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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Decade: 2000-2009
 Degree Discipline: Counseling Psychology
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
The Interface of Personality Processes and Cognitive Abilities: A Comparative Study of Elderly and Young Adults

The Interface of Personality Processes and Cognitive Abilities: A Comparative Study of Elderly and Young Adults

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Date: August 2000
Creator: O'Brien, Dina Paige Ragow
Description: Although research has shown that the complex constructs of intelligence and personality are necessarily intertwined, studies exploring this issue in elderly individuals are rare. The importance attached to this interface in older adults becomes particularly clear in light of the debate over the cause and extent of age-related decrements in cognitive performance as well as whether such losses can be ameliorated or not, especially given societal shifts toward increased life expectancies. The present study explored the basis for shifts in personality-ability relationships in adulthood by comparing two samples of older adults, one of which was assessed in 1975 (N = 102, M age = 68.4), and the second of which was assessed in 1995 (N = 100, M age = 72.0), and a sample of younger adults (N = 100, M age = 21.8), also assessed in 1995. Each participant was administered the Holtzman Inkblot Technique and the Gf-Gc Sampler, a measure of crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) abilities. LISREL analyses of both age-related and historical shifts in personality-ability relationships suggested that not only were such shifts associated with cohort differences as reflected in factor loading (lambda) differences between the older samples and the younger sample, as well as between ...
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Internet Use Among African American College Students: Psychosocial Correlates of the Digital Divide

Internet Use Among African American College Students: Psychosocial Correlates of the Digital Divide

Date: August 2004
Creator: Harvey, Pejcharat Jane
Description: An exploratory study was conducted examining Internet usage among African-American college students. The study examined both psychosocial correlates, including technological anxiety and racial identity as well as socioeconomic measures, as they impacted Internet usage. Additionally, three distinct measures of Internet usage, thin access, thick access and the Internet Connectedness Index (ICI), were used as criterion variables in three separate multiple regression analysis (MRA) models. The results of the study found differences in predictive validity based on the criterion variable used, with the ICI accounting for the greatest amount of variance (54%). Racial identity, in terms of internal beliefs and feelings about being African American and internalization of Afrocentric values in a political context were found to be predictive of Internet usage as measured by the ICI.
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Marital satisfaction among newly married couples: Associations with religiosity and romantic attachment style.

Marital satisfaction among newly married couples: Associations with religiosity and romantic attachment style.

Date: December 2006
Creator: Haseley, Jamie L.
Description: The marriage and family literature has identified a host of factors that contribute to a satisfactory marital union. For example, research on religious congruency has indicated that the more similar partners are in their religious beliefs the higher their reported marital satisfaction. Another construct studied in conjunction with marital satisfaction is adult attachment style. The attachment literature has consistently shown that secure couples tend to report higher marital satisfaction than couples with at least one insecure partner. The purpose of this study was to examine the combined role of religious commitment and attachment in marital satisfaction. Heterosexual couples (N = 184; 92 husbands, 92 wives) without children and married 1-5 years were administered a background information questionnaire, the Religious Commitment Inventory-10, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory. Results indicated that couples with congruent religious commitment reported higher marital satisfaction than couples with large discrepancies in religious commitment. Religious commitment did not mediate the relationship between attachment and marital satisfaction, but instead was found to moderate this relationship. Results of this study will benefit clinicians working in the field to help newly married couples negotiate the marital relationship.
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A model for the development of disordered eating among lesbians

