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An Empirical Investigation of Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference Test with Variance Heterogeneity and Equal Sample Sizes, Utilizing Box's Coefficient of Variance Variation
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An Empirical Investigation of Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference Test with Variance Heterogeneity and Unequal Sample Sizes, Utilizing Kramer's Procedure and the Harmonic Mean
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Empirical Research of Decision-making Effectiveness When Using Differing Presentation Formats Under Varying Decision Tasks
The purpose of this research was to determine if presentation format, given a particular task to be performed, would affect the decision-making process of financial decision makers. The problem motivating this study is the potential for managers to make inefficient decisions when they use reports which are presented inappropriately for a given task.
An Empirical Study of Financial Analysts' Valuations Using Proposed Disclosures About Oil and Gas Producing Activities
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An Empirical Study of How Novice Programmers Use the Web
Students often use the web as a source of help for problems that they encounter on programming assignments.In this work, we seek to understand how students use the web to search for help on their assignments.We used a mixed methods approach with 344 students who complete a survey and 41 students who participate in a focus group meetings and helped in recording data about their search habits.The survey reveals data about student reported search habits while the focus group uses a web browser plug-in to record actual search patterns.We examine the results collectively and as broken down by class year.Survey results show that at least 2/3 of the students from each class year rely on search engines to locate resources for help with their programming bugs in at least half of their assignments;search habits vary by class year;and the value of different types of resources such as tutorials and forums varies by class year.Focus group results exposes the high frequency web sites used by the students in solving their programming assignments.
An Empirical Study of Quality and Satisfaction with a Focus on Creating a Parsimonious Measurement Instrument in an Information Space
Student satisfaction and service quality are interrelated constructs that are associated with improving student retention. This research investigated the relationships between these constructs in the context of an institution of higher education as an information system and sought to reduce the dimensionality of what have traditionally been considered orthogonal factors of these constructs in order to produce a parsimonious model and survey instrument that may be useful in assessing and predicting overall student satisfaction and overall service quality. The methods of analysis used in this study are quantitative in nature and included the use of descriptive univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses; exploratory factor analysis to examine latent dimensions within the data; and multiple linear regressions to measure the predictive efficacy of combinations of variables with respect to overall student satisfaction and overall service quality. It was hypothesized that the statistical treatment of the data would show that some dimensions routinely collapse, leading to possible valuable theoretical implications.
An Empirical Study of Software Debugging Games with Introductory Students
Bug Fixer is a web-based application that complements lectures with hands-on exercises that encourage students to think about the logic in programs. Bug Fixer presents students with code that has several bugs that they must fix. The process of fixing the bugs forces students to conceptually think about the code and reinforces their understanding of the logic behind algorithms. In this work, we conducted a study using Bug Fixer with undergraduate students in the CSCE1040 course at University of North Texas to evaluate whether the system increases their conceptual understanding of the algorithms and improves their Software Testing skills. Students participated in weekly activities to fix bugs in code. Most students enjoyed Bug Fixer and recommend the system for future use. Students typically reported a better understanding of the algorithms used in class. We observed a slight increase of passing grades for students who participated in our study compared to students in other sections of the course with the same instructor who did not participate in our study. The students who did not report a positive experience provide comments for future improvements that we plan to address in future work.
