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Nanoscale Materials Applications: Thermoelectrical, Biological, and Optical Applications with Nanomanipulation Technology
In a sub-wavelength scale, even approaching to the atomic scale, nanoscale physics shows various novel phenomena. Since it has been named, nanoscience and nanotechnology has been employed to explore and exploit this small scale world. For example, with various functionalized features, nanowire (NW) has been making its leading position in the researches of physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering as a miniaturized building block. Its individual characteristic shows superior and unique features compared with its bulk counterpart. As one part of these research efforts and progresses, and with a part of the fulfillment of degree study, novel methodologies and device structures in nanoscale were devised and developed to show the abilities of high performing thermoelectrical, biological, and optical applications. A single β-SiC NW was characterized for its thermoelectric properties (thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and figure of merit) to compare with its bulk counterpart. The combined structure of Ag NW and ND was made to exhibit its ability of clear imaging of a fluorescent cell. And a plasmonic nanosture of silver (Ag) nanodot array and a β-SiC NW was fabricated to show a high efficient light harvesting device that allows us to make a better efficient solar cell. Novel nanomanipulation techniques were developed and employed in order to fabricate all of these measurement platforms. Additionally, one of these methodological approaches was used to successfully isolate a few layer graphene.
Naphth [2,3-d] Imidazoline-2,4,9-Triones
The study of some acylurea derivatives of 2-amino-3-alkylamino- and -3-arylamino-1,4-naphthoquinones was undertaken to determine the course of reaction under conditions similar to those used by J. R. Hoover and A. R. Day to prepare 2-alkyl-1H-naphth[2,3-d] imidazole-4.9-diones from 2-acylamino-3-amino-1,4-naphthoquinones.
Naphthoquinone Studies
This thesis describes a series of naphthoquinone reactions employing pyridine carboxylic acid derivatives (nicotinic acid derivatives). The products of these reactions will be tested by Parke, Davis and Company for their activity against the tubercle bacillus and other pathogenic microorganisms.
The Napoleonic Wars in the English Novel, 1820-1880
This thesis is a study of the novelists of the Peninsular and Waterloo campaigns (veterans and non-veterans), the novelists of the naval war, and the novelists of the home front in the Napoleonic Wars.
Narcissistic traits and parenting style: A closer look at maladaptive parenting through parent-child observations, parent self-report, and child self-report.
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The thrust of this paper was two-fold, 1) to confirm a 2-factor model of narcissism in women, and 2) to examine the relationship between narcissistic traits in mothers and several variables associated with parenting efficacy. Participants included 193 mother-child dyads. A 2-factor model of narcissism was confirmed in the present sample of mothers, suggesting that narcissistic traits in women may be manifested in distinct Overt and Covert forms. Contrary to expectations, Covert Narcissistic traits in mothers did not significantly correlate with observed parenting behaviors on the PCIA, including Positive Personal Comments (PPC) towards children, Negative Personal Comments (NPC), and Parental Nurturance. However, children's self-reported maternal rejection on the C-PARQ correlated positively with Covert Narcissistic traits in mothers, as did mother's self-reported dysfunctional parenting attitudes on the AAPI-2. Narcissistic traits in mothers correlated most strongly with risk of child physical abuse on the CAPI (r = .70). Results are also presented for the Overt Narcissism factor, which proved to be less stable as a factor. Overall, results emphasize the need for a more comprehensive understanding of narcissism for women, given its potential Implications for children's healthy development and parenting interventions.
A Narrative Analysis of Korematsu v. United States
This thesis studies the Supreme Court decision, Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944) and its historical context, using a narrative perspective and reviewing aspects of narrative viewpoints with reference to legal studies in order to introduce the present study as a method of assessing narratives in legal settings. The study reviews the Supreme Court decision to reveal its arguments and focuses on the context of the case through the presentation of the public story, the institutional story, and the ethnic Japanese story, which are analyzed using Walter Fisher's narrative perspective. The study concludes that the narrative paradigm is useful for assessing stories in the law because it enables the critic to examine both the emotional and logical reasoning that determine the outcomes of the cases.