A model for the development of disordered eating among lesbians

Date: August 2002
Creator: Joshua, Michelle D.
Description: It has only been in recent years that eating disorder researchers have begun focusing on sexual orientation as a variable that may affect prevalence rates. Heeding the call for studies that extend beyond identification of fixed eating disorder risk factors (e.g., gender), this study was designed to explore factors that contribute to the development of disordered eating among lesbians. In this study, a hypothesized Lesbian Model of Disordered Eating was tested using structural equation modeling. Lesbian Sexual Identity and Social Supports were hypothesized to positively influence Psychological Health. In addition, Internalization of U.S. Societal Norms of beauty and attractiveness was hypothesized to negatively affect Psychological Health. Psychological Health, in turn, was hypothesized to negatively influence Body Image Concerns. Body Image Concerns was then hypothesized to positively affect Disordered Eating. The fit of the model was evaluated and one of the hypothesized pathways, Internalization of Norms was moved to directly predict Body Image Concerns. After adjusting the model, the model accounted for 54% of the variance in disordered eating. Most notably, the results highlight the potential affects of adopting a positive lesbian identity on disordered eating and underscore the importance of including sexual identity as a demographic variable in studies of ...
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Moderators of the sociocultural internalization-body dissatisfaction relationship among female undergraduates.

Moderators of the sociocultural internalization-body dissatisfaction relationship among female undergraduates.

Date: December 2009
Creator: Latimer-Kern, Kelsey M.
Description: The sociocultural model of eating pathology is an empirically-supported model explaining eating disorder etiology. The model poses that body dissatisfaction and subsequent eating pathology stems from the unrealistic standards formulated by Westernized society. Although the model has strong empirical support, variables within the model do not account for 100% of the variance in disordered eating. Thus, the current researcher attempted to explore potential moderating factors in the sociocultural model of eating disorders that may help to explain variance currently unaccounted for. In particular, the researcher focused on the relationship between sociocultural internalization and body dissatisfaction, given that this relationship has not been previously explored within the literature. Based on theoretical support, the researcher chose several potential variables to test, including perfectionism, neuroticism, body surveillance, and shame. Primary analyses tested each variable for moderating effects using hierarchical moderated regression, but no significant findings were shown. Results of post hoc analyses showed all variables had significant mediating effects, with the exception of self-oriented perfectionism. The discussion section addresses consistency with previous research, limitations of the present study, treatment implications and guidelines for future research.
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Perceived Attractiveness and Personality Attributes: A Gender and Racial Analysis

Perceived Attractiveness and Personality Attributes: A Gender and Racial Analysis

Date: May 2000
Creator: Olby, Brian C.
Description: Subjects rated 12 female body shapes with respect to their physical attractiveness, and the extent to which they would be expected to possess various personality characteristics. The shapes were varied using 3 levels of overall weight and 4 levels of body shapeliness. The sample was modified to control for socioeconomic factors and results are based on 297 undergraduates from Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic racial backgrounds. Loglinear analyses revealed that men and women, regardless of racial background, rated shapely underweight females as most physically attractive, sexy, and ideal for a woman, followed by normal weight figures of similar proportion. African Americans, women in particular, judged the shapely normal weight figures more favorably than the other subjects. Multidimensional scaling and subsequent frequency analyses showed that those figures judged as most attractive, sexy, and ideal were also expected to be fairly emotionally stable, and most successful and interpersonally competitive, but least faithful, kind, and family-oriented. Overweight female shapes, while rated as least physically attractive, sexy, and emotionally stable, were expected to be most family-oriented, kind, and faithful. Shapely normal weight figures were judged to be attractive and sexy, and were assumed to possess a moderate amount of the personality traits in question. ...
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Performance Measurement, Feedback, and Reward Processes in Research and Development Work Teams: Effects on Perceptions of Performance

Performance Measurement, Feedback, and Reward Processes in Research and Development Work Teams: Effects on Perceptions of Performance

Date: December 2000
Creator: Roberts, M. Koy
Description: Organizations have had difficulty managing the performance of their knowledge work teams. Many of these troubles have been linked to antiquated or inadequate performance management systems along with a scarcity of empirical research on this important human resource initiative. These problems are magnified when managing the performance of research and development teams because greater ambiguity and uncertainty exists in these environments, while projects are unique and continually evolving. In addition, performance management in R&D has only recently been accepted as important while individuals in these settings are often resistant to teams. This study represented the first step in the process of understanding relationships between performance management practices and perceptions of performance in R&D work teams. Participants were 132 R&D team leaders representing 20 organizations that agreed to complete a survey via the Internet. The survey instrument was designed to examine the relationships between performance measurement, feedback, and reward processes utilized by teams in relation to measures of customer satisfaction, psychological and team effectiveness, and resource utilization and development. The most important level of performance measurement occurred at the business unit level followed next by the individual level while team level measurement was unrelated to team performance. A simple measurement system ...
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Personality Correlates of Eating Disorder Symptomatology in a Nonclinical Sample of Female Undergraduates