An Empirical Study of the Causes of Military Coups and the Consequences of Military Rule in the Third World: 1960-1985
This study analyzed the causes of military coups and the consequences of military rule in the Third World during the 1960-1985 period. Using a coup d" etat score, including both successful and unsuccessful coups, as a dependent variable and collecting data for 109 developing nations from the World Handbook of Political and Social Indicators, The New York Times Index, and public documents, sixteen hypotheses derived from the literature on the causes of military coups were tested by both simple and multiple regression models for the Third World as a whole, as well as for four regions (Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East and North Africa) and in two time periods (1960-1970 and 1971-1985). Similarly, three models of military rule (progressive, Huntington's, and revisionist models) were analyzed to assess the consequences of military rule. The results of the study concerning the causes of military coups suggest four conclusions. First, three independent variables (social mobilization, cultural homogeneity, and dominant ethnic groups in the society) have stabilizing consequences. Second, six independent variables (previous coup experience, social mobilization divided by political institutionalization, length of national independence, economic deterioration, internal war, and military dominance) have destabilizing consequences. Third, multiple regression models for each region are very useful; most models explain more than 50% of the variance in military coups. Fourth, the time period covered is an important factor affecting explanations of the causes of military coups. In the analysis of the consequences of military rule, this study found that military governments did not differ significally from civilian governments in terms of economic, education, health, and social performances. However, the study found that military rule decreased political and civil rights. Its findings are thus very consistent with the best of the literature.
An Empirical Study of the Effectiveness of Independence Discrimination Resulting from the Application of Aicpa Ethical Interpretation 101-3--Accounting Services
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An Empirical Study of the Performance of the Unit Commercial Banking System of the State of Texas
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of the Texas unit commercial banking system in comparison with branch banking systems, limited area branching systems, and unit banking systems.
An Empirical Study of Whether the Direct Involvement of Classroom Teachers in the Decision-Making Process of a Public School District in Conjunction with Their Locus of Control Orientation Affects Their Perceptions of Job Satisfaction
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An Empirical Study on the Use of Promotion in Hospitals
The role of marketing and marketing communication in hospitals has grown in the last decade. The need for hospitals to make careful decisions about their marketing communication efforts is mandated, given the changes taking place in the hospital industry. The purpose of this dissertation was to conduct empirical research to determine whether for-profit and non-profit hospitals perceive and utilize promotion as a marketing strategy element. The two steps taken included: identifying important factors considered by hospital administrators and marketing staff in the development of communication messages designed for patients, hospital staff and medical staff; and testing the factors developed and studying the attitudes of hospital personnel toward promotion using a national sample of hospitals. In phase 1, focus group interviews were conducted in a surrogate for-profit hospital and a surrogate non-profit hospital. In phase 2, an original mail questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 80 hospitals. A total of 38 hospitals participated, providing 114 usable responses. Test statistics included content analysis, Chi-Square, Pearson correlation coefficient and Analysis of Variance. The results of the focus group study indicated the practice of marketing in hospitals is in its early growth stages and marketing is viewed as nothing more than advertising and public relations. The results of the mail survey indicated that respondents in small for-profit hospitals with 20 to 30 years of experience as professionals, with key decision making authority, are favorably disposed to marketing and marketing communication. It was also found that respondents in large non-profit hospitals are very positive towards marketing. In contrast, respondents in medium and large for-profit hospitals, who are not directly involved in decision making, tend to be less positive towards marketing. The study serves as a basis for future research which may involve, (1) a larger sample frame, (2) hospitals in inner-city and rural areas, (3) investigation of the association between hospital ownership and hospital efficiency, and (4) development of a profile of respondents by title held, in hospitals.
Empirical Tests of the Signaling and Monitoring Hypotheses for Initial Public Offerings
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The research questions investigated are: 1. Are the expected post-issue fractional holdings of the directors and officers, venture capitalists and institutions signals of firm value? 2. Are the expected post-issue fractional holdings of the directors and officers, venture capitalists and institutions signals of underpricing? and 3. Are the directors and officers, venture capitalists and institutions monitors of IPO investments? The signaling theory developed by Grinblatt and Hwang (1989) (GH) and the monitoring theory for IPO investments have been used to develop the hypotheses for this dissertation. Four factors make my methodology unique. These factors are: 1. I apply and test the GH IPO signaling model over a unique data set collected from the IPO prospectuses, proxy statements and annual reports; 2. I disaggregate the expected post-issue holdings of the different groups of pre-issue blockholders and insiders and hypothesizes that these individual groups represents signals of firm value and underpricing; 3. I hypothesize that these groups, in aggregate and separately, monitor IPO investments over the long term; And 4. I develop signaling and monitoring hypotheses to make predictions at the two stages of the IPO. The results show that firm value is positively related to the level of underpricing, at a given variance of the firms cash flows; the level of underpricing is positively related to the holdings of the directors and officers as a group and the aggregate of the directors and officers, VCs and institutions, at given variances of the firm's cash flows; the firm value is not related to the level of underpricing, at a given level of capital outlay and holdings of either the aggregate blockholders, directors and officers, VCs or institutions. For the monitoring hypotheses, the results show that the long-run buy-and-hold-returns are positively related to the investment bank reputation and the gross spread. Also, the results do not support the theories that the holdings of the VCs, institutions and the aggregate holdings of the different groups, represent the level of monitoring. Therefore, these groups do not increase the value of IPO investments over the long-run.
