state with a very high cost of living; however, that does not diminish the fact that community college faculty are among the highest paid faculty in the nation. Colleges with collective bargaining agreements, with local appropriations, and in megastates, tended to have better benefits packages for their faculty. This study includes recommendations for further research, including a recommendation that a quantitative statistical analysis be undertaken to show statistical significance in salaries and fringe benefits among collective and non-collective bargaining states, a study addressing the faculty and leadership challenges that community colleges will be facing soon should be done, and that a similar study be done that includes tribal colleges.