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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Environmental Policy Collection
Ice Core Records of Past Climate Changes: Implications for the Future, USGCRP Seminar, 18 September 1995.

Ice Core Records of Past Climate Changes: Implications for the Future, USGCRP Seminar, 18 September 1995.

Date: September 18, 1995
Creator: Thompson, Lonnie G. & Bender, Michael
Description: This document provides a brief overview of Dr. Thompson's talk on records of changes in climate in general and the most significant implications of the ice core records of past climate changes in particular. Because climate processes that have operated in the past continue to operate today, ice core records are providing very valuable insights. Within the last two decades, long cores of glacial ice have been used to establish and improve the record of past changes in climate. Analysis of ice cores from Antarctica, Greenland and tropical and subtropical areas have provided a wealth of detailed information on past climate changes. As the ice in these glaciers and ice sheets grew over time, layer by layer, tiny pockets of air were trapped within each layer, preserving a continuous record of the natural changes in the concentrations of greenhouse and other gases. In addition, these ice cores have preserved indirect/proxy records of changes in temperature (which can be closely estimated from the isotopic record of oxygen trapped in the ice), in the concentration of windblown dust, and in volcanic activity. By combining this information, these ice cores have preserved a 200,000-year history of climate changes and factors contributing to these ...
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Incorporating biodiversity considerations into environmental impact analysis under the National Environmental Policy Act

Incorporating biodiversity considerations into environmental impact analysis under the National Environmental Policy Act

Date: January 1993
Creator: Council on Environmental Quality (U.S.)
Description: This report outlines general concepts that underlie biological diversity analysis and management, and discusses methods for considering biodiversity in current and future NEPA analyses.
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Inter-American Convention on Sea Turtles : message from the President of the United States transmitting Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles, with annexes, done at Caracas December 1, 1996, (The "Convention"), which was signed by the United States, subject to ratification on December 13, 1996

Inter-American Convention on Sea Turtles : message from the President of the United States transmitting Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles, with annexes, done at Caracas December 1, 1996, (The "Convention"), which was signed by the United States, subject to ratification on December 13, 1996

Date: 1998
Creator: United States. President (1993-2001 : Clinton) & Albright, Madeleine Korbel
Description: This treaty provides the legal framework for member countries in the Americas and the Caribbean to take actions for the benefit of sea turtles
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IPCC Special Report Aviation and the Global Atmosphere: Summary for Policymakers

IPCC Special Report Aviation and the Global Atmosphere: Summary for Policymakers

Date: 1999
Creator: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Groups I and III
Description: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was jointly established by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1988 to: (i) assess available information on the science, the impacts, and the economics of, and the options for mitigating and/or adapting to, climate change and (ii) provide, on request, scientific/technical/socio-economic advice to the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Since then the IPCC has produced a series of Assessment Reports, Special Reports, Technical Papers, methodologies, and other products that have become standard works of reference, widely used by policymakers, scientists, and other experts. This Special Report was prepared following a request from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The state of understanding of the relevant science of the atmosphere, aviation technology, and socio-economic issues associated with mitigation options is assessed and reported for both subsonic and supersonic fleets. The potential effects that aviation has had in the past and may have in the future on both stratospheric ozone depletion and global climate change are covered; environmental impacts of aviation at the local ...
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IPCC Technical Guidelines for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations

IPCC Technical Guidelines for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations

Date: 1994
Creator: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Description: This guideline provides a means for assessing the impacts of potential climate change and of evaluating appropriate adaptations.
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The Kalahari Transect: Research on Global Change and Sustainable Development in Southern Africa

The Kalahari Transect: Research on Global Change and Sustainable Development in Southern Africa