The Narrative Art of Edgar Allan Poe
This thesis is focused on the motivations and influences on the writings of Edgar Allan Poe. Poe's work and letters are used to support the hypothesis that his work resulted from a desire to be recognized.
A Narrative Herstory of Women's Studies at the University of North Texas
In the late 1960's the academic field of Women's Studies was created to give women a more equal education and a more accurate reflection of their history and impact on society. At the University of North Texas the effort to implement Women's Studies was not begun seriously until the late 1980's. This paper covers the effort to establish Women's Studies at UNT. My thesis is that this has been a grassroots effort led by professors and students who succeeded not only in establishing Women's Studies but also in changing the face and feeling of the University, creating a more positive environment for women. The bulk of the paper is made up of narrative selections drawn from oral history interviews with key individuals.
Narrative Issues
This thesis covers a series of etchings created between 1998 and 2000 in completion of the requirements for graduation. The paper covers the origins and implications of the symbology within the artwork as well as the natural settings displayed. It also speaks of the mythos of art and symbols, as well as my strategy in Art making.
The Narrator of the Short Poetry of Thomas Hardy
Throughout the poetry of Thomas Hardy, excluding The Dynasts, there reappears a characteristic and constant narrator device which Hardy employs to force the reader to maintain perspective and objectivity upon the action of the poems and to provide a framework of attitudes and conclusions by which the reader can judge the content of the poems.
Nathaniel Hawthorne's Use of Witch and Devil Lore
Nathaniel Hawthorne's personal family history, his boyhood in the Salem area of New England, and his reading of works about New England's Puritan era influenced his choice of witch and Devil lore as fictional material. The witchcraft trials in Salem were evidence (in Hawthorne's interpretation) of the errors of judgment and popular belief which are ever-present in the human race. He considered the witch and Devil doctrine of the seventeenth century to be indicative of the superstition, fear, and hatred which governs the lives of men even in later centuries. From the excesses of the witch-hunt period of New England history Hawthorne felt moral lessons could be derived.
National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program Report to Congress: An Integrated Assessment
This report presents scientific analysis of the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of federal programming to reduce acid rain.
A national analysis of faculty salary and benefits in public community colleges, academic year 2003-2004.
This study provides a detailed description of full-time faculty salary and fringe benefits in US public community colleges by state and by 2005 Carnegie basic classification type for the academic year 2003-2004. This classification is used to analyze data from the National Center for Education Statistics' Integrated Postsecondary Educational Data System (IPEDS). Further analysis clusters states into the following groupings: states with/without collective bargaining agreements, states with/without local appropriations, large megastates versus nonmegastates (using the methodology developed by Grapevine at Illinois State University), and the impact of California on the nation's salaries and fringe benefits. The analysis showed high level of variation of salaries paid by the type of community college (rural, suburban, and urban serving) in the US. The nation's average salary for full-time faculty was $52,598. Rural serving small institutions faculty salary was $18,754 or 45 % less than the nation's average. Salaries in colleges with collective bargaining agreement were higher than in colleges without collective bargaining agreements. Faculty teaching in suburban serving colleges with local taxation had the highest salaries, $61,822 within colleges with access to local support. Suburban serving multiple colleges in megastates had the highest faculty salary average, $64,540 as compared to $42,263 for rural serving colleges in non-megastates. California may be a state with a very high cost of living; however, that does not diminish the fact that community college faculty are among the highest paid faculty in the nation. Colleges with collective bargaining agreements, with local appropriations, and in megastates, tended to have better benefits packages for their faculty. This study includes recommendations for further research, including a recommendation that a quantitative statistical analysis be undertaken to show statistical significance in salaries and fringe benefits among collective and non-collective bargaining states, a study addressing the faculty and leadership challenges that community colleges will be facing soon should be done, and that a similar study be done that includes tribal colleges.
National Cycling Promotion Austrian Masterplan for Cycling and Action Programme klima:aktiv mobil
Cycling is an environmentally friendly, economical beneficial and health promoting means of transport, a quick alternative for short trips, space-saving and above all.
