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 Department: Department of Psychology
Effects of Religious Attendance on Suicidal Ideation: Examining Potential Mediators of Social Support, Locus of Control, and Substance Abuse

Effects of Religious Attendance on Suicidal Ideation: Examining Potential Mediators of Social Support, Locus of Control, and Substance Abuse

Date: August 2014
Creator: Price, Samantha Danielle
Description: Religion has a well-documented relationship with mental health benefits and has consistently demonstrated an impact on several specific mental health concerns, including suicide, generally finding various religious facets to be inversely associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors. More specifically, religion has been found to be associated with suicide in a number of ways, including decreased acceptance of suicide, decreased likelihood of suicidal thoughts, decreased likelihood of suicidal attempts, fewer suicide attempts, lower relative risk of suicide, lower suicide rate, and increased reasons for living. Several studies have proposed potential mediators (e.g., social support, locus of control, and substance abuse) of the relationship between religion and mental health, usually in non-clinical samples. The current study sought to examine the association between religious attendance and suicidal ideation using archival data of a clinical sample collected from the University of North Texas Psychology Clinic. Results from this sample revealed no evidence of mediation, instead suggesting a direct effect of religious attendance on suicidal ideation. Two mediation models demonstrated the effects of external locus of control and social support on suicidal ideation. These models are discussed in terms of their directionality, considering the extant research on these associations. Findings of the current study have ...
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The Effects of Sedative and Tonic Music on Sterotyped Behaviors in Institutionalized Mental Defectives

The Effects of Sedative and Tonic Music on Sterotyped Behaviors in Institutionalized Mental Defectives

Date: May 1971
Creator: Petty, Marshall L.
Description: Stereotyped behavior in profoundly retarded subjects was observed under sedative and tonic music, with time and movement measures of responding.
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The Effects of Selection Risk on Sex Discrimination in Employment Decisions

The Effects of Selection Risk on Sex Discrimination in Employment Decisions

Date: May 1979
Creator: McKenna, David John
Description: Effects of selection risk on sex discrimination in hiring were investigated. Ninety-six male and female educational administration graduate students rated ficticious resumes on suitability for hiring for the female-oriented position of secondary school teacher. Sex and selection risk level were varied, with sex of rater as an assigned factor. Analysis of variance yielded significant main effects for sex (p < .01) and selection risk level (p < .05). All ratings were lower in high selection-risk situations, with males preferred over females across both levels of risk. Results suggested that ratings were based on a stereotype of female inferiority in work efficiency, overriding job sex-orientation as a decision factor.
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The Effects of Self-Monitoring and Health Locus of Control on Improvement in a Work Hardening Program

The Effects of Self-Monitoring and Health Locus of Control on Improvement in a Work Hardening Program

Date: May 1989
Creator: Liedtke-Hendrickson, Valette
Description: This study examined the effects of self-monitoring behavior and health locus of control on improvement in a work hardening program. The subjects included 22 male and 18 female outpatients in a hospital-based rehabilitation program. Subjects were classified as having an internal or external health locus of control, and were randomly assigned to either a self-monitoring or a non-self-monitoring group. Improvement was assessed via objective performance data and self-ratings of perceived improvement. The results indicated that individuals identified as having an internal health locus of control did not show greater gains in physical functioning or perceived improvement relative to externally oriented individuals. Additionally, those subjects participating in self-monitoring activities were no different from non-self-monitoring subjects in terms of improvement in exercise activities or perceived improvement. The results also indicated no interaction between health locus of control and the presence or absence of self-monitoring. It was suggested that other factors such as workman's compensation, pain patient characteristics, low self-concept, and severe stress may have proved more powerful influences on patient improvement than internal health locus of control or self-monitoring. It was also suggested that rehabilitation programs might benefit from creating structured environments in which patients receive frequent staff feedback and reinforcement for ...
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Effects of Self-Monitoring and Monetary Reward on Fluid Adherence among Adult Hemodialysis Patients

Effects of Self-Monitoring and Monetary Reward on Fluid Adherence among Adult Hemodialysis Patients

