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Evaluation of Zinc Toxicity Using Neuronal Networks on Microelectrode Arrays: Response Quantification and Entry Pathway Analysis
Murine neuronal networks, derived from embryonic frontal cortex (FC) tissue grown on microelectrode arrays, were used to investigate zinc toxicity at concentrations ranging from 20 to 2000 mM total zinc acetate added to the culture medium. Continual multi-channel recording of spontaneous action potential generation allowed a quantitative analysis of the temporal evolution of network spike activity generation at specific zinc acetate concentrations. Cultures responded with immediate concentration-dependent excitation lasting from 5 to 50 min, consisting of increased spiking and enhanced, coordinated bursting. This was followed by irreversible activity decay. The time to 50% and 90% activity loss was concentration dependent, highly reproducible, and formed linear functions in log-log plots. Network activity loss generally preceded morphological changes. 20% cell swelling was correlated with 50% activity loss. Cultures pretreated with the GABAA receptor antagonists bicuculline (40 mM) and picrotoxin (1 mM) lacked the initial excitation phase. This suggests that zinc-induced excitation may be mediated by interfering with GABA inhibition. Partial network protection was achieved by stopping spontaneous activity with either tetrodotoxin (200 nM) or lidocaine (250 mM). However, recovery was not complete and slow deterioration of network activity continued over 6 hrs. Removal of zinc by early medium changes showed irreversible, catastrophic network failure to develop in a concentration-dependent time window between 50% and 90% activity loss. Investigation of entry routes suggested the L-type but not N-type calcium channels to be the main entry pathway for zinc. Data are presented implicating the chloride channel to be an additional entry route.
Evaluation Practices of Community College Faculty Development Programs
The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the current state of community college faculty development program evaluation and identify possible influences on evaluation practices. Data from 184 survey responses and the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) were analyzed to answer three research questions. Multiple regression was used to determine if a relationship existed between the dependent/outcome variable (evaluation utilization score) and the independent/predictor variable (accrediting agency affiliation: MSCHE, NEASC, NCA, NWCCU, SACS, and WASC) and/or control variables (institution locale, student FTE, expenses per student FTE, percent spent on instruction, and percent of full-time faculty). Results were not statistically significant, F (12, 163) = 1.176, p = .305. The mean evaluation scores were similar for all six accrediting agencies ranging from 60-69. The rural variable was statistically significant with p = .003 and alpha = .05, but it only accounted for 3.6% of the variance explained. Logistic regression was used to determine if a relationship existed between the dependent/outcome variable (use of evaluation) and the above-specified independent/predictor variable and/or control variables for six faculty development program activities. Results revealed that significant predictor variables for the use of evaluation vary based on the faculty development program activity. Statistically significant predictors were identified for two of the six activities. The percent spent on instruction variable was statistically significant for financial support for attending professional conferences (p = .02; alpha = .05). The NCA affiliation and student FTE variables were statistically significant for orientation for new faculty (p = .007; alpha = .05 and p = .027; alpha = .05 respectively). The analysis of the evaluation methods was conducted using descriptive statistics and frequencies. The most frequently used evaluation methods were questionnaire and verbal feedback. NCA was identified as having the greatest number of institutions using the most frequently used evaluation methods for four of the activities. SACS was identified as having the largest number of institutions using the greatest number of evaluation methods for five of the activities. It was discovered that accrediting agencies with policies regarding faculty development program evaluation practices were not more likely to have higher evaluation utilization scores or utilize evaluation methods more frequently than accrediting agencies without such policies. The study revealed that among community college faculty development programs evaluation practice similarities were more prevalent than differences regardless of accrediting agency affiliation. As a result of this discovery, future research should extend beyond the accrediting agency affiliation emphasis and explore additional influences on institutional decision making processes regarding community college faculty development program evaluation practices.