An Empirically Derived Typology of Single Custodial Fathers: Characteristics and Implications for Role Adjustment
Eighty-seven single custodial fathers were surveyed to test the validity of previously developed typologies and/or construct a more empirically valid framework with implications for adjustment to the role. Mendes1 (1975) aggressive seekers, conciliatory seekers, conciliatory assenters, and aggressive assenters were compared to O'Brien's (1980) hostile seekers, conciliatory negotiators, and passive acceptors. In addition to demographic variables, relationship to ex-wife and child, and reasons for becoming single and obtaining custody, several personality variables were included along with measures of adjustment. One year follow-up measures of adjustment were collected to evaluate implications of typologies in adjustment. Two nearly equal groups were established in a Q type factor analysis of continuous data. Factor loadings of individual cases suggest a continuum of the two types of single fathers, rather than two distinct groups. Group differences were evaluated in a series of MANOVA and Chisquare analyses. Analysis included six factor scores from a supplemental R factor analysis of selected variables. Type I fathers are characterized as older, more passive, selfreflective, and aloof in interpersonal relationships. They are somewhat less oriented toward a relationship with their children and had felt satisfied with their wives* care of them. Alternatively, Type II fathers are younger, active, assured (not self-reflective), and person-oriented. They are more oriented toward relationship with their children and had felt dissatisfied with how their wives had cared for their children. Several overlapping characteristics of the Type I/II typology with Mendes1 seeker/assenter continuum are discussed. Limitations of the longitudinal adjustment data restrict the conclusions that can be drawn about differential adjustment of Types I and II. Comparisons with adjustment of other typologies suggest that extremes on the typology continuum are most at risk for problems in adjustment to the single custodial role. Implications for helping professions and future research are discussed.
L'emploi variable des signes diacritiques dans le français tchaté : une étude variationniste en temps apparent .
After providing an historical overview of the French spelling system and orthographic variation, this study analyzes selected internal (i.e., linguistic) factors and one external (i.e., social) factor that can influence the use of diacritics in online French-language chat sessions. From a corpus of synchronous computer-mediated communication, 3,855 tokens of graphemes capable of bearing diacritics were coded with the following scheme: Letter, Diacritic, Grapheme (i.e., Letter and Diacritic combined), Date of Participation, and Age Group of Participant. A multivariate (VARBRUL) analysis determined that Grapheme exerts the most influence on variation.
Employed Stepmothers: Psychological Stress, Personal Adjustment, Psychological Needs, and Personal Values
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Employee Attitudes Toward Shoplifting
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Employee Deception in a Discount Store
The problem to be examined in this study is whether or not deception concerning general morale and attitude toward management is prevalent among hourly female employees at a large discount store in a city of approximately 30,000 population.
Employee empowerment: Relationships between location in the hierarchy, span of control, and industry type on perceptions of empowerment.