National Defense Training Programs of the Federal Security Agency in Texas
It is the purpose of this thesis to give the reader a picture of the labor shortage hampering the Defense Production Program, to describe the structure and development of the corporate plan for the National Defense Training Programs conducted by the Federal Security Agency for Texas, to evaluate the effectiveness of this plan, and, in conclusion, to point out such developments as might possibly effect our general educational systems.
The National Eleventh Five-year Plan for Environmental Protection(2006-2010)
The current plan is formulated on the basis of the Outline of the 11th Five-Year Plan for the Development of National Economy and Social Development and the Decision of the State Council on the Implementation of the Scientific Outlook on Development and Strengthening Environmental Protection [No.39 document of the State Council (2005)]. The current plan is an important part of the national 11th Five-Year Plan system, and aims at expounding the objectives, tasks, investments, and key policy measures in the field of environmental protection during the 11th Five-Year Plan period. The plan identifies the responsibilities and tasks of the government and the environmental protection departments at all levels, guiding and mobilizing the participation of enterprises and civil society and striving for environmentally friendly society.
The National Environmental Policy Act: A Study of Its Effectiveness After Twenty-five Years
This report provides a detailed perspective on how the National Environmental Policy Act has affected federal agency decision making. The report summarizes how the Act has been implemented, how federal agency performance aligns with the intent of NEPA's framers, reactions from the public, NEPA stakeholders, and federal decision makers, and future challenges with ensuring the Act's continued effectiveness.
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was one of the first laws ever written that establishes the broad national framework for protecting our environment. NEPA's basic policy is to assure that all branches of government give proper consideration to the environment prior to undertaking any major federal action that significantly affects the environment. NEPA requirements are invoked when airports, buildings, military complexes, highways, parkland purchases, and other federal activities are proposed. Environmental Assessments (EAs) and Environmental Impact Statements (EISs), which are assessments of the likelihood of impacts from alternative courses of action, are required from all Federal agencies and are the most visible NEPA requirements.
National Gaming Day: Planning a successful gaming event
This presentation discusses the American Library Association's (ALA's) National Gaming Day @ your library, a fairly new event created to promote the "educational, recreational, and social value of all types of games". The University of North Texas (UNT) Library has participated for two years and has organized their event to offer fun along with a focus on research and development opportunities available for people interested in all aspects of gaming. In this presentation, the authors detail the planning and organization of National Gaming Day at an academic library.
The National Labor Relations Board's Interpretation of Interference, Restraint and Coercion
This study will endeavor to present an analysis of the process in which the National Labor Relations Board gave specific meaning to "interfere with, restrain or coerce" found in section 8(1) of the National Labor Relations Act of 1935. Under Section 8(1) of the Act, the Labor Board, subject to judicial review, has the authority to declare illegal any management procedure which in its opinion involves interference, restraint or coercion.
A National Overview of Intercollegiate Athletics at Public Community Colleges
This dissertation explores the topic of intercollegiate athletics at public community colleges in the United States. This study is national in scope and includes members of the three major community college athletic associations: the National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA), Commission on Athletics (COA), and the Northwest Athletic Association for Community Colleges (NWAACC). Community colleges that were not members of any of these organizations are also included. The sources of data are the Institutional Postsecondary Educational Data System (IPEDS) surveys as well as Equity in Athletic Disclosure Act (EADA) survey data and the Katsinas Community College Classification Scheme. The population for this study was the 567 public community colleges which submitted IPEDS data in 2001 and 2002 and EADA data in 2002. The geographic classification scheme for public community colleges used in this study revealed differences in the role of athletics in rural, suburban, and urban colleges. Rural community colleges place a larger emphasis on intercollegiate athletics. Urban colleges had a lesser emphasis on intercollegiate athletics. Topics that are examined include the extent of college sponsorship of athletics, athletic associations, student participation, sport sponsorship, athletically-related aid, divisions of competition, athletic revenues and expenses, state reimbursement, recruitment expenses, and staffing requirements. The dissertation includes six findings and four conclusions. There are fifteen recommendations for further research and eight recommendations for practice. Maps showing the locations of teams for each men's and women's sport played in the NJCAA, COA, and NWAACC are included in an appendix.