Date: December 2000
Creator: Sonnier, Bridget L.
Description: The effects of a monetary reward and self-monitoring on reducing interdialytic weight gain (IWG) were compared for 6 hemodialysis patients in an outpatient setting. A single-subject experimental design (A-B-BC-B-BC) was used to examine each variable individually and in combination, with alternating phases to control for possible sequencing effects. Monetary reward (50 cents - $3) was administered in a titrated manner according to standardized criteria, ranging from 3 % and 4% of patients' dry weight on weekdays and weekends, respectively, to 3.5% and 4.5% for weekdays and weekends. Self-monitoring involved recording daily fluid and diet intake. Results indicated that by the end of the treatment program, the 6 participants averaged a 14% reduction in weekday IWG and a 15.45% reduction in weekend IWG; however, due to significant variability, it cannot be concluded that the reductions are treatment effects. Four out of 6 participants reduced their average IWG for both weekends and weekdays by .75 kg (1.65 lb.). The average weekend reduction for these 4 participants was .85 kg (1.87 lbs.) while the average weekday reduction was .65 kg (1.43 lb.). All 6 participants showed reductions in weekday IWG that averaged .53 kg (1.17 lb.). However, only 2 participants demonstrated IWG reductions ...
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The Effects of Sequential Versus Referential Montage Neurofeedback Amplitude Training on Qeeg Measures of Phase and Coherence.

The Effects of Sequential Versus Referential Montage Neurofeedback Amplitude Training on Qeeg Measures of Phase and Coherence.

Date: August 2008
Creator: Ramezani, Amir
Description: An important clinical research question to be answered in the field of neurofeedback (NF) is whether amplitude training affects connectivity between cortical sites. This study hypothesizes that, following NF amplitude training, there will be a difference in QEEG coherence and phase measures between NF training done using referential montages and using sequential montages. The study examined case files of 16 adult clients from the University of North Texas Neurotherapy Lab who had received NF training that consisted of either referential or sequential placement amplitude training (no coherence training) and who received both pre- and post- treatment QEEGs. Sixty-eight percent of the cases consisted of referential placements, while 34% of the cases consisted of sequential placements. All frontal site phase and coherence abnormal z-scores at pre-treatment were converted to deviation scores and compared by general linear model analysis of variance to post-treatment deviation scores. Effect size r-values and eta square values indicate that differences between referential and sequential electrode placements after NF amplitude training are moderately high. This study shows that referential placements tend to increase phase scores and decrease coherence scores, while sequential placements tend to decrease phase scores and increase coherence scores.
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Effects of Supportive Services in a Methadone Treatment Program

Effects of Supportive Services in a Methadone Treatment Program

Date: August 1972
Creator: Hoag, David N.
Description: A preliminary investigation of the extent to which supportive services contribute to the effectiveness of a methadone treatment program was conducted.
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Effects of Tenderness on Problem Solving.

Effects of Tenderness on Problem Solving.

Date: December 2003
Creator: Kalawski, Juan Pablo
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of tenderness on problem solving. Thirty-four female undergraduates participated. In the experimental condition, participants received instructions to reproduce a specific respiratory-posturo-facial pattern that had induced tenderness in previous studies. Participants in the control condition performed a non-emotional exercise. After either the pattern or the control exercise, participants completed one of two jigsaw puzzles. One puzzle had only an empty room while the other had a family scene. For participants who worked on the room puzzle, the tenderness pattern led to longer completion times. In contrast, for participants who worked on the family puzzle, the tenderness pattern led to shorter completion times.
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The Effects Of The Allocation Of Attention Congruent With Lateralized Cognitive Tasks On EEG Coherence Measurements

The Effects Of The Allocation Of Attention Congruent With Lateralized Cognitive Tasks On EEG Coherence Measurements