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The current study seeks to examine the relationships between perceptions of employee empowerment and perceptions of leadership, span of control, and industry type. Participants were gathered from an archival source employing a high school alumni e-mail group (n = 361) and a survey from 9 organizations (n = 647) and combined into a larger sample (n = 1008). The participants took Bodner's (2005) Assessment of Employee Empowerment and Assessment of Empowering Leadership instruments. Support was found to suggest that people report being less empowered than they believe that top management would report about them. Also, participants reported that their leader was less empowering than they believed top management would report about the leader. Span of control was found to impact perceptions of empowerment. Production workers reported feeling more empowered than workers in service industries. Participants did not report that leaders were more empowering if they were higher in the hierarchy (executive) than lower levels (coach, employee). Also, a respondent's position did not affect the relationship between job type and feelings of empowerment. This study suggests that the organizational design (span of control) and industry type may affect empowerment initiatives, while lower levels of the organization may view empowerment much differently than top management.
Employee Engagement: The Impact of Spiritual, Mental, Emotional and Physical Elements on the Relationship between Employee Engagement and Behavioral Outcomes
Data were collected by an external company for a healthcare service firm interested in learning the job-related attitudes of their employees. Thus, archival data from 1,287 employees were collected for a different purpose. The survey consisted of 117 questions covering a broad range of constructs. Consequently, the items were used to derive effective measures of employee engagement and behavioral outcomes, as well as the emotional, mental, spiritual and physical dimensions. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis procedures were used to create scales reflecting these four factors. Interestingly, six scales emerged, logically linking to and further specifying the initial dimensions. These were Organizational Linkage, Manager Relationship, Job Fit, Job Clarity, Work Pressure, and Meaningful Work. To test the hypotheses, six separate regression equations were calculated, which statistically supported modification by each of the dimensions. However, statistical significance of the interactions resulted from having a large sample, given the actual association was too small to be meaningful (e.g., a contribution of 0.6% of the variance). As each of the dimensions had a main effect on the behavioral measure during hypothesis testing, exploratory regression equations were calculated to further understand the interrelationships. Of most interest was finding that in the presence of Engagement, the main effects of only Organizational Linkage and Job Fit reached significance. However, when Engagement was not included, four of the six dimensions made a significant contribution to Behavioral Outcomes. Overall, there was support for previous conceptualizations. From the scientist-practitioner perspective, the six factors identified in this study may be more useful than the four initially proposed. The distinctions give practitioners additional information to use in interventions to improve employee behavior and retention.
An Employee Participation Change Project and Its Impact on the Organization: a Case Study
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Employee Perceptions of the Use of Corporate Fitness Programs in Recruitment
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Employee Satisfaction and Performance in Managerial and Non-Managerial Levels of a State Institution for the Mentally Retarded
The present sbudy is an effort to seek information from a type of organization rarely studied along the lines of employee satisfaction's correlation to job performance—a state institution for the mentally retarded—which will shed significant light on the dynamics of this question. It is unique in that it focuses closely on the specific job duties of both managerial and non-managerial employees as a basis for understanding the relationship between employee satisfaction and performance.
Employee Stock Ownership Plans and the Publicly Held Corporation, a Study of Their Accounting, Financial and Economic Implications
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Employee Theft: The Relationship of Shrinkage Rates to Job Satisfaction, Store Security, and Employee Reliability
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Employer Attitude toward the Mentally Retarded - an Application of a Cognitive Theory of Attitude Structure
It was the purpose of this study to investigate some of the factors related to employers' attitudes toward the hiring of a mentally retarded individual. More specifically, an attempt was made to answer the question, "Why do employers hold favorable or unfavorable attitudes toward the hiring of the retarded?"
Employing Diffusion of Innovation Theory for Examining Adoption and Implementation of Preservation Metadata in the Cultural Heritage Community: An Exploratory Study
Poster presented at the 2006 ALISE Conference (Doctoral Poster session). The poster was one of the five award-winning poster presentations for the best doctoral dissertation proposal.