An Evaluative Analysis of the Contribution of Key Sociological Theorists to the Development of a Sociology of Emotion
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An Evaluative Study of Physical Education Activity Programs for Boys in Selected Junior High Schools of Texas
The problem undertaken in this study was to evaluate the activity phase of boys' physical education programs in selected junior high schools of Texas. As a result of visitation and observation in a number of public junior high schools in the capacity of supervising teacher for physical education majors, it appears that many physical education programs were little more than loosely supervised play periods. Apparently there was room for improvement of these programs but a method for making judgments and recommendations required some type of measuring device. However, an examination of several existing measuring techniques failed to reveal any one devoted to the junior high school level or one concerned primarily with the activity program. As a means of improving existing programs, it was concluded that some new form of evaluation must be designed.
An Evaluative Study of the Band Library Equipment and Procedures Used in Ninety-Seven Class B High Schools in Texas During the 1948-1949 School Year
The purpose of this study is to present, on the basis of the material obtained through survey methods previously indicated, a comprehensive picture of the small high school band library.
An Evaluative Study of the Physical Education Program for College Women in the Punjab of West Pakistan with Recommendations for Future Development
The study was undertaken for the following purposes: 1. To make a study of the past and present Pakistan culture significant to physical education for college women in the Punjab. 2. To make a study of the present physical education program for women in colleges in the Punjab. 3. To evaluate the present women's physical education program for the college level in the Punjab of West Pakistan. 4. To make recommendations for future development of the physical education program for college women in the Punjab area of West Pakistan.
An Evaluative Study of the Professional Curriculum in the Men's Physical Education Program at North Texas State College with Recommendations for Continued Improvement
"This is an evaluative study of the professional preparation physical education program for men at North Texas State College."--3
An Evaluative Study of the Public School Kindergartens in Texas
The problem of this study was to determine the present status and effectiveness of the Kindergarten programs in the public schools of Texas.
An Evaluative Study to Determine the Present Status of the Administration of Public Recreation in Denton, Texas, with a Proposed Plan for Future Development
The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent the public recreation of Denton under the present administrative setup is serving the needs of the citizenship of Denton. Various agencies affording recreation for their own members or sponsoring recreation activities affecting other inhabitants of Denton were surveyed to determine the present status of administration of public recreation in Denton. The results of the survey were compared with standards set up by the National Recreation Association for cities the size of Denton. From a comparison of the present status and the standards, an effort was made to formulate a basis of administration that would be sound and business-like, well co-ordinated, and consistent with good governmental practice.
Evangelicals and Social Change: The Social Thought of Three British Evangelical Preachers, 1850-1900
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Eve, the Apple, and Eugene O'Neill: the Development of O'Neill's Concept of Women
It is the purpose of this paper to outline the development of O'Neill's characterization of women from the loving, submissive Mother in the early plays to the Mother turned Destroyer in the later plays. This is accomplished through a chronological examination of the women characters in eight of O'Neill's major plays--Beyond the Horizon, The Staw, Anna Christie, Welded, Desire Under the Elms, The Great God Brown, Strange Interlude, and Mourning Becomes Electra.
Evening Meal Patterns and Meal Management Decisions in Families of Employed and Nonemployed Mothers
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Event Centrality: Debunking the “Bad Science” Myth That Self-reported Posttraumatic Growth Does Not Reflect Positive Change
Despite strong evidence supporting the existence of posttraumatic growth (PTG), some investigators question whether the construct measured by the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) is that of perceived growth or “actual” growth. In a replication of a recent investigation, the present study sought to refine the methodology used by employing the construct of event centrality. Due to its limited sample size, the results of this analysis did not provide strong evidence in support of the hypothesis that limiting analyses to individuals rating their trauma as high in event centrality improves the ability of the PTGI to reflect “actual” growth. However, results did support the idea that investigations of PTG conducted immediately following a trauma may be more reflective of a coping process, rather than growth. Further research is warranted to investigate the role of event centrality in posttraumatic growth, and the effect of time on the progression of growth following trauma.