National Patterns and Community Impacts of Major Domestic U.S. Military Base Closures, 1988-present
This thesis analyses major U.S. military bases closed by the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission since 1988. The study focuses on geographic patterns of pre-existing versus BRAC bases, statistical attributes, environmental restoration, and reuse of bases. Comparative case studies supplement the analysis, highlighting rural versus urban location, success versus failure, politics, conflict, and local versus national goals. Thesis findings are that: 92 bases closed versus 97 commonly published; a fairly even national closure pattern occurred, indicating Commission efforts to achieve equity, except for three closure clusters indicating efforts to consolidate functions in some regions and leave others; base reuse, while commonly perceived negatively, has been positive in most cases; the BRAC process is becoming more efficient, such that allowed years between BRAC closure decisions and base closures should be reduced from six to three years to benefit both communities and the Defense Department.
National Plant Genome Initiative
This report is an update on progress of federal plant genome research. The focus in this report is on plants that are economically important to agribusiness.
National Policies and Their Linkages to Negotiations Over a Future International Climate Change Agreement
Developing country policy makers will need to consider the national policy instruments they will need to contribute to the fight against climate change. As discussions on the international level are underway through the Bali Road Map, a national level discussion can help governments reflect on the types of policies they should use, as well as how to seek internal and external financial resources and how to reflect their views in the negotiations of a future climate change agreement. There is a rich array of policy instruments being used by developing countries to achieve national objectives, such as improving local air pollution and reducing poverty. Most of these policies also reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. These policies, measures and instruments include: regulations and standards, taxes and charges, tradable permits, voluntary agreements, informational instruments, subsidies and incentives, research and development, and trade and development assistance. Depending on the legal frameworks available to countries, these may be implemented nationally, regionally or locally. They may be supplemented with rules, guidelines and other administrative mechanisms to achieve different goals. They may be legally binding or voluntary and they may be fixed or changeable.
The National Policy toward Reclamation and Conservation of Natural Resources since 1900
This thesis presents the history of conservation and reclamation of the natural resources of the United States in the areas of soil conservation, forestry and grazing, wildlife and scenic beauty, minerals, and water power.
National Promotion of Western Roads and Canals, 1785-1830
This thesis discusses the development of roads and canals as a means of transportation and communication in the years following the Revolutionary War.
National Status of Data Management: The DataRes and CLIR/Sloan Research Projects on Data Management Policies and Practices
Presentation discussing the DataRes and the CLIR/Sloan Research Projects on data management policies and practices. This presentation discusses these two collaborating projects researching emerging policies and practices in data management. These research projects are being undertaken by the Council on Library and Information Resources and the University of North Texas (UNT).
A National Survey to Analyze the Prevailing Approaches to Elementary School Guidance
The problem of this study was to analyze the prevailing approaches to elementary school guidance in the United States.
The National Tenth Five-Year Plan for Environmental Protection(Abstract)
The State Council approved the National Tenth Five-Year Plan for Environmental Protection on 26 December 2001, requesting that loca1 governments and the various departments strengthen environmental protection in close relation with the economic restructuring; raise funds for environmental protection through multiple channels in connection with the expansion of domestic demand, and establish the mechanism of environmental protection with the government playing the dominant role with market promotion and public participation. The State Council emphasizes that local governments should undertake the major responsibilities of environmental protection. The governments at various levels should integrate the tasks of the Plan into the target responsibility system for provincial governors, mayors, and county heads. Periodic examination should be carried out on the targets of total pollutant discharge control and environmental quality. The implementation of the Plan should be inspected and reported on every year. The State Council requests that the relevant departments should provide guidance and support in implementing the Plan according to their respective responsibilities. The State Environmental Protection Administration should conduct coordinated supervision, management, and inspection of the implementation of the Plan.