Date: 1997
Creator: Scholes, R.J. & Parsons, D.A.B.
Description: The Kalahari Transect is proposed as one of IGBPs Transects (see Koch et al. 1995 [IGBP Report 36]). It is located so as to span the gradient between the arid subtropics and the moist tropics in southern Africa, a zone potentially susceptible to changes in the global precipitation pattern. Its focus is the relationships between the structure and function of ecosystems and their large-scale biophysical and human drivers (climate, atmosphere and land use). The Kalahari Transect spans a strong climatic gradient in southern Africa, from the arid south to the humid north, while remaining on a single broad soil type, the deep sands of the Kalahari basin. The vegetation ranges over the length of the transect from shrubland through savannas and woodlands to closed evergreen tropical forest, with land uses ranging from migratory wildlife systems, through pastoralism, subsistence cropping to forestry. The objectives of the Kalahari Transect activity are to: build an active network of regional and international researchers around the issue of ecosystem structure and function in savanna woodlands undergoing climatic and land use change; quantify the current and future role of southern African savanna woodlands in the global carbon, water and trace gas budgets and the degree of ...
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Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Date: 1998
Creator: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Organization)
Description: The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Recognizing that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity, the Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities."
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Land-Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC): Implementation Strategy

Land-Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC): Implementation Strategy

Date: 1999
Creator: Scientific Steering Committee and International Project Office of LUCC
Description: The Implementation Strategy of the Land-Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC) project specifies in greater detail the activities and projects that will fulfil the mandate outlined in the LUCC Science/Research Plan published in 1995. The project, a joint initiative of IGBP and IHDP, is addressing important global change questions on the local, regional and global scale. The planned and ongoing activities involve a wide community of natural and social scientists. The new understanding of land-use and land-cover change dynamics following from the work carried out under the LUCC Implementation Strategy will be of crucial importance to the global environmental change research community as well as to decision-makers at the local, regional and global levels.
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Law of the People's Republic of China on Conserving Energy

Law of the People's Republic of China on Conserving Energy

Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: National People's Congress
Description: This Law is formulated in order to promote energy conservation by all sectors of society, increase energy efficiency to benefit economic development, protect the environment, ensure national economic and social development, and meet the people's needs in everyday life.
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Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Pollution From Environmental Noise

Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Pollution From Environmental Noise

Date: October 29, 1996
Creator: Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
Description: This Law is enacted for the purpose of preventing and controlling environmental noise pollution, protecting and improving the living environment, ensuring human health, and promoting economic and social development.
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Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution by Solid Waste

Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution by Solid Waste

Date: October 30, 1995
Creator: Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
Description: This law was established in China to prevent the pollution of the environment by solid waste, to ensure public health and safety, and to promote the development of socialist modernization.
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Law of the People's Republic of China on Water and Soil Conservation

Law of the People's Republic of China on Water and Soil Conservation

Date: June 29, 1991
Creator: National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China
Description: This Law was established for the purpose of the prevention and control of soil erosion; the protection and rational utilization of water and soil resources; the mitigation of flooding, drought, and sandstorm; the improvement of ecological environment and the development of production.
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Marine Environment Protection Law of the People's Republic of China

Marine Environment Protection Law of the People's Republic of China

Date: December 25, 1999
Creator: Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
Description: This law is enacted to protect and improve the marine environment, conserve marine resources, prevent pollution damages, maintain ecological balance, safeguard human health and promote sustainable economic and social development.
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The Miombo Network: Framework for a Terrestrial Transect Study of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change in the Miombo Ecosystems of Central Africa

The Miombo Network: Framework for a Terrestrial Transect Study of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change in the Miombo Ecosystems of Central Africa