Event Order in the Biathlon Does Not Have an Effect on Metabolic Response
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The Everyday Experience of Satisfaction, Conflict, Anger, and Violence for Women in Love Relationships
The problem of this study addressed how women experience the conflict variables of beliefs about conflict, anger arousal, conflict styles, and received and expressed violence as partners in love relationships and how these factors affect their reported satisfaction. Graduate women (M = 186) from University of North Texas completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), a subscale of Relationship Beliefs Inventory (RBI), the Multidimensional Anger Inventory (MAI), and Interpersonal Conflict Tactics and Strategies Scale (ICTAS), and the Severity of Violence Against Women scale (SVAW). Data were analyzed using MANOVAs with ANOVAs to examine significant differences. Multiple regression procedures were used for the exploratory questions. Women reporting less satisfied relationships were expected to believe that disagreement was more destructive and to report higher anger arousal than those who were more satisfied. The hypotheses were supported. Women who were less satisfied also reported using less constructive conflict tactics and more destructive and avoidant tactics as well as receiving some forms of violence. Expressed violence was not significantly related to low satisfaction. Results suggested that these conflict variables are highly interrelated. Strong feedback loops may develop. Strongly held conflict beliefs may affect the use of destructive and avoidant conflict strategies and increase anger which may reinforce the conflict beliefs. Women who have received violence may use both destructive and avoidant tactics. Use of tactics that escalate then de-escalate conflict suggests that conflict strategies may not be mutually exclusive. However, when a woman is low in anger and has previously received violence from a partner, she may use more avoidant tactics. In contrast women who express violence to their partners may use all three conflict tactics including constructive tactics. This finding suggested that women may express violence as a last resort to get a reaction from their partners.
Everyday Performances in Us Household Kitchens
BMA Innovation Consulting is committed to serving consumers products that can play a more meaningful role in household cleaning. So far, their innovation department has used psychology-based principles and approaches that have helped them understand consumers’ preferences, attitudes and claimed needs in household cleaning. That said, little information has been collected on the active role that products play or could play as participants in the everyday dynamics of US consumers. An anthropological approach to the study of U.S. kitchens, as an important center of family interaction in U.S. households, should yield important insights to the design and development of products that can more effectively and more actively participate in those dynamics. With this project I am fundamentally proposing a new approach to the identification of critical product design requirements. Figure on the right shows the key differences between the psychology-derived principles the organization is mostly using today vs. the anthropological lenses through which I will be conducting my research. Overall, I will be leveraging existing knowledge in the “individual desires” realm, connecting it to the collective situation & cultural context within which “cleaning action” emerges.
Everything and Nothing at the Same Time
This paradoxically titled collection of poems explores what the blues and blindness has come to mean to the author.
Evidence and Military Law Under the Uniform Code of Military Justice
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Evidence for Multiple Functions of a Medicago Truncatula Transporter
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Legumes play an important role in agriculture as major food sources for humans and as feed for animals. Bioavailable nitrogen is a limiting nutrient for crop growth. Legumes are important because they can form a symbiotic relationship with soil bacteria called rhizobia that results in nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In this symbiosis, rhizobia provide nitrogen to the legumes and the legumes provide carbon sources to the rhizobia. The Medicago truncatula NPF1.7/NIP/LATD gene is essential for root nodule development and also for proper development of root architecture. Work in our lab on the MtNPF1.7/MtNIP/LATD gene has established that it encodes a nitrate transporter and strongly suggests it has another function. Mtnip-1/latd mutants have pleiotropic defects, which are only partially explained by defects in nitrate transport. MtNPF1.7/NIP/LATD is a member of the large and diverse NPF/NRT1(PTR) transporter family. NPF/NRT1(PTR) members have been shown to transport other compounds in addition to nitrate: nitrite, amino acids, di- and tri-peptides, dicarboxylates, auxin, abscisic acid and glucosinolates. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the AtNPF6.3/NRT1.1( CHL1) transporter was shown to transport auxin as well as nitrate. Atchl1 mutants have defects in root architecture, which may be explained by defects in auxin transport and/or nitrate sensing. Considering the pleiotropic phenotypes observed in Mtnip-1/latd mutant plants, it is possible that MtNPF1.7/NIP/LATD could have similar activity as AtNPF6.3/NRT1.1(CHL1). Experimental evidence shows that the MtNPF1.7/NIP/LATD gene is able to restore nitrate-absent responsiveness defects of the Atchl1-5 mutant. The constitutive expression of MtNPF1.7/NIP/LATD gene was able to partially, but not fully restore the wild-type phenotype in the Atchl1-5 mutant line in response to auxin and cytokinin. The constitutive expression of MtNPF1.7/NIP/LATD gene affects the lateral root density of wild-type Col-0 plants differently in response to IAA in the presence of high (1mM) or low (0.1 mM) nitrate. MtNPF1.7/NIP/LATD gene expression is not regulated by nitrate at the concentrations tested and MtNPF1.7/NIP/LATD does not regulate the nitrate-responsive MtNRT2.1 gene. Mtnip-1 plants have an abnormal gravitropic root response implicating an auxin defect. Together with these results, MtNPF1.7/NIP/LATD is associated with nitrate and auxin; however, it does not act in a homologous fashion as AtNPF6.3/NRT1.1(CHL1) does in A. thaliana.