The Employment Act of 1946: Original Intent Versus Current Interpretation, The Forces Underlying the Modification and the Implications thereof
There appears to be a vacillation from the original intent of the Employment Act of 1946. It was originally intended to serve as a tool whereby the smoothing and the easing of cyclical fluctuations of the business cycle could be facilitated. It now seems as though this tool has become one which is being used to correct those structural weaknesses which exist in the economy.
Employment Criteria of the Community and Recommended Business Curriculum for Frank Phillips College, Borger, Texas
The purpose of this survey and study is to attempt the establishment of ways in which the business administration department of Frank Phillips College may help its students to prepare to fill the employment needs in the commercial offices of the area.
Employment Interventions for Consumers with HIV/AIDS
A systematic review of studies pertaining to employment interventions for consumers with HIV/AIDS was conducted in order to ascertain what programs and services have resulted in employment for people in this population. Research shows that programs specifically designed for individuals with HIV/AIDS have been beneficial for this population in regards to obtaining employment. This study discusses four employment interventions for people with HIV/AIDS including participation rates and employment outcome for program participants. A review of literature pertaining to employment interventions for individuals with HIV/AIDS is presented. Additionally, the systematic review methodology and results are presented. Finally, I discuss the results, limitations in regards to conducting the study, current research and recommendations for future research.
Employment of dual frequency excitation method to improve the accuracy of an optical current sensor, by measuring both current and temperature.
Optical current sensors (OCSs) are initially developed to measure relatively large current over a wide range of frequency band. They are also used as protective devices in the event a fault occurs due to a short circuit, in the power generation and distribution industries. The basic principal used in OCS is the Faraday effect. When a light guiding faraday medium is placed in a magnetic field which is produced by the current flowing in the conductor around the magnetic core, the plane of polarization of the linearly polarized light is rotated. The angle of rotation is proportional to the magnetic field strength, proportionality constant and the interaction length. The proportionality constant is the Verdet constant V (λ, T), which is dependent on both temperature and wavelength of the light. Opto electrical methods are used to measure the angle of rotation of the polarization plane. By measuring the angle the current flowing in the current carrying conductor can be calculated. But the accuracy of the OCS is lost of the angle of rotation of the polarization plane is dependent on the Verdet constant, apart from the magnetic field strength. As temperature increases the Verdet constant decreases, so the angle of rotation decreases. To compensate the effect of temperature on the OCS, a new method has been proposed. The current and temperature are measured with the help of a duel frequency method. To detect the line current in the conductor or coil, a small signal from the line current is fed to the reference of the lock in. To detect the temperature, the coil is excited with an electrical signal of a frequency different from the line frequency, and a small sample of this frequency signal is applied to the reference of the lock in. The temperature and current readings obtained are look up at the database value to give the actual output. Controlled environment is maintained to record the values in the database that maps the current and temperature magnitude values at the DSP lock in amplifier, to the actual temperature and current. By this method we can achieve better compensation to the temperature changes, with a large dynamic range and better sensitivity and accuracy.
The employment of historically-informed performance practices in present-day tuba performances of two Italian baroque violoncello transcriptions.
As several Italian baroque violoncello transcriptions have entered the standard performance repertory for both high school and collegiate tubists, and as numerous texts, articles, and baroque performance instruction courses have illuminated a new realm of performance possibilities, no published document has provided specific, thorough, and sample approaches to performance on the tuba of a given piece (or pieces) through a detailed application of materials found in any singular source or combination of sources. Many of the existing articles and texts that approach the subject focus largely on ornamentation, while limiting the discussion and application of the following topics: tempo, spirit, affect, notation, rhythm, dynamics, and articulation. This document examines such topics and provides detailed explanations and suggestions of historically-informed characteristics applicable to two movements each from the R. Winston Morris transcription of Antonio Vivaldi's Sonata No. 3 in A Minor and the Donald C. Little/Richard B. Nelson transcription of Benedetto Marcello's Sonata No. V in C Major.