Personality Correlates of Eating Disorder Symptomatology in a Nonclinical Sample of Female Undergraduates

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Date: May 2003
Creator: Baker, Kristine Genovese
Description: Research indicates the existence of an eating disorder continuum. The two-component model of disordered eating suggests that certain personality traits may increase an individual's vulnerability to develop more severe variants of disordered eating symptomatology. The present study investigates pre-clinical elevations on a measure of personality based on the Five-Factor Model (FFM) and pre-clinical elevations on a measure of eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of nonclinical undergraduates. The personality dimensions Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Agreeableness accounted for 7% of the variability in Body Dissatisfaction. Subcomponents comprising the personality dimensions of the FFM as determined by Saucier (1998) (see Appendix A) were analyzed. The Self-Reproach and Intellectual Interests subcomponents were the strongest predictors of Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction. The subcomponent Sociability was the strongest predictor of Bulimia. Findings present implications for prevention and treatment interventions. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the temporal directionality of personality and disturbed eating.
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Prevalence of Undiagnosed Dissociative Disorders in an Inpatient Setting

Prevalence of Undiagnosed Dissociative Disorders in an Inpatient Setting

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Date: August 2000
Creator: Duffy, Colleen
Description: This study examined the prevalence of undiagnosed dissociative disorders in a sample of 201 adult patients admitted to a private psychiatric hospital in a major metropolitan city in the south-central United States, over an eight-month period. A screening measure, two blind structured interviews, and a blind clinical interview were employed. The lifetime prevalence of dissociate disorders among the interviewed subjects was 40.8%. More specifically, 7.5% were diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder, 15.4% with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, 13.4% with dissociative amnesia, and 4.5% with depersonalization disorder. Dissociative fugue was not found in this sample. Cohen's kappa reliability coefficients were computed between the three interview measures, resulting in significant findings for the presence of dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified versus no dissociative disorder. The Cohen's kappa reliability coefficients were as follows: DDIS-DES-T = 0.81; SCID-D-DES-T = 0.76; Clinician-DES-T = 0.74, DDIS-SCID-D = 0.74; DDIS-Clinician = 0.71, and SCID-D-Clinician = 0.56. A meeting was conducted at the end of all subject interviews to discuss discrepant findings between measures. Four additional sub-analyses were performed between dissociative and non-dissociative subjects on DSM-IV variables. Patients diagnosed with a dissociative disorder had higher rates of comorbid major depressive disorder, borderline personality ...
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Psychological benefits of sport participation and physical activity for adolescent females.

Psychological benefits of sport participation and physical activity for adolescent females.

Date: August 2007
Creator: Boyer, Elizabeth M.
Description: Recent research has suggested that the effects of sport on well-being are mediated by psychological characteristics such as physical self-concept, instrumentality and positive body images; in addition, sport was found to be related to these psychological benefits for high school girls. However, physical self-concept played a central role by mediating the sport -body image and sport instrumentality relationships. Positive body image and instrumentality, in turn, predicted greater psychological well-being. The purpose of this investigation was to replicate earlier studies, and to examine these relationships with non-sport physical activity. Sport and physical activity were expected to contribute to higher physical self-concept, which in turn, would contribute positively to instrumentality and body image. Further, instrumentality and body image would be positively related to psychological well-being. Participants were 355 9th (n = 170) and 10th (n = 193) graders and they completed measures of involvement in sport/physical activities, physical self-concept, instrumentality, body satisfaction, self-esteem, satisfaction with life, depression, and demographics. Structural equation modeling was utilized to analyze the data. Overall, for both sport and physical activity, the models fit the data well (sport model: NNFI=.95, CFI=.96, SRMR=.08, RMSEA=.09, physical activity model: NNFI=.96, CFI=.97, SRMR=.08, RMSEA=.09). Specifically, sport participation was positively related to physical ...
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The Relationship Between Adjustment And Bereavement-Related Distress: A Longitudinal Study