Evidence for Specific Responding in a Transposition Situation
Subjects were presented with choices between stimuli which differed along some dimension.The present study investigates whether a relational or absolute theory best predicts the results in a transposition situation.
Evidence for the Interaction of GTP with Rat Liver Glyoxalase II
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Evidences of Pragmatic Philosophy in Operation in the Schools of Today
It is the purpose of this thesis to show that pragmatic philosophy is in operation in the schools of today by giving evidences of living experiences.
Evidences of the Need of Scientific Speech Training in the Elementary Grades of the Independent School Districts of Denton County with a Suggested Program of Oral Reading
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the need of scientific speech training in the elementary grades of the Independent School Districts of Denton County. The analysis of data reveals a dire need for speech correction and other phases of speech training.
Evidences of the Need of Speech Training for School Administrators
This thesis tabulated five hundred and twenty correct criteria checking points. Based on the analysis of rating scale, the data show that the fourty adminstrators (subjects) made an average of 3724 speches a year (about 93 per school adminstrator), and the findings presented some evidences of the need of speech training for school administrators.
The Evidential Value of Near-Death Experiences for Belief in Life After Death
Article exploring the issue of what evidential value near-death experiences (NDEs) offer for belief in life and death, including a survey of major positions on the issue.
Evidentiary Value of Condoms: Comparison of Durable Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Condoms
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Condom trace evidence must not be overlooked in sexual assault cases; understanding the chemical and physical characteristics of condoms is imperative if condoms are to be useful evidence. Previous research shows that condom identification is possible, but it is equally important to evaluate durability of condom residues versus time. Using FT-IR, this study examined vaginal swabs from subjects who self-sampled at intervals for up to 72 hours after having intercourse with a condom. This study investigated whether age and the stage of the menstrual cycle affected the durability of residues in the vagina over time. This study revealed that condoms containing nonoxynol-9, silicone-based lubricants, and particulates provide valuable information for identification, and that nonoxynol-9 specifically withstands the vaginal environment for up to 72 hours. Additionally, age and menstrual cycle both appeared to have an effect on the durability of residues although larger sample size is desirable.
Evocations from Childhood: Stylistic Influences and Musical Quotations in Claude Debussy's Children's Corner and La Boîte à Joujoux
Claude Debussy is considered one of the most influential figures of the late 19th century and early 20th centuries. Among the various works that he wrote for the piano, Children's Corner and La Boîte à joujoux distinguish themselves as being evocative of childhood. However, compared to more substantial works like Pelléas et Mélisande or La Mer, his children's piano music has been underrated and seldom performed. Children's Corner and La Boîte à joujoux were influenced by a series of eclectic sources, including jazz, novel "views" from Russian composers, and traditional musical elements such as folk songs and Eastern music. The study examines several stylistic parallels found in these two pieces and is followed by a discussion of Debussy's use of musical quotations and allusions, important elements used by the composer to achieve what could be dubbed as a unique "children's wonderland."