Date: May 2002
Creator: Hill, Cynthia DeLeon
Description: The single task condition of the Urbanczyk and Kennelly (1991) study was conducted while recording a continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) record. Attention was allocated by instructed lateral head orienting and eye gaze either congruently or incongruently with lateralized cognitive tasks. Thirty university subjects retained a digit span or a spatial location span for a 20 second retention interval. EEG data were extracted from the 20 second retention intervals and interhemispheric coherence was calculated for homologous sites in the temporal, parietal and occipital regions of the brain. There was a main effect for group, with congruent orienting producing greater coherence values than incongruent orienting. This effect of attention on alpha coherence values was found in the low alpha (8-10 Hz) frequency band. This provides evidence that the lower alpha frequency band is reflective of manipulations of attention. The higher coherence measures for the congruent orienting group indicates that homologous regions of the two hemispheres are more coupled into a single system when lateralized attention activates the same hemisphere performing the cognitive task. In the higher alpha frequency band (11-13 Hz) group, sex, site and task interacted. This provides evidence that the higher alpha band is more affected by cognitive processing of the ...
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The Effects of the Meaning of the Concept MYSELF on Selected Personal and Social Concepts

The Effects of the Meaning of the Concept MYSELF on Selected Personal and Social Concepts

Date: May 1971
Creator: Brunett, Norma Jean
Description: This thesis is concerned with the effects that the meaning of the concept MYSELF had on the meanings of other selected personal and social concepts. Meaning of the concepts was measured by the semantic differential.
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The Effects of the Type A Behavior Pattern and Aerobic Exercise on the Allocation of Attention

The Effects of the Type A Behavior Pattern and Aerobic Exercise on the Allocation of Attention

Date: December 1986
Creator: Morton, Anne Aldredge
Description: This investigation examined the effects of aerobic fitness and the Type A behavior pattern on cognitive functioning in the split-attention (dual task) paradigm. Sixty-four adults were classified as Type A or B by means of the Jenkins Activity Survey, and as Runner or Sedentary using self-reports of physical activity. Under challenging instructions, subjects performed a primary task (Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices) and secondary task (Backward Digit Span) alternatively under single and dual task conditions. There was a significant interaction between aerobic fitness and task condition such that Runners outperformed Sedentary subjects under dual, but not single, task conditions on the secondary task. No differences were found on the primary task. Backward Digit Span performance under dual, but not single, task conditions, was also found to be positively related to the subjects eating a low cholesterol diet and maintaining a healthy weight. Contrary to predictions, there were no significant effects of the Type A behavior pattern, either main or interaction, on any of the cognitive measures. Type A Runners exceeded Type B Runners in aerobic points, races per year, runs per week, Personal Record attempts, and level of dissatisfaction with performance. There were no differences in the tendency to run while ...
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Effects of Variation of Methadone Dispensing Frequencies on Retention in Treatment and Behavioral Adjustment in a Methadone Treatment Program

Effects of Variation of Methadone Dispensing Frequencies on Retention in Treatment and Behavioral Adjustment in a Methadone Treatment Program

Date: August 1973
Creator: Friedli, John D.
Description: This study was concerned with determining the effects that varying the methadone-dispensing frequencies during mandatory clinic visits had on patients' retention in treatment and behavioral adjustment.
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The Effects of Verbal Praise and Reproof on the Level of Aspiration of Institutionalized Mental Defectives

The Effects of Verbal Praise and Reproof on the Level of Aspiration of Institutionalized Mental Defectives

Date: January 1964
Creator: Kelley, George L.
Description: The study to be reported was designed to investigate the effects of verbal praise and reproof, from persons in authority, on the LOA and subsequent performance of institutionalized defectives.
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The Effects of Voluntary Lateral Orienting on Positive Manifold for Lateralized Cognitive Tasks

The Effects of Voluntary Lateral Orienting on Positive Manifold for Lateralized Cognitive Tasks

Date: August 1989
Creator: Urbanczyk, Sally Ann
Description: As an extension of previous studies (Urbanczyk, Angel, & Kennelly, 1988) examining the effects of unimanual finger tapping on lateralized cognitive tasks, lateral body orienting was added to an established dual task paradigm to generate differential hemispheric activation and shifts of attention. One hundred twenty university students retained sequences of digits or spatial locations for 20 seconds either alone or during finger tapping. By turning both head and eyes left or right, the hemisphere congruent with the sequences (LH for digits, RH for locations) or incongruent (vice versa) was activated. Activation had little effect on retention means but greatly affected resource composition supporting task performance. Congruent orientation produced significantly higher positive correlations between digit and location tasks than incongruent orientation. Females showed higher sequence retention correlations than males across both orienting groups. For females, congruent activation enhanced tapping rates and retention-tapping correlations. For males, activation affected neither of these. Discussed in light of neuroanatomical research, these results suggest that congruent attentional orienting may integrate regions of the less activated hemisphere into networks of the more activated hemisphere. This unification may occur more readily across the female corpus callosum, producing a greater dependence upon a general attentional resource than for males, ...
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The Efficacy of Anxiety-Relief Therapy and Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Snake-Phobic Behavior