Employment of Older Persons as Foster Grandparents
This thesis is a report of a study of the employment of foster grandparents for the foster grandparent project at the Denton State School in Denton, Texas. There were three specific interests in the study. First, it attempted to ascertain what criteria were used for the hiring of foster grandparents and how they were hired. Included in this area were the necessary steps which an individual had to take to apply for employment. Second, the study was concerned with developing a general description of the social and economic characteristics of those who were hired as foster grandparents, including their performance on certain tests which they took during the employment process. Third, it examined the relationship of selected social and economic characteristics to each other, the inter-relationships of test performance, and the relationships between the selected characteristics and test performance.
Employment of the Rorschach Inkblot Test with the Devries Suicide Inventory
This investigation represents an attempt to employ the Devries Suicide Prediction Scale and the Rorschach Inkblot Test in a two-stage predictive model which was designed to decrease the high false positive rate associated with the Devries and to design a way in which the Rorschach could be used efficiently in suicide prediction in a large mental hospital setting. The Rorschach was not found to significantly improve the predictive ability of the Devries. An unexpectedly high percentage of mental patients in the study, thirty-eight percent, admitted to previous suicide attempts, raising the question of whether suicidal behavior is not more common than is usually thought.
Employment Status and Job Satisfaction of Clothing and Textiles Graduates from 1969 to 1978
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Employment Test Validation Based Upon Limited Criteria
This study is concerned with the experience of a particular company which undertook to improve its selection program through the installation of a test battery. This involved special adaptations of techniques commonly employed in industrial situations.
Empowering Agent for Oklahoma School Learning Communities: An Examination of the Oklahoma Library Improvement Program
The purposes of this study were to determine the initial impact of the Oklahoma Library Media Improvement Grants on Oklahoma school library media programs; assess whether the Oklahoma Library Media Improvement Grants continue to contribute to Oklahoma school learning communities; and examine possible relationships between school library media programs and student academic success. It also seeks to document the history of the Oklahoma Library Media Improvement Program 1978 - 1994 and increase awareness of its influence upon the Oklahoma school library media programs. Methods of data collection included: examining Oklahoma Library Media Improvement Program archival materials; sending a survey to 1703 school principals in Oklahoma; and interviewing Oklahoma Library Media Improvement Program participants. Data collection took place over a one year period. Data analyses were conducted in three primary phases: descriptive statistics and frequencies were disaggregated to examine mean scores as they related to money spent on school library media programs; opinions of school library media programs; and possible relationships between school library media programs and student academic achievement. Analysis of variance was used in the second phase of data analysis to determine if any variation between means was significant as related to Oklahoma Library Improvement Grants, time spent in the library media center by library media specialists, principal gender, opinions of library media programs, student achievement indicators, and the region of the state in which the respondent was located. The third phase of data analysis compared longitudinal data collected in the 2000 survey with past data. The primary results indicated students in Oklahoma from schools with a centralized library media center, served by a full-time library media specialist, and the school having received one or more Library Media Improvement Grants scored significantly higher academically than students in schools not having a centralized library media center, not served by a full-time library media specialist, and the school not having received one or more Library Media Improvement Grants. Students in schools having even one of these components scored higher academically than students in schools with none of these components.
Empowering Digital Libraries Users through Combining Taxonomies with Folksonomies
This paper accompanies a poster presentation discussing empowering digital libraries users through combining taxonomies and folksonomies.
Empowering Digital Libraries Users through Combining Taxonomies with Folksonomies [Poster]
Poster presented at the 2012 ASIS&T Annual Meeting. This poster presents discussion on empowering digital library users through combining taxonomies and folksonomies.
Empowering the Black Community Faith-Based Economic Development
This paper is addressed to the inner city and some suburban congregations seeking to express their faith through practical initiatives to revitalize their distressed communities. The paper seeks to inspire and instruct the reader with motivational stories containing illustrations of the valuable role that African-American congregations have played in stimulating economic development in their communities. The paper also shows the importance of African-Americans having some control over the flow of economic funds throughout the community. African-American churches in the inner city should undertake significant ventures in community economic development to minister to the temporal as well as the spiritual needs of their communities. This paper will demonstrate how the African-American church, with assistance from federal, state, local programs, and private concerns, can be effective in the urban revitalization.