The Evocative and Repertoire-Altering Effects of Contingency-Specifying Stimuli
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Evoking the Mystery: A Pedagogical Method to Enable an Advanced Violinist to Master George Crumb’s Four Nocturnes (Night Music II)
For more than three centuries, violin pedagogical practices have been extensively developed towards music covering the common practice period. However, a problem arises when a violin student performing avant-garde music needs to find realistic solutions to problems that are not addressed in the standard repertoire. This critical essay offers a pedagogical approach to a work that fits well within this paradigm: Four Nocturnes (Night Music II), George Crumb’s only published work for violin and piano duo. The multi-dimensional aspect of this avant-garde work requires an equally multi-faceted approach to overcoming the inherent technical hurdles. Through practical illustrations and concise explanations, musical examples indicate how the score may be re-notated and simplified to create a preliminary step towards advancing to the original notation. Borrowing from the methodology of Otakar Ševčík and other leading twentieth-century violin pedagogues, the author shows how students can modify their approach to fit contextually in the realm of avant-garde music. Students who approach the work with this methodology will find it helpful in eliminating many of the potential pitfalls that they are likely to encounter.
La Evolución Del Subalterno En Tres Novelas Mexicanas: La Negra Angustias, Balún Canán, Y Neonao
The subaltern is a recurrent literary figure in Mexican narrative. The objective of this thesis is to investigate three ethnic groups – indeed, subalterns – in Mexico which include: Afro-Mexicans, indigenous groups, and Filipino colonial subjects from the perspectives of the Mexican Revolution, post-revolutionary Mexico, and the conquest of the Philippines in the sixteenth century. The principal characters play crucial roles in events shaping the history and culture of Mexico and thus demonstrate their importance to the country's development while also revealing the reality of subalterns. The literary research shows that trying circumstances or a lack of self-identity were the main causes for a character to be or become a subaltern in addition to their inherent ethnic disadvantages. However, the characters who overcame their subaltern state often changed personality traits or adapted to their surroundings in order to be assimilated into the majority culture.
The Evolution and Present Form of Automobile Insurance in the State of Texas
The purpose of this study is to determine the evolution and present form of automobile insurance in the State of Texas.
The Evolution and Present Status of Accident and Health Insurance in the United States
The purpose of this study will be to determine the evolution and present form of accident and health insurance in the United States.
The Evolution and Present Status of Workmen's Compensation Insurance in Texas
The problem of this study is to record the evolution and to determine the present status of workmen's compensation insurance in Texas.
Evolution and the Relationship between Brain and Mind States
Article discussing the phylogenetic basis of states of consciousness, and presenting the central theses of monism and dualism, in which near-death experiences (NDEs) enjoy very different ontological statuses.
Evolution in Theory and Practice of Dealing with Retarded Children
This study seeks, through an analytical investigation of educational literature, to discover what has been done in the past and what is now being done in other sections of the country for retarded children in our school population.
Evolution Incidence and Components of U.S. Police Agency Mental Health Services
Postal survey research was conducted between September and November, 1986, to gather information concerning the evolution, existence and extent of mental health services available to police personnel. Questionnaires were mailed to all 366 municipal, county, and state police agencies in the United States that employed 200 or more workers. Usable data were obtained from 76.8% of the agencies surveyed. Of the 281 respondents who returned usable data, 65.1% reported the existence of mental health services available to their police personnel. The majority of respondents (58.6%) perceived their mental health programs as being equally reactive and preventive in orientation. The most frequently reported existing components were outside agency counseling, stress management seminars, and testing of potential police recruits. Over half (54.8%) of the responding police agencies reported having between 10 and 19 components in their respective mental health programs. The implementation dates and evolution of twenty-five (25) components were examined, and specific components of various police agencies were also revealed. The majority of respondents (70.7%) reported their mental health programs were available to sworn and nonsworn personnel and their families. Almost all respondents (98.3%) viewed their programs as being cost effective. Also, most agencies were satisfied with the four treatment resources listed, which included in-house counseling, outside agency counseling, hospital in-patient programs, and alcohol/drug rehabilitation centers. Slightly over half (50.8%) of the respondents stated their service programs were entitled "Employee Assistance Program." Of the 300 staff workers holding mental health degrees, 101 were reported to have doctoral degrees in psychology. The most frequently reported personality theory utilized by staff members was eclecticism (48.5%). The prevailing high interest in police mental health services is discussed as well as possible reasons why some police managers may be apathetic towards the implementation of such services. Ways of educating police managers as to the benefits of police mental health programs are listed as well as topics for future research.