The Efficacy of Anxiety-Relief Therapy and Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Snake-Phobic Behavior

Date: December 1973
Creator: Sealy, Thomas Beauchamp
Description: The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of anxiety-relief therapy when compared with three other treatment groups (group systematic desensitization; a pseudo-therapy, suggestion, group; and a no-treatment group).
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Efficacy of Juvenile Offender Assessments: Utilization of Recommendations, Measurement Constructs, and Risk Factors

Efficacy of Juvenile Offender Assessments: Utilization of Recommendations, Measurement Constructs, and Risk Factors

Date: August 2002
Creator: Van Drie, Barbara G
Description: The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of juvenile offender assessments. Data from 104 juvenile offender assessments were analyzed and followed up with placement, subsequent offending, and outcome data from the juvenile and adult systems. Constructs consistently assessed included intellectual functioning, academic achievement, and personality functioning; however, under-diagnosis of intellectual deficits, learning disabilities, and personality disorders was found. Results indicated the assessment of family functioning, substance use, and social functioning should be included in comprehensive assessments, as they may result in alternative placement and treatment options of benefit to the juvenile offender. A juvenile offender typology proposed by DiCataldo and Grisso (1995) was successfully utilized and proved predictive of recidivism, future harm to others, and outcome.
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Efficacy of neurofeedback for children with histories of abuse and neglect: Pilot study and meta-analytic comparison to other treatments.

Efficacy of neurofeedback for children with histories of abuse and neglect: Pilot study and meta-analytic comparison to other treatments.

Date: August 2008
Creator: Huang-Storms, Lark
Description: This two-part study investigates the effectiveness of neurofeedback training for reducing behavioral problems commonly observed in abused/neglected children, and compares its efficacy to other treatment interventions with this population. Neuro-developmental sequelae of early relationship trauma are explored as an etiological framework for understanding disturbed affect-regulation, which appears central to the behavioral and emotional difficulties commonly experienced by this pediatric population. It is suggested that neurofeedback teaches children to self-regulate brain rhythmicity mechanisms, which in turn affects global improvements in behavior and mood. The pilot study utilizes records of 20 children removed from their biological homes by Child Protective Services. Children were assessed prior to treatment using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), and again after 30 sessions of individualized, qEEG-guided neurofeedback training. A t-test analysis of pre- and post-scores was computed, and indicated significant improvements following treatment. A meta-analysis of existing literature on treatment interventions with abused/neglected children provides individual and aggregate effect sizes for 33 outcome studies with this clinical population, and contextualizes the results of the present pilot study within other empirically validated treatment modalities. Establishment of an overall effect size for treatment for this pediatric population provides a needed method ...
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Ego Mechanisms of Defense among Child Victims of Sexual Abuse: a TAT Analysis

Ego Mechanisms of Defense among Child Victims of Sexual Abuse: a TAT Analysis

Date: December 1994
Creator: Sadler, Lyn M.
Description: Using the Defense Mechanism Manual (Cramer, 1991), Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) stories of 29 sexually abused female subjects and 28 non-abused female clinical control subjects were rated for the frequency of use of denial, projection, and identification.
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Elaboration and Content Analysis of Conceptual Structure in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Elaboration and Content Analysis of Conceptual Structure in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Date: August 1997
Creator: Moes-Williams, Amy J.
Description: Three recent studies attempted to substantiate Sewell and Cromwell's (1990) theory of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) based on personal construct theory (Kelly, 1955). One crucial aspect of the model that was tested in each of the studies is "elaboration," which is the process of bringing more of a person's repertoire of understanding (constructions) to a certain experience to give it meaning. Elaboration is representative of whether or not the individual is using an integrated set of constructs to deal with a traumatic event. A two-part study (1) reanalyzed existing data to assist in understanding discrepancies in past findings, and (2) content analyzed constructs given by subjects in all three studies. Findings concerning elaboration remained somewhat discrepant but suggested possible differences when investigating the emergent versus submerged poles of constructs.
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Elder Abuse: Education for Persons with Experienced Violence

