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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Department: Department of Behavior Analysis
 Degree Level: Master's
A Preliminary Analysis of Interactions Between Sibling training and Toy Preferences

A Preliminary Analysis of Interactions Between Sibling training and Toy Preferences

Date: May 2011
Creator: Greer, Julie Winn
Description: Siblings of children who have been diagnosed with autism can play important roles in the lives of their brothers or sisters. Previous literature shows that siblings can effectively change behavior and can increase play interactions. Furthermore, the use of preferred materials may enhance social interactions between the siblings. The purpose of this study was to determine, the effects that material preferences and choices have on sibling social bids and cooperative play during a sibling training program. There were two main objectives. The first objective was to evaluate the effects of teaching with the high preference toy of the neuro-typical sibling during sibling training. The second objective was to determine if the training would produce different effects across four different toy conditions. Measures included social bids made by each of the siblings and cooperative play. Results indicate that teaching with the neuro-typical siblings' high preference toy during sibling training can be an effective method to increase social bids and cooperative play. The results of this study are discussed in the contexts of preference and choice selections, physical environments, motor skills, carry over effects, and participations based on gender.
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Programming Common Stimuli to Promote Generalized Question-Asking in a Child with Autism

Programming Common Stimuli to Promote Generalized Question-Asking in a Child with Autism

Date: August 1997
Creator: Hagen, Prudence (Prudence Bennett)
Description: A 5-year-old child with autism was taught to: (a) ask "What is that?" in the presence of unknown objects and (b) name the objects he did know. Generalization in the presence of the experimenter was probed across four new tasks. The child's performance generalized to the first 3 tasks without additional training. The fourth task required programming of common stimuli before generalization occurred.
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Progressing from identification and functional analysis of precursor behavior to treatment of self-injury.

Progressing from identification and functional analysis of precursor behavior to treatment of self-injury.

Date: December 2009
Creator: Dracobly, Joseph Daniel
Description: An evaluation of the utility of assessing and treating severe problem behavior through precursor functional analysis was completed. Ongoing measurement of problem behavior in two settings in the participant's natural environment was conducted for the duration of the study. A precursor to self-injurious behavior was identified using descriptive assessment and conditional probability analyses. A precursor functional analysis was then conducted. Subsequently, a treatment, in which precursor behavior produced the maintaining variable identified in the precursor functional analysis, was implemented in the natural environment. Treatment resulted in increases in the precursor behavior and decreases in self-injury in both the treatment setting and the second setting in which observations occurred. Implications of the assessment and treatment procedures are discussed.
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Reducing Undesirable Behavior with Stimulus Control

Reducing Undesirable Behavior with Stimulus Control

Date: May 2012
Creator: Davison, Matthew Alan
Description: The present experiment investigated the application of Green and Swets (1966) signal-detection theory to undesirable behavior as a method of reducing unwanted behaviors using reinforcement and extinction. This experiment investigated the use of this stimulus control technique to reduce undesirable behaviors using a multiple-baseline design. Once the cue for a target behavior was established and maintained, the use of the verbal cue was reduced in frequency and the rate of unprompted undesirable behavior was recorded. Generalization was tested across multiple people. Data for this experiment showed that undesirable behavior could be reduced by altering the stimulus control that maintained it.
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Replication and Extension of a Comprehensive Staff Training Program for an Autism Treatment Program

Replication and Extension of a Comprehensive Staff Training Program for an Autism Treatment Program

Date: May 2011
Creator: Johnson, Kellyn Joi
Description: Previous research has shown that early and intensive behavioral interventions are an effective treatment for young children with autism resulting meaningful gains that can maintain over time. For behavioral treatments to be effective, service providers need to be competently trained in behavioral interventions through staff training. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend previous research by employing a more rigorous research design, and including measures of teaching units, and staff and child affect measures. The trainee was taught 150 skills. Training methods included descriptions, modeling, practice, and feedback. Results showed that the trainee acquired all skills while maintaining an increasing number of teaching units. Child and staff also maintained favorable affect as training progressed. In addition, staff reported the training as very effective and highly satisfactory. This shows that comprehensive training packages that comprise a large set of skills in real life treatment settings can result in benefits for the staff and children.
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Response Patterns in Functional Analyses: a Preliminary Analysis