Evolution, Not Revolution: The Effect of New Deal Legislation on Industrial Growth and Union Development in Dallas, Texas
The New Deal legislation of the 1930s would threaten Dallas' peaceful industrial appearance. In fact, New Deal programs and legislation did have an effect on the city, albeit an unbalanced mixture of positive and negative outcomes characterized by frustrated workers and industrial intimidation. To summarize, the New Deal did not bring a revolution, but it did continue an evolutionary change for reform. This dissertation investigated several issues pertaining to the development of the textile industry, cement industry, and the Ford automobile factory in Dallas and its labor history before, during, and after the New Deal. New Deal legislation not only created an avenue for industrial workers to achieve better representation but also improved their working conditions. Specifically focusing on the textile, cement, and automobile industries illustrates that the development of union representation is a spectrum, with one end being the passive but successful cement industry experience and the other end being the automobile industry union efforts, which were characterized by violence and intimidation. These case studies illustrate the changing relationship between Dallas labor and the federal government as well as their local management. Challenges to the open shop movement in Dallas occurred before the creation of the New Deal, but it was New Deal legislation that encouraged union developers to recruit workers actively in Dallas. Workers' demands, New Deal industrial regulations, and union activism created a more urban, modern Dallas that would be solidified through the industrial demands for World War II.
The Evolution of AIDS as Subject Matter in Select American Dramas
Dramatic works from America with AIDS as subject matter have evolved over the past twenty years. In the early 1980s, dramas like Larry Kramer's The Normal Heart, William Hoffman's As Is, and Robert Chesley's Night Sweat educated primarily homosexual men about AIDS, its causes, and its effects on the gay community while combating the dominant discourse promoted by the media, government, and medical establishments that AIDS was either unimportant because it affected primarily the homosexual population or because it was attributed to lack of personal responsibility. By the mid-eighties and early nineties, playwrights Terrence McNally (Love! Valour! Compassion!)and Paul Rudnick (Jeffrey)concentrated on relationships between sero-discordant homosexual couples. McNally's "Andre's Mother" and Lips Together, Teeth Apart explored how families and friends face the loss of a loved one to AIDS. Tony Kushner's Pulitzer Prize-winning Angels in America epic represents living beyond AIDS as a powerful force. Without change and progress, Angels warns, life stagnates. Angels also introduces the powerful drugs that help alleviate the symptoms of AIDS. AIDS is the centerpiece of the epic, and AIDS and homosexuality are inextricably blended in the play. Rent, the Pulitzer Prize-winning musical by Jonathan Larson, features characters from an assortment of ethnic and social backgrounds - including heterosexuals, homosexuals, bi-sexuals, some with AIDS, some AIDS-free, some drug users - all living through the diverse troubles visited upon them at the turn of the millennium in the East Village of New York City. AIDS is not treated as "special," nor are people with AIDS pandered to. Instead, the characters take what life gives them, and they live fully, because there is "no day but today" ("Finale"). Rent's audiences are as varied as the American population, because it portrays metaphorically what so many Americans face daily - not AIDS per se, but other difficult life problems, including self-alienation. As such, Rent defies the dominant discourse because the community portrayed in Rent is the American community.
The Evolution of Capital Formation Theory
The various aspects of a social science ramify closely with one another, and so it will be necessary to inspect certain economic theories rather extensively in search of their meaningful connection with the word "capital." However, the major purpose here will be an examination of the use and potential logical use of the terms "capital" and "capital formation."
The Evolution of Capitalist Values
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The Evolution of Certain Common Hand Tools Used in Woodwork
The purpose of this study is to present in narrative form a discussion of the evolution of hand tools employed in woodwork. The purpose is to make this treatment as concise as possible, and at the same time to depict in some detail a comprehensive analysis of the topic under consideration.