Empowerment: The Paradigm for Success for the Nursing Homes of the 21st Century
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For a workplace to be successful, it needs to have a higher morale, thus leading to higher quality of care for residents. For a workplace to be successful in empowerment, it must have developed strong teams, and everyone must work as a team and respect one another. The research for this paper focused on many issues. The most important part of my research came from a study of the nursing assistants at Jennings Hall (JH) in Garfield, Ohio. From the data received, I concluded that the two biggest problems in many nursing homes are lack of respect and lack of team-centered attitude.
Empty Pockets: Poems with an Introduction
This thesis is composed of a collection of thirty-four original poems with an introduction by the author. The introduction attempts to justify the collection by discussing common influences and techniques employed in its creation. The introduction also supplies background information on each poem and, on occasion, discusses the relation of a poem to the rest of the collection.
The Empyrean: The Pinnacle of the Medieval World View (Twelfth-Fourteenth Centuries
The heavenly empyrean was the highest expression of the Medieval Weltanschauung (world view). It served as the outermost sphere of the Aristotelian/Ptolemaic geocentric cosmos while possessing an eminent theological status. This paper explores the importance of the empyrean during the Scholastic Period (eleventh through fourteenth centuries).
Emulation & Virtualization as Preservation Strategies
Between the two fundamental digital preservation strategies, migration has been strongly favored. Recent developments in emulation frameworks make it possible to deliver emulations to readers via the Web in ways that make them appear as normal components of Web pages. This removes what was the major barrier to deployment of emulation as a preservation strategy. Barriers remain, the two most important are that the tools for creating preserved system images are inadequate, and that the legal basis for delivering emulations is unclear, and where it is clear it is highly restrictive. Both of these raise the cost of building and providing access to a substantial, well curated collection of emulated digital artefacts beyond reach. This book advocates that if the above mentioned barriers can be addressed, emulation will play a much greater role in digital preservation in the coming years. It will provide access to artefacts that migration cannot, and even assist in migration where necessary by allowing the original software to perform it. The evolution of digital artefacts means that current artefacts are more difficult and expensive to collect and preserve than those from the past, and less suitable for migration. This trend is expected to continue. Emulation is not a panacea. Technical, scale and intellectual property difficulties make many current digital artefacts infeasible to emulate. Where feasible, even with better tools and a viable legal framework, emulation is more expensive than migration-based strategies. The most important reason for the failure of current strategies to collect and preserve the majority of their target material is economic; the resources available are inadequate. The bulk of the resources expended on both migration and emulation strategies are for ingest, especially metadata generation and quality assurance. There is a risk that diverting resources to emulation, with its higher per-artefact ingest cost, will exacerbate the lack of resources. Areas requiring further work if emulation is to achieve its potential as a preservation strategy include: • Standardization of the format of preserved system images, the way they are obtained by emulators, and the means by which emulations of them are exposed to readers. This would enable interoperability between emulation components, aiding contributions and support from the open-source community. • Improvements to the tools for associating technical metadata with preserved software to enable it to be emulated, and the technical metadata databases upon which they depend. This would reduce the cost of preserved system images. • Clarification, and if possible relaxation, of the legal constraints on the creation and provision of access to collections of preserved system images. This would encourage institutions to collect software.
Enabling Scholarly Annotation Using Open Frameworks for the Web
This presentation presents two implementations of the W3C Web Annotation Working Group’s data model for annotations: Hypothesis (for annotating webpages) and IIIF (for interoperability of images).