Elder Abuse: Education for Persons with Experienced Violence

Date: August 1990
Creator: Reinberg, Julie A. (Julie Ann)
Description: The rationale for this study was based on the application of the cycle of domestic violence theory to elder abuse. It examined the effect of history of experienced childhood violence on tolerance, behavioral intentions, and past behaviors of elder abuse toward general and specific elderly targets. The effectiveness of educational interventions for altering tolerance and behavioral intentions of elder abuse was examined. Two hundred and twenty-five undergraduates were assessed for aging knowledge, general aging attitudes, aging anxiety, elder abuse attitudes, and elder abuse intentions and past behaviors. Participants were assigned to a High or Low Experienced Violence group and participated in an educational group or control group. Posttest and one-month followup measures were obtained. No differences were found at pretest between High and Low Violence. Level of Violence did not impact intervention efficacy. Elder abuse education altered attitudes, intentions, and behaviors of elder abuse at posttest significantly more than did aging education or control groups (p < .001), but these effects were no longer significant at followup. Elder abuse attitudes had higher relationships with elder abuse intentions and reported past behaviors than did global aging attitudes or aging anxiety (p < .05). General elderly targets yielded more tolerance, intentions, and ...
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Electroencephalographic Events During the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

Electroencephalographic Events During the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

Date: August 1998
Creator: DeBeus, Mary
Description: Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) was used in this study to describe cognitive processing, particularly brain locations used, during performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The hypothesis was that significant cognitive functioning is not limited to the frontal lobes. Significant EEG activity was found in non-frontal areas as well as frontal areas.
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Elimination of Cigarette Smoking, Employing a New Aversive Conditioning Procedure

Elimination of Cigarette Smoking, Employing a New Aversive Conditioning Procedure

Date: May 1974
Creator: Himes, Jerome A.
Description: The study was designed to find a response on the behavioral level that would be an effective index across subjects for determining when conditioned aversive suppression of a response had been achieved. Ten male volunteers received shock during trials in which they had to smoke. Half of the subjects received a brief but more intense shock when they stopped smoking during a trial. A comparison of these subjects to the others showed their average amount of smoking suppression in pre- and post-treatment rates to be significantly (P < .025) greater. In addition, these subjects showed conditioned emotional responding. It was concluded that this behavioral level response was an effective index for determining when suppression of smoking would occur.
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Elimination of Stereotyped Behavior, Employing Contingent Withdrawal and Representation of a Positively Reinforcing Stimulus

Elimination of Stereotyped Behavior, Employing Contingent Withdrawal and Representation of a Positively Reinforcing Stimulus

Date: December 1972
Creator: DeFoore, William G.
Description: An attempt was made in this study to eliminate the body rocking behavior of a twenty-three-year-old totally blind male, individual, presently classified as moderately retarded. Consequences were placed upon, rocking behavior in seven experimental phases, employing time-out from a positively reinforcing stimulus as a punisher. More specifically, apparatus were designed in such a manner that rocking would result in elimination of the auditory and visual portion of a television, and in a later phase, the auditory portion of a transistor radio.
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EMG Biofeedback Training: Effect on Behavior of Children with Activity-Level Problems

EMG Biofeedback Training: Effect on Behavior of Children with Activity-Level Problems

Date: May 1977
Creator: Henry, David L.
Description: The relationships between muscle-tension level, motoric-activity level, and academic performance in the laboratory setting are investigated. Three participants were reinforced for reducing and increasing their tension levels, alternately, while engaged in a simulated academic task, and the effects of each on the rate of activity and academic performance were measured. Measures were also obtained on the rate of activity and occurrence of problem behavior in the subject's homes. Significant treatment differences were found which support a direct relationship between tension and activity level so that a decrease in EMG level was associated with a decrease in motoric activity, and an increase in EMG level was associated with an increase in motoric activity. The efficacy of using EMG biofeedback to train relaxation in children with activity-level problems to control their symptoms is supported, especially where such a technique can be used in a specific task-oriented situation.
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