The Evolution of Dexter and Me
The Evolution of Dexter and Me is a collection of one vignette and four short stories. All of the stories deal with young men figuring out and coping with their daily life and environment. The "Dexter stories" deal with a character I developed and evolved, Dexter, a sane young man trying to find the best way to cope in an insane system.
The Evolution of Doors and Doorways
It has been desired that this work will provide interested students informative reading concerning doorways as a part of architecture. It is hoped that it will be a literary contribution to the beginning architectural student and that he study will provide a point of interest for the further study of architecture and its many elements.
The Evolution of Educational Philosophy Underlying the Modern Program of Industrial Arts with Particular Emphasis upon the Contributions of John Locke
This thesis is a study of the evolution of educational philosophy underlying the modern program of industrial arts with particular emphasis upon the contributions of John Locke. The problem is limited to the study of the philosophy and theories of Locke with a brief coverage of Greek, [mediaeval], and modern periods of philosophy. It is impossible to cover in detail all the works of the three historical periods. Only the important general aspects which have a direct bearing on Locke and his influence upon industrial arts are discussed in detail in this study.
The Evolution of Form
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A craftsman’s work evolves with time, new forms arise and old forms become more refined. This research attempts to study the evolution of pots over a designated period of time. The key findings include that the approach to glazing was relatively unchanged by the evolution in the work. However,the refinements that occurred in the work allowed the glazes to impart wonderful characteristics to the forms on which they are used.
The Evolution of Gentility in Eighteenth-Century England and Colonial Virginia
This study analyzes the impact of eighteenth-century commercialization on the evolution of the English and southern American landed classes with regard to three genteel leadership qualities--education, vocation, and personal characteristics. A simultaneous comparison provides a clearer view of how each adapted, or failed to adapt, to the social and economic change of the period. The analysis demonstrates that the English gentry did not lose a class struggle with the commercial ranks as much as they were overwhelmed by economic changes they could not understand. The southern landed class established an economy based on production of cash crops and thus adapted better to a commercial economy. The work addresses the development of class-consciousness in England and the origins of Virginia's landed class.
The Evolution of Musical Pitch Standards
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The Evolution of Publishing Agreements at the University of Michigan
Article on the evolution of publishing agreements at the University of Michigan Library. Taking as an example an open-access journal with a single editor, this article discusses the various configurations of rights agreements used by the University of Michigan Library throughout the evolution of its publishing operation, the advantages of the various models, and the reasons for moving from one to another.
The Evolution of Publishing Agreements at the University of Michigan Library
Book chapter on the evolution of publishing agreements at the University of Michigan Library. Taking as an example an open-access journal with a single editor, this chapter discusses the various configurations of rights agreements used by the University of Michigan Library throughout the evolution of its publishing operation, the advantages of the various models, and the reasons for moving from one to another.
The Evolution of Survival as Theme in Contemporary Native American Literature: from Alienation to Laughter
With the publication of his Pulitzer Prize winning novel, House Made of Dawn. N. Scott Momaday ended a three-decade hiatus in the production of works written by Native American writers, and contributed to the renaissance of a rich literature. The critical acclaim that the novel received helped to establish Native American literature as a legitimate addition to American literature at large and inspired other Native Americans to write. Contemporary Native American literature from 1969 to 1974 focuses on the themes of the alienated mixed-blood protagonist and his struggle to survive, and the progressive return to a forgotten or rejected Indian identity. For example, works such as Leslie Silko's Ceremony and James Welch's Winter in the Blood illustrate this dual focal point. As a result, scholarly attention on these works has focused on the theme of struggle to the extent that Native American literature can be perceived as necessarily presenting victimized characters. Yet, Native American literature is essentially a literature of survival and continuance, and not a literature of defeat. New writers such as Louise Erdrich, Hanay Geiogamah, and Simon Ortiz write to celebrate their Indian heritage and the survival of their people, even though they still use the themes of alienation and struggle. The difference lies in what they consider to be the key to survival: humor. These writers posit that in order to survive, Native Americans must learn to laugh at themselves and at their fate, as well as at those who have victimized them through centuries of oppression. Thus, humor becomes a coping mechanism that empowers Native Americans and brings them from survival to continuance.