The Relationship Between Adjustment And Bereavement-Related Distress: A Longitudinal Study

Date: August 2002
Creator: Henderson, John Mark
Description: The current study assessed 125 conjugally bereaved persons using multiple self-report measures as indicators of personal adjustment and bereavement distress across three times of testing (initial, 6-month, and 3-year follow-up). Cross-lagged panel analyses were conducted to examine the causal relationships between adjustment and bereavement distress indicators and overall factors. Exploratory factor analyses indicate measures of adjustment load on a single Adjustment factor and measures of bereavement distress load on a single Grief factor. Considering results using composite scores for each variable, adjustment was significantly more predictive of bereavement distress than bereavement distress was predictive of adjustment for both Time 1 to Time 3 and Time 2 to Time 3. Adjustment issues measured by indicators such as the UCLA, POMS, HSC, BDI, and RSES significantly influenced the extent of grief symptoms as measure by the BEQ and the severity of scope of grief symptoms as assessed by the IOLQ.
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The Relationship of Parental Attachment, Peer Attachment, and Self-Concept to the Adjustment of First-Year College Students

The Relationship of Parental Attachment, Peer Attachment, and Self-Concept to the Adjustment of First-Year College Students

Date: August 2000
Creator: Selby, Jeanne Costello
Description: The transition to college is usually the first time many late adolescents live apart from their parents for an extended period, making it an important developmental task (Kenny, 1987) that requires a variety of adaptational resources. Bowlby's (1969/1982, 1973, 1980) attachment theory has been refined by Kenny and Rice (1995) to explain how internal working models of late adolescents are the bases of the adaptational resources that determine the quality of adjustment to college. The Kenny and Rice model may be interpreted to suggest that external resources should include relationships with parents and friends, while internal resources can include self-concept. According to the authors, "these resources are assumed to moderate or buffer the effects of developmental challenges and stressful events on adjustment" (p.437). The purpose of the present study was to extend and further clarify the ways that quality attachment relationships and positive self-concept conjointly may promote healthy adaptation in the college milieu. In particular, the present study examined the influence of self-concept as a mediating variable with respect to attachment and healthy adjustment to college. Students from Freshman Psychology classes completed measures to assess their attachment relationships with each parent, their attachment relationships with peers, their level of self-concept, ...
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The relationships between goal orientation, perfectionism, parental involvement, peer climate, enjoyment, and intention to continue in sport in children.

The relationships between goal orientation, perfectionism, parental involvement, peer climate, enjoyment, and intention to continue in sport in children.

Date: December 2007
Creator: Braddock, LaTisha Lynn
Description: This investigation examined the relationships between parental involvement, peer-initiated climates, and perfectionism to goal orientation as well as children's enjoyment and the intention to continue playing sport in youth sport. Participants were 188 athletes, 100 boys (M = 12.06, SD = 1.06) and 88 girls (M = 12.18, SD = .73). The athletes completed the TEOSQ, Sport MPS, PIAS, and the PeerMCYSQ. Parental support and peer task environment was related to girls' and boy's task orientation. For boys, personal standards, parental pressure, and fewer concerns over mistakes, also were related to task orientation. Ego orientation was related to peer-initiated ego and task climates, for the boys. For the girls, higher personal standard was the only variable related to ego orientation. For enjoyment, task orientation was the strongest predictor for the girls and the only predictor for the boys for enjoyment. The fewer concerns girls had over mistakes the more enjoyment they reported. For girls and boys, intention to continue playing next season was predicted only by enjoyment. However, results were varied when intention to play next year was examined. For boys, no predictors were discovered whereas for girls, higher levels of enjoyment and task orientation, and lower levels of parental ...
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Religiosity and spirituality in younger and older adults.