Response Patterns in Functional Analyses: a Preliminary Analysis

Date: August 2012
Creator: Gibson, Christine M.
Description: Functional assessment procedures have proven effective in identifying the operant contingencies that maintain problem behavior. Typically, the evaluation of responding during functional analyses is conducted at the condition level. However, some variables affecting occurrences of behavior cannot be evaluated solely through the use of a cross-session analysis. Evaluating within-session patterns of responding may provide information about variables such as extinction bursts, discriminative stimuli, and motivating operations such as deprivation and satiation. The current study was designed to identify some typical response patterns that are generated when data are displayed across and within sessions of functional analyses, discuss some variables that may cause these trends, and evaluate the utility of within-session analyses. Results revealed that several specific patterns of responding were identified for both across- and within-session analyses, which may be useful in clarifying the function of behavior.
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Retention, Endurance, Stability, and Application of Learned Performances as a Function of Training Condition

Retention, Endurance, Stability, and Application of Learned Performances as a Function of Training Condition

Date: December 2008
Creator: Cohen, Jason
Description: A functional definition of fluency describes performance frequency ranges that predict retention, endurance, stability, application, and adduction as outcomes of practice. This experiment assessed these outcomes after different training conditions using a within-subject design. Participants in an experimental group learned new skills in a condition with rate and accuracy criteria, then in a yoked, rate-controlled condition with the same number of prompted responses and correct trials in practice. Control group participants received training in consecutive conditions with rate and accuracy criteria. Performance of individuals in the control group demonstrated practice effects. Data obtained from participants in the experimental group showed similar performance across conditions. Considering efficiency, the condition with rate and accuracy criteria was superior.
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The Role of a Point Loss Contingency on the Emergence of Derived Relations in the Absence of Original Relations

The Role of a Point Loss Contingency on the Emergence of Derived Relations in the Absence of Original Relations

Date: December 1997
Creator: Michniewicz, Leslie (Leslie A.)
Description: The role of point loss for symmetrical relations introduced simultaneously with probe trials in the absence of original relations on all probe trial performances was evaluated. Training was completed after six conditional discriminations were established in two contexts. Point loss was introduced simultaneously with probe trials in the absence of original relations in the first context. Probe trials with no point loss in the absence of original relations were introduced in the second context. The simultaneous introduction of probe trials and the point loss contingency may in some cases prevent the emergence of an equivalence class in the context that contained the point loss as well as in the context where no point loss occurred.
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The role of common stimulus functions in the development of equivalence classes.

The role of common stimulus functions in the development of equivalence classes.

Date: August 2004
Creator: MacIver, Kirsty
Description: College students were exposed to training designed to teach nine simple discriminations, such that sets of three arbitrary visual stimuli acquired common functions. For seven of eight participants, three 3-member contingency classes resulted. When the same stimuli were presented in a match-to-sample procedure under test conditions, four participants demonstrated equivalence-consistent responding, matching all stimuli from the same contingency class. Test performance for two participants was systematically controlled by other variables, and for a final participant was unsystematic. Exposure to a yes/no test yielded equivalence-consistent performance for one participant where the match-to-sample test had not. Implications for the treatment of equivalence as a unified, integrated phenomenon are discussed.
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The Role of Fluency in the Emergence of the Derived Relations of Stimulus Equivalence

The Role of Fluency in the Emergence of the Derived Relations of Stimulus Equivalence

Date: December 1995
Creator: Burkett, Leslie Stewart
Description: Fluent component performances may be more readily available for recombination into more complex repertoires. This experiment considered the stimulus equivalence preparation as a laboratory analog for the co-adduction said to occur in generative instruction. Seven adults received minimum training on 18 conditional discriminations, components of 9 potential stimulus equivalence classes. Training was interrupted periodically with tests to determine whether fluency of original relations predicted emergence of derived relations. Fluency predicted emergence in 2 of 17 instances of emergent derived relations for 4 subjects. One subject demonstrated fluency without derived relations. Training accuracies as low as 58% preceded emergence for 3 subjects. Fluency appears to be neither necessary nor sufficient for derived relations. Fluency's role may be in retention and complex application tasks rather than acquisition of behavioral relations.
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