Date: 1997
Creator: Desanker, Paul V.; Frost, Peter G. H.; Justice, Christopher O. & Scholes, Robert J.
Description: This report describes the strategy for the Miombo Network Initiative, developed at an International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) intercore-project workshop in Malawi in December 1995 and further refined during the Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) Open Science Meeting in January, 1996 and through consultation and review by the LUCC Scientific Steering Committee (SSC). The Miombo Network comprises of an international network of researchers working in concert on a 'community' research agenda developed to address the critical global change research questions for the miombo woodland ecosystems. The network also addresses capacity building and training needs in the Central, Eastern and Southern Africa (SAF) region, of the Global Change System for Analysis Research and Training (START). The research strategy described here provides the basis for a proposed IGBP Terrestrial Transect study of land cover and land use changes in the miombo ecosystems of Central Africa. It therefore resides administratively within the LUCC programme with linkages to other Programme Elements of the IGBP such as Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems (GCTE). The report provides the framework for research activities aimed at understanding how land use is affecting land cover and associated ecosystem processes; assessing what contribution these changes are making to global change; ...
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The National Environmental Policy Act: A Study of Its Effectiveness After Twenty-five Years

The National Environmental Policy Act: A Study of Its Effectiveness After Twenty-five Years

Date: January 1997
Creator: United States. Executive Office of the President.
Description: This report provides a detailed perspective on how the National Environmental Policy Act has affected federal agency decision making. The report summarizes how the Act has been implemented, how federal agency performance aligns with the intent of NEPA's framers, reactions from the public, NEPA stakeholders, and federal decision makers, and future challenges with ensuring the Act's continued effectiveness.
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Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop Final Report: Circles of Wisdom

Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop Final Report: Circles of Wisdom

Date: 1998
Creator: Maynard, Nancy, G.
Description: The Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop was held on October 28 through November 01, 1998, as part of a series of workshops being held around the U.S. to improve the understanding of the potential consequences of climate variability and change for the Nation. This workshop was specifically designed by Native Peoples to examine the impacts of climate change and extreme weather variability on Native Peoples and Native Homelands from an indigenous cultural and spiritual perspective and to develop recommendations as well as identify potential response actions. Native Peoples, with our spiritual traditions and long community histories of change, adaptation, and survival in specific regions, are providing a unique contribution to the assessment and understanding of climate change as well as to the development of sustainable economies in this country.
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Near-term Health Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Reductions: A Proposed Assessment Method and Application in Two Energy Sectors of China

Near-term Health Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Reductions: A Proposed Assessment Method and Application in Two Energy Sectors of China

Date: March 1999
Creator: Wang, Xiaodong & Smith, Kirk R.
Description: This is a study of projected near-term health benefits associated with greenhouse (GHG) reductions resulting from changes in energy efficiency and structure of energy use in the power and household sectors of China. The work was commissioned by the former Office of Global and Integrated Environmental Health at WHO, in order to explore the scope for modelling in the assessment of such short-term health benefits. China was selected as an appropiate case study for this work, as it fulfilled most of the criteria required, including the fact that it is a large country, with data sets available on air pollution and health, and with information on projected trends in the consumption of fossil fuels
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El Niño and health

El Niño and health

Date: 1999
Creator: Kovats, R Sari; Bouma, Menno J & Haines, Andy
Description: El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climate event that originates in the Pacific Ocean but has wide-ranging consequences for weather around the world, and is especially associated with droughts and floods. The irregular occurrence of El Niño and La Niña events has implications for public health. On a global scale, the human effect of natural disasters increases during El Niño. The effect of ENSO on cholera risk in Bangladesh, and malaria epidemics in parts of South Asia and South America has been well established. The strongest evidence for an association between ENSO and disease is provided by time-series analysis with data series that include more than one event. Evidence for ENSO's effect on other mosquito-borne and rodent-borne diseases is weaker than that for malaria and cholera. Health planners are used to dealing with spatial risk concepts but have little experience with temporal risk management. ENSO and seasonal climate forecasts might offer the opportunity to target scarce resources for epidemic control and disaster preparedness.
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Ocean Biogeochemistry and Global Change