Religiosity and spirituality in younger and older adults.

Date: August 2005
Creator: Clarke, Shailagh
Description: The present study examined the use of MacDonald's Expressions of Spirituality instrument with a younger and older adult sample. Specifically, MacDonald's proposed five factor model was assessed for fit with a sample of college age participants as well as a sample of adults over the age of 65. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the fit of this model with samples, and this was followed by an exploratory factor analysis, and the results were considered in light of measurement equivalence and the definitions of the constructs of religiosity and spirituality. Further analyses examined levels of religiousness as well as relationships between religiousness/spirituality and potential correlates, such as postformal thinking, life events including changes and losses, emotional and physical well-being, and family upbringing, comparing young and older adult samples. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis revealed a solution with a better fit than MacDonald's model for both younger and older adults. While the number of factors were the same for both samples, item loadings and cross-loadings differed between the younger and older adult samples. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a four factor solution, with religiousness and spirituality items loading onto one factor. With regard to measurement equivalence, findings appear to ...
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Religiosity as a moderator of anger in the expression of violence by women

Religiosity as a moderator of anger in the expression of violence by women

Date: August 2002
Creator: Wilson, Jennifer L.
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of women's anger and religiosity on their expression of violence toward their partner. The sample consisted of the 664 women who completed three interviews for Project HOW: Health Outcomes of Women, a study of low-income, ethnically diverse women in Dallas county. Across the waves, women completed measures of relationship violence, anger, and religiosity. Religiosity was not found to moderate the relationship between women's anger and their use of violence. When partners' threats and violence were included in the regression equations, these variables were consistently related to women's behavior. Due to several methodological limitations, clinical implications of the results should be considered with caution.
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Social Support, Depression, and Cardiovascular Disease in Married, Middle-Aged/Older Adults

Social Support, Depression, and Cardiovascular Disease in Married, Middle-Aged/Older Adults

Date: August 2004
Creator: Hargett Thompson, Candace L.
Description: This study examined the relationship between physical health, social support, and depression in a married, middle-aged/older adult sample in which at least one partner has heart disease. The data was obtained from a national longitudinal study the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) and is composed of selected respondents and their spouses. The HRS Wave 1 data that was used for these analyses was collected in 1992 and 1993. This study tested a stress buffer model predicting the relationship between physical health, social support, and depression. For study inclusion, participants must have been diagnosed with cardiovascular disease and received treatment in the last year. A heart disease construct was developed by calculating the level of disease by the number of conditions and medical treatments received within the last year. A second health category for other chronic health conditions included diabetes, arthritis, cancer, and chronic pain. These constructs were combined into a total disease construct, which provided a broad measure of health problems typical of an older adult population. Social support was determined by respondents' satisfaction with friends, neighbors, family, their marriage, and enjoyable time spent with their spouse. Social support was subdivided into two constructs separating spousal support from social support ...
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Stable attributions of child behavior and parenting stress in parents of ADHD children.

Stable attributions of child behavior and parenting stress in parents of ADHD children.

Date: August 2002
Creator: Besly, Katherine Dobbs
Description: The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in how parents of ADHD children and non-ADHD parents attribute undesirable and prosocial child behavior, and to determine if attributions about undesirable child behavior influence parents' perceived levels of parenting stress. Parent attributions from 69 parent-child dyads, half with a child ADHD diagnosis, were measured coding videotaped interactions. Results indicated that parents of ADHD children do not make significantly more stable attributions about undesirable child behavior than non-ADHD parents. Additionally, compared to non-ADHD parents, parents of ADHD children did not make significantly more unstable attributions about their children's prosocial behaviors. Regarding parenting stress, individuals who generated higher frequencies of stable attributions also appeared to maintain more negative views of their children's behaviors in comparison to other children.
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A test of an etiological model: The development of disordered eating in Division-I university female gymnasts and swimmers/divers.

A test of an etiological model: The development of disordered eating in Division-I university female gymnasts and swimmers/divers.