Native American Elements in Piano Repertoire by the Indianist and Present-Day Native American Composers
My paper defines and analyzes the use of Native American elements in classical piano repertoire that has been composed based on Native American tribal melodies, rhythms, and motifs. First, a historical background and survey of scholarly transcriptions of many tribal melodies, in chapter 1, explains the interest generated in American indigenous music by music scholars and composers. Chapter 2 defines and illustrates prominent Native American musical elements. Chapter 3 outlines the timing of seven factors that led to the beginning of a truly American concert idiom, music based on its own indigenous folk material. Chapter 4 analyzes examples of Native American inspired piano repertoire by the "Indianist" composers between 1890-1920 and other composers known primarily as "mainstream" composers. Chapter 5 proves that the interest in Native American elements as compositional material did not die out with the end of the "Indianist" movement around 1920, but has enjoyed a new creative activity in the area called "Classical Native" by current day Native American composers. The findings are that the creative interest and source of inspiration for the earlier "Indianist" compositions was thought to have waned in the face of so many other American musical interests after 1920, but the tradition has recently taken a new direction with the success of many new Native American composers who have an intrinsic commitment to see it succeed as a category of classical repertoire. Native American musical elements have been misunderstood for many years due to differences in systems of notation and cultural barriers. The ethnographers and Indianist composers, though criticized for creating a paradox, in reality are the ones who saved the original tribal melodies and created the perpetual interest in Native American music as a thematic resource for classical music repertoire, in particular piano repertoire.
Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop Final Report: Circles of Wisdom
The Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop was held on October 28 through November 01, 1998, as part of a series of workshops being held around the U.S. to improve the understanding of the potential consequences of climate variability and change for the Nation. This workshop was specifically designed by Native Peoples to examine the impacts of climate change and extreme weather variability on Native Peoples and Native Homelands from an indigenous cultural and spiritual perspective and to develop recommendations as well as identify potential response actions. Native Peoples, with our spiritual traditions and long community histories of change, adaptation, and survival in specific regions, are providing a unique contribution to the assessment and understanding of climate change as well as to the development of sustainable economies in this country.
The Nativity Panel of Isenheim Altarpiece and its relationship to the Sermo Angelicus of St. Birgitta of Sweden
This thesis explores the relationship of the Sermo Angelicus of St. Birgitta of Sweden, written in the fourteenth century, with the Nativity/Concert of Angels panel of the Isenheim Altarpiece, painted by Matthias Grunewald in 1514 for a hospital and monastery run by the Antonite Order. Taking into consideration the context of the altarpiece, this thesis analyzes its iconography in relation to specific passages from the Sermo Angelicus, suggesting that the text was a possible source used by the Antonites in the Nativity/Concert of Angels panel. By doing so, parallel themes of salvation in both the text and the panel are discovered that in turn relate to the altarpiece in its entirety and present a message fashioned specifically for those patients at the hospital at Isenheim that viewed the altarpiece.
Natural Allies: Engaging Civil Society in UNEP's Work
This publication is intended to catalyze social and political change in order to improve resource efficiency and reduce emissions.
Natural concepts in the domestic dog.
The current study investigated concept formation in domestic dogs, specifically that of a toy concept. The dog's differential responding (retrieval vs. non-retrieval) to two sets of stimuli suggested a toy concept. Differential responding occurred from the very first trial, indicating that the concept had been formed in the natural environment, not during the experiment. It was hypothesized that a common response may be responsible for the emergence of the class in the natural environment. The results demonstrated that it was possible to expand the class by adding previously non-retrieved objects to the toy class through a common response. It was also shown that the toy concept passed the more stringent criterion (transfer of function test) required validating it as a concept.