Ocean Biogeochemistry and Global Change

Date: 1997
Creator: Joint Global Ocean Flux Study
Description: From the perspective of terrestrial ecosystems, the most important component of global change over the next three or four decades will likely be land-use/cover change. It is driven largely by the need to feed the expanding human population, expected to increase by almost one billion (109) people per decade for the next three decades at least. Much of this increase will occur in developing countries in the low-latitude regions of the world. To meet the associated food demand, crop yields will need to increase, consistently, by over 2% every year through this period. Despite advances in technology, increasing food production must lead to intensification of agriculture in areas which are already cropped, and conversion of forests and grasslands into cropping systems. Much of the latter will occur in semi-arid regions and on lands which are marginally suitable for cultivation, increasing the risk of soil erosion, accelerated water use, and further land degradation.
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Oil Pollution Act of 1990

Oil Pollution Act of 1990

Date: 1990
Creator: United States. Congress
Description: The Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990 streamlined and strengthened EPA's ability to prevent and respond to catastrophic oil spills. A trust fund financed by a tax on oil is available to clean up spills when the responsible party is incapable or unwilling to do so. The OPA requires oil storage facilities and vessels to submit to the Federal government plans detailing how they will respond to large discharges. EPA has published regulations for above ground storage facilities; the Coast Guard has done so for oil tankers. The OPA also requires the development of Area Contingency Plans to prepare and plan for oil spill response on a regional scale.
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Organic Act of the Environmental Protection Personnel Training Institute, Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan

Organic Act of the Environmental Protection Personnel Training Institute, Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan

Date: January 18, 1995
Creator: China (Republic : 1949- )
Description: This law was passed by the Republic of China (Taiwan) in order to support the training of government officials in certain areas of environmental regulation, assessment, inspection, arbitration, and enforcement.
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Organic Act of the National Institute of Environmental Analysis, Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan

Organic Act of the National Institute of Environmental Analysis, Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan

Date: January 13, 1995
Creator: China (Republic : 1949- )
Description: This law, passed by the Republic of China (Taiwan) establishes the role National Institute of Environmental Analysis.
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Our Changing Planet: The FY 1995 U.S. Global Change Research Program

Our Changing Planet: The FY 1995 U.S. Global Change Research Program

Date: 1994
Creator: U.S. Global Change Research Information Office
Description: The U.S. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM (USGCRP) supports activities that provide information and policy-relevant understanding about the coupling of human activities and the environment across a broad range of issues, perspectives, and interactions. Global change research focuses on providing scientific insight into critical global change issues and policy choices facing the nation and the world community. Global change research to address these issues is organized into a flexible multidisciplinary framework for coordinating science activities. Each global change issue is addressed through a process which strives to document, understand, predict, and assess the science in a way that yields results that are relevant to the needs of decision makers. The USGCRP is founded on the premise that international cooperation and coordination is fundamental to addressing global environmental issues. USGCRP programs significantly contribute to worldwide global change research efforts
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Past Global Changes (PAGES) Status Report and Implementation Plan

Past Global Changes (PAGES) Status Report and Implementation Plan

Date: 1998
Creator: Oldfield, Frank
Description: This document summarizes progress made thus far by the Past Global Changes (PAGES) programme element of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). The document also outlines the implementation plans for most of the Foci, Activities and Tasks currently within the PAGES remit. The plan first introduces the scope and rationale of PAGES science and explains how PAGES is organized structurally and scientifically to achieve its goals. For all of the palaeosciences relevant to IGBP goals, PAGES has sought to identify and create the organizational structures needed to support continued work and progress. Models intended to predict future environmental changes must, in order to demonstrate their effectiveness, be capable of accurately reproducing conditions known to have occurred in the past. Through the organization of coordinated national and international scientific efforts, PAGES seeks to obtain and interpret a variety of palaeoclimatic records and to provide the data essential for the validation of predictive climate models. PAGES activities include integration and intercomparison of ice, ocean and terrestrial palaeorecords and encourages the creation of consistent analytical and data-base methodologies across the palaeosciences. PAGES has already played a crucial role in the archiving, management and dissemination of palaeodata. This is fully summarized in the recently published ...
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