Date: December 2009
Creator: Anderson, Carlin Mahan
Description: Certain sport environments may contribute to the development of disordered eating and those that heavily emphasize weight and/or body shape can be particularly damaging to an athlete's body image, self-concept, and eating behaviors. In particular, female athletes in collegiate sports are at a greater risk for engaging in unhealthy behaviors because they face both societal pressures from Western culture to be thin, in addition to sport pressures that focus on performance and appearance. According to the American Medical Association almost half of American women are trying to lose weight, illustrating that societal pressures alone to be thin and attractive can influence the development of disordered eating. Athletes are exposed to the same sociocultural pressures as their nonathlete counterparts, and would be expected to have similar feelings about their bodies as women in general. Add subsequent pressures like team "weigh-ins," coaches' body comp preferences, judges' critiques, revealing attire, and endurance/strength demands, and the stage is set for the development of disordered eating. In the current study, participants were 414 Division-I female gymnasts, swimmers/divers, and they completed self-report measures assessing sport pressures, body satisfaction and disordered eating behavior to test Petrie & Greenleaf's etiological model. Results indicate that sport pressures do lead ...
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The Thematic Apperception Test: The relationship between scored fanasy aggression and aggressive behavior

The Thematic Apperception Test: The relationship between scored fanasy aggression and aggressive behavior

Date: December 2000
Creator: Fabrick, Joanne Madeline
Description: This study attempted to determine the relationship between fantasy aggression and behavioral aggression, and whether fantasy aggression measured by the Thematic Apperception Test is related to behavioral aggression. Participant TAT protocols from psychology clinic files were scored for fantasy aggression, and these scores were correlated with self-reported presence or absence of behavioral aggression. The scoring system used was a blend of popular aggression scales used in the 1960s and newer theory. Other variables that were examined were story length and gender in relation to the measured amount of fantasy and behavioral aggression.
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Variations of the Hand Test with young and older adults

Variations of the Hand Test with young and older adults

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Date: August 2001
Creator: Radika, Lisa M.
Description: To explore the influence that variations in projective stimuli might have on the respondent's ability to identify with pictorial representations of hands derived from the Hand Test (Wagner, 1961, 1983), 61 young adults (M age = 23) and 60 older adults (M age = 73) were presented with four alternate versions of hand stimuli (young male, young female, old male, and old female) in addition to the original Hand Test. Results indicated main effects for age and gender of respondent, which were primarily consistent with previous Hand Test research. Main effects for gender and age of hand stimuli (p < .05) were also found. Significant interaction effects were revealed for age of respondent by age of hand stimuli and for age of respondent by gender of hand stimuli (p < .05). These interactions resulted in the elicitation of a variety of responses to a differentiated manner than a standard set of Hand Test stimuli. A gender of respondent by gender of hand stimuli interaction effect was also found (p &lt; .05), suggesting that gender alterations of the card may also be beneficial for increasing respondent identification for some individuals. Overall, the results of variations in Hand Test stimuli, as they ...
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Victimization and expressions of relational and overt aggression among boys and girls with ADHD.

Victimization and expressions of relational and overt aggression among boys and girls with ADHD.

Date: December 2009
Creator: Rivero, Arlene Jean Abello
Description: This study investigated if girls and boys high in ADHD symptomology exhibited and experienced relational and overt aggression differently than boys and girls without ADHD symptoms using peer, parent and teacher ratings. A measurement of social behavior for parent ratings was also validated. Using archival data, 371 3rd- 6th graders from a north Texas school district participated in the study, along with a parent or guardian and teachers. Results supported that ADHD subtype predicted more overt aggression according to parents and teachers but not peers. ADHD subtype did not predict more relational aggression but ADHD symptomology did. Contrary to past research, gender did not moderate relational aggression or internalizing symptoms from relational victimization. Furthermore, a parent version of the Child Social Behavior Scale was found to effectively measure relational, overt and prosocial behavior. Limitations, future directions and implications are discussed.
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