Enacting Community Through the Arts
This study is concerned with the roles and relationships between artists-in-residence, community audiences, and program coordinators/art educators as they engage together in community arts programs. This study takes place at Project Row Houses (PRH), a community arts organization located in Houston, Texas and focuses on the artist-in-residence program, which commissions a group of national and international artists for a 6-month period to create art installations in relation to the community and its African-American heritage. This ethnographic case study is based on the activities and events surrounding the 2008 PRH exhibition, Round 29, Thunderbolt Special: The Great Electric Show and Dance, after Sam Lightnin’ Hopkins and employed qualitative data gathering methods of participant-observation, conducting semi-structured, open-ended, in-depth interviews, and through document collection, and contextual information. Observations were recorded through field notes, photographs, and video. Interviews were conducted with 3 artists-in-residence, 3 community audience members, and 3 program coordinators or staff members involved with the program, regarding their experiences at the site and experiences with each other. My analysis presents the roles of artist, community audience, and program coordinator/art educator through three sections on cultural work. Within these sections I discuss topics related to the power of voice, situatedness, and creativity, as it relates to the artists and community audiences. For the role of program coordinator/art educator, I focus more closely on her role in the process of mediation. Topics of power, social dynamics, identity, and representation are also framed within these discussions.
Enacting Racism: Clarence Thomas, George Bush, and the Construction of Social Reality
This study analyzes the confirmation hearings discourse of Clarence Thomas and George Bush. Language constructs social reality. The United States has a history of racism and this history manifests itself in our language. The discourse of Clarence Thomas and George Bush created a social reality that equated opposition to Thomas' confirmation with racism using rhetorical strategies that included metaphor and narrative construction.
Enallagma civile (Odonata: Coengrionidae) life history and production in a west Texas playa
A life history and productivity study of Enallagma civile was conducted in a playa that was located in the southern High Plains of Texas. Other odonates were also studies to identify their contributions to the habitat.
The Enameling Arts in Kuwaiti Pre-service Art Teacher Education
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The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the knowledge, skills, and experiences in the enameling arts and the attitudes and perceptions of in-service (n = 12) and pre-service Kuwaiti art teachers (n = 170), art supervisors at the Ministry of Education (MOE) (n = 3) and art education faculty members at the College of Basic Education (CBE) and Kuwait University (KU) (n = 8) about what they believed pre-service art teachers should know and be able to do in order to teach the enameling arts, and (2) to use this information to inform and guide the development of a content outline for an enameling course for pre-service Kuwaiti art teachers that is educationally (how to perform enameling arts skills and how to teach what they know), practically (safety issues, workshop management, etc), and culturally (its relation to Islamic culture) suitable. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. Most of the respondents revealed limited knowledge and skills and modest experiences in the enameling arts. All interviewees in the study expressed positive perceptions and attitudes about the enameling arts. Most agreed that a revision to the current art education curriculum at the CBE was needed and made suggestions about how the curriculum should be revised. It was clear that there is a disconnection and miscommunication between the MOE and the CBE with regards to the information about enameling that should be covered and taught in the art education classes. All respondents expressed support for the inclusion of a course in enameling in the art education curriculum at the CBE. Because of the limited knowledge of the participants in the study, they were not able to provide guidance in shaping the content for a course in the enameling arts. The researcher had to rely on the literature review and his expertise as an enameling artist to develop a content outline that was educationally, practically, and culturally suitable for the pre-service Kuwaiti art teachers. Further study was recommended in regard to curriculum issues, especially those related to the inclusion of Islamic culture, and methods of delivering instruction in the enameling arts.
Encoding Variability and Differential Negative Transfer and Retroactive Interference in Children
Second-graders were tested for negative transfer and retroactive interference using an A-B, A-D paradigm. Four-pair, word-number lists were aurally presented to the children. Subjects were classified as being whole-only encoders or multiple encoders by the use of a recall test presented after list one. Significant negative transfer and retroactive interference were found. The multiple encoders experiences less difficulty in learning the second list that did the whole-only encoders, but these two groups did no differ with regard to transfer or retroactive interference effects. The results were considered in the context of Martin's encoding variability hypothesis.