Natural Course of Adolescent Insomnia: Patterns and Consequences
Approximately 2-11% of adolescents report chronic insomnia. The study used an archival data set from ADDHealth that assessed adolescent health and health-related behaviors. Adolescents (N = 4102) provided data at baseline (Time 1) and at 1-year follow-up (Time 2). Participants were excluded if no ethnicity, gender, or insomnia data were given at Time 1 or 2. Females were more likely to report insomnia than males at Times 1 and 2. In addition, adolescents with remitted insomnia were significantly younger than adolescents without insomnia at Times 1 and 2. Analyses found a prevalence of 9.6%, a remittance of 6.2%, an incidence of 4.4%, and a chronicity of 2.9%. At Time 1 and 2, AWI were significantly more likely to have depression, suicidal behaviors, and behavioral problems in school than AWOI. At Time 2, incidence and chronic insomnia increased the risk of depression, suicidal behaviors and behavioral problems in school. Risk and protective factors analyses indicated psychological counseling was associated with both remitted and chronic insomnia and depression was associated with incidence insomnia.
Natural Language Interfaces to Databases
Natural language interfaces to databases (NLIDB) are systems that aim to bridge the gap between the languages used by humans and computers, and automatically translate natural language sentences to database queries. This thesis proposes a novel approach to NLIDB, using graph-based models. The system starts by collecting as much information as possible from existing databases and sentences, and transforms this information into a knowledge base for the system. Given a new question, the system will use this knowledge to analyze and translate the sentence into its corresponding database query statement. The graph-based NLIDB system uses English as the natural language, a relational database model, and SQL as the formal query language. In experiments performed with natural language questions ran against a large database containing information about U.S. geography, the system showed good performance compared to the state-of-the-art in the field.
The Natural Learning Process and Its Implications for Trombone Pedagogy
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This thesis considers the natural learning process as defined by Timothy Gallwey and Daniel Kohut. This learning theory is examined and applied to trombone pedagogy while also considering physiological attributes to trombone performance. a brief synopsis of the history and lineage of the trombone is considered in order to understand the current setting of the trombone medium.
Natural Smooth Measures on the Leaves of the Unstable Manifold of Open Billiard Dynamical Systems
In this paper, we prove, for a certain class of open billiard dynamical systems, the existence of a family of smooth probability measures on the leaves of the dynamical system's unstable manifold. These measures describe the conditional asymptotic behavior of forward trajectories of the system. Furthermore, properties of these families are proven which are germane to the PYC programme for these systems. Strong sufficient conditions for the uniqueness of such families are given which depend upon geometric properties of the system's phase space. In particular, these results hold for a fairly nonrestrictive class of triangular configurations of scatterers.
Natural Solutions: Protected areas helping people cope with climate change
This report provides an exhaustive overview of the literature regarding the role protected areas play in reducing emissions from land use change, and sustaining ecosystem services that will be vital to reducing the vulnerability of humans to climate change. Section 3, Adaptation – The role of protected areas, looks at reducing the impacts of natural disasters, safeguarding water, addressing health issues and biodiversity conservation and maintaining ecosystem resilience.
Naturalism in the Novels of Theodore Dreiser
The author's purpose has been to trace in a very broad and general manner the trend of naturalism up to this point where the central figure of our study, Theodore Dreiser, enters into the picture. This survey is designed primarily to give the reader an indication of what naturalism is, both in philosophy and method, and a very brief historical background of the movement.
The Naturalist
The Naturalist is a collection of poems with a critical preface. In this preface, titled "'Death is the mother of beauty': The Contemporary Elegy and the Search for the Dead," I examine contemporary alterations and manifestations of the traditional genre of elegy. I explore the idea that the contemporary mourner is aware of the need to search for meaning despite living in a world without a centrally believed mythology. This search exposes the mourner's need to remain connected to the dead and, by proxy, to grace. I conclude that the contemporary elegy, through metaphorical figuration, personal memory, and traditional symbolism, simultaneously employs and denies the traditional elegiac conventions of apotheosis and resurrection by reconceiving them as methods not of achieving transcendence but of embracing desire with an acceptance of the inability to transcend. The poems of The Naturalist are a collection of elegies that reflect many of the ideas brought forth in the preface.
The Naturalistic Technique of John O'Hara
The thesis of this paper on John O'Hara is that certain of his novels contain sufficient characteristics of literary naturalism to reward a study of them from that perspective. In part, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate O'Hara's merits and, hopefully, to enhance his reputation as a writer of literary worth by viewing his novels from the proper perspective.
The Nature and Degree of Feminine Influence on English Politics from 1702 to 1737, as Exemplified by Five Women
This investigation is concerned with the amount of influence which women had on English politics at the close of the seventeenth century and during the early eighteenth century. Generally, it is assumed that women played a negligible part in politics until the twentieth century; a critical study of the Augustan period, however, shows this to be an invalid assumption. Women were, during that period, elevated to positions of leadership and ascendancy unparalleled until the twentieth century.
The Nature and Scope of the Treaty-Making Power
It is the purpose of this study to determine the scope of the powers of the national government in view of the existence of the treaty-making power. The primary objective is to determine what strength the internal prohibitions of the Constitution against action by the national government have in the face of the external powers recognized to exist by International Law and the Supreme Court of the United States.
The Nature and the Extent of Errors in Written Language and the Possible Relationship between These Errors and Certain Factors
The purpose of this study is to show possible relationships between certain environmental, personality, and scholastic factors and difficulties in written language.
Nature By Design
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Organic forms representing nature, but not particular species, are combined with elements signifying attitudes toward the natural world with an emphasis on North American culture. The viewer is encouraged to consider human effects on the environment. Aquarium Night Light and Trophy both refer to the human tendency for commercial exploitation coupled with the creation of nature images we sometimes seem to prefer over the reality of the natural world. Reliquary metaphorically connects traditional religious connotations associated with saints' relics to both a biblical injunction to use anything we needed from the natural world and our contemporary belief that exposure to nature can have beneficial effects on human mental, spiritual, and physical health.
Nature in William Cullen Bryant's Poetry
The purpose has been to discover from the study of Bryant's life and poetry the extent to which his work was influenced by nature and how he interpreted it.
The Nature of Individual Differences and Ways of Taking Care of Them, With Emphasis Upon Arithmetic in the Higher Grades at the Elementary Level
The over-all purpose of this study is to determine the ways in which children differ from one another as related to the instructional program in the school, to point out ways of taking care of individual differences in the learning situations in the classroom, and to apply these principles to the teaching and learning of arithmetic in the higher grades at the elementary level.
The Nature of the Group Structure of the Parkland Hospital School of Nursing
This study is designed to investigate the nature of the group structure at the Parkland Hospital School of Nursing, Dallas, Texas.
The nature of the impact of a reading tutoring program on participating students in the classroom: A qualitative study
The purpose of this qualitative multi-case study was to explore the nature of the impact that a tutoring program, which featured preservice teachers as tutors, had on participating fifth grade at-risk students’ literacy behaviors in the classroom.The researcher served in the role of passive participant observer during the scheduled language arts period three days per week in the participating students’ classroom for a period of twenty-three weeks. Field notes were made in the classroom and coded, and audio tapes were recorded and transcribed of the tutoring sessions. Formal and informal interviews with the teacher, tutors, and participating students were conducted, transcribed, and coded. Lesson plans and reflections developed and written by the tutors were gathered and coded. Observations indicated that there were four types of reading required on a daily basis in the classroom. Assigned readings made by the teacher included narrative and expository texts. Pleasure readings were materials chosen by the students, but at certain times were teacher initiated and at other times, student initiated. The four types of reading found in the classroom were mirrored by the tutoring sessions. Students observed in the classroom could be divided into two types and four categories. Those with positive attitudes were called eager readers. Eager readers were made up of good readers and struggling readers, who lacked some of the reading skills possessed by good readers. Reluctant readers were the second type and had either ambiguous or explicitly negative attitudes toward reading. The type of reader, together with the type of reading required, determined the success of the tutoring sessions. The results of the data analysis show that student motivation toward reading was a key factor in determining the success of the tutoring program. Two of the three student participants in the study reported learning skills in the tutoring program that they used in other contexts.