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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Environmental Policy Collection
Environmental Finance Services
This document outlines how UNDP is helping governments to attract and drive private investment towards sustainable solutions by combining and sequencing various financial instruments to effect policy change. These environmental finance services of UNDP offer an innovative and robust approach to addressing climate change, and other environmental and sustainable development concerns.
Environmental Impact Assessment Act
This law was passed by the government of the Republic of China (Taiwan) to protect the natural environment from some of the negative effects of economic growth.
Environmental Quality; Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Establishes as state policy statewide greenhouse gas emissions limits at or below the statewide greenhouse gas emissions levels in 1990 to be achieved by January 1, 2020. Establishes greenhouse gas emissions reduction task force to prepare a work plan and regulatory scheme to achieve the statewide greenhouse gas emissions limits.
Environmental Variability and Climate Change
The PAGES research community works toward improving our understanding of the Earth's changing environment. By placing current and future global changes in a long term perspective, they can be assessed relative to natural variability. Since the industrial revolution, the Earth System has become increasingly affected by human activities. Natural and human processes are woven into a complex tapestry of forcings, responses, feedbacks and consequences. Deciphering this complexity is essential as we plan for the future. Paleoenvironmental research is the only way to investigate Earth System processes that operate on timescales longer than the period of instrumental records.
Establishing the Leakage Rates of Mobile Air Conditioners
The purpose of the study is to - based on field measurements - determine the average annual leakage rate of HFC-134a from MACs in the European Union of a "second generation"1 air conditioner. From November 2002, to January 2003 300 measurements of HFC-134a leakage were carried out on air conditioners of cars up to seven years age. The measurements were carried out on vehicles of all EU relevant makes at 19 garages in Germany (Osnabrück), Portugal (Rio Maior) and Sweden (Helsingborg) reflecting different climatic conditions.
Estimating the cost of building capacity in rainforest nations to allow them to participate in a global REDD mechanism
This report provides an estimation of the funds that will be needed to build carbon sink capacity in 25 rain forest nations to enable them to participate in the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation mechanism, an instrument proposed under the UN Convention on Climate Change that rewards countries for avoiding the removal or degradation of forests. This paper was commissioned by the Office of Climate Change as background work to its report "Climate Change: Financing Global Forests" (the Eliasch Review).
Evaluation of the Pilot Project of Domestic Emissions Trading Scheme
This document is an evaluation of the Japanese domestic emissions trading scheme to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Excutive Order 07-02: Washington Climate Change Challenge
Extreme Weather: Does Nature Keep Up? Observed Responses of Species And Ecosystems to Changes in Climate and Extreme Weather Events: Many More Reasons for Concern
The authors of the report found that there were “many more reasons for concern” and specifically pointed out that “it will be impossible under such conditions of rapid climate change to uphold the UN Convention on Biodiversity’s aim to reduce the rate of biodiversity decline significantly by 2010.”It seems that extreme weather events contribute disproportionately to recently observed climate change explaining why ecological impacts have become so abundant over the last decade. In response, the authors clearly state their scientific judgment is that “efforts be made to limit the increase in global mean surface temperature to maximally 1.5 ºC above preindustrial levels and limit the rate of change to less than 0.05 ºC per decade.” In other words, there can be no further delay in reducing emissions. In fact, the scale and urgency just got bigger and greater. Global emissions must be on a steep downward trend in the next decade in order to avoid the worst impacts.
S.F. No. 145, 2nd Engrossment 85th Legislative Session (20072008)
No Description
Fast Facts: Climate Change and UNDP
Making poverty history and tackling climate change go hand-in-hand because receding forests, changing rainfall patterns and rising sea levels trap people in hardship and undermine their future. Studies in Ethiopia show that children exposed to drought in early childhood are 36 percent more likely to be malnourished five years later.
Fast Facts: UNDP and Climate Change
The document contains key facts about climate change drawn from UNDP's 2007/2008 Human Development Report. The document also outlines UNDP's work in the area of climate change and provides examples.
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) provides for federal regulation of pesticide distribution, sale, and use. All pesticides distributed or sold in the United States must be registered (licensed) by EPA. Before EPA may register a pesticide under FIFRA, the applicant must show, among other things, that using the pesticide according to specifications "will not generally cause unreasonable adverse effects on the environment.'' FIFRA defines the term ''unreasonable adverse effects on the environment'' to mean: ''(1) any unreasonable risk to man or the environment, taking into account the economic, social, and environmental costs and benefits of the use of any pesticide, or (2) a human dietary risk from residues that result from a use of a pesticide in or on any food inconsistent with the standard under section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.''
Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance
This executive order establishes sustainability and energy efficiency as priorities in the operations of the federal government.
Federal Water Pollution Control Act
The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into the waters of the United States and regulating quality standards for surface waters. The basis of the CWA was enacted in 1948 and was called the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, but the Act was significantly reorganized and expanded in 1972. "Clean Water Act" became the Act's common name with amendments in 1977. Under the CWA, EPA has implemented pollution control programs such as setting wastewater standards for industry. We have also set water quality standards for all contaminants in surface waters. The CWA made it unlawful to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters, unless a permit was obtained. EPA's National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls discharges. Point sources are discrete conveyances such as pipes or man-made ditches. Individual homes that are connected to a municipal system, use a septic system, or do not have a surface discharge do not need an NPDES permit; however, industrial, municipal, and other facilities must obtain permits if their discharges go directly to surface waters.
Feed-In Tariffs - Boosting Energy for our Future: A guide to one of the world's best environmental policies
This brochure explains Feed-In Tariff (FIT) laws. The big challenge for the renewable energy industry has been to make the cost of clean energy competitive with heavily-subsidized conventional energy. Householders or energy companies who want to install wind turbines or solar panels are faced with lengthy pay-back times and are forced to make a choice based on ethics rather than economics. The Feed-In Tariff (FIT) has proven to be the most effective policy instrument in overcoming these barriers. This simple, low-cost mechanism has turned several European countries into world leaders in the renewables sector.
Final Vermont Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Reference Case Projections, 1990-2030
This report estimates the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sinks for Vermont from 1990-2030.
Findings of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Report 2.2: The First State of the Carbon Cycle Report: North American Carbon Budget and Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle
This brochure describes sources of carbon emissions in North America, and ways to remove those emissions from the atmosphere.
The First Ministerial Regional Forum
The First Ministerial Regional Forum on Environment and Health in Southeast and East Asian countries was held in Bangkok, Thailand on 9 August 2007. The forum was jointly organized by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific and the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Offices for the Western Pacific and South-East Asia, and hosted by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment and Ministry of Public Health, Government of Thailand and the Chulabhorn Research Institute (CRI). The forum was attended by Environment and Health Ministers from fourteen Southeast and East Asian countries including Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, People’s Republic of China, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The agenda and annotated agenda of the forum are given in Annexes 1 and 2, respectively, and a list of participants is enclosed in Annex 3.
Fiscal Year 2005- 2006 Accelerated Research on Global Climate Observations Fact Sheet
Coincident with the release of the Climate Change Science Program strategic plan, the Administration announces plans for the acceleration of select high priority research projects and climate observations. These activities contribute to filling critical knowledge gaps identified in the plan (aerosols, oceans and the natural carbon cycle). The selected investments have been coordinated among the agencies to maximize the overall impact. Funding will be reallocated from lower priority areas to enable these critical investments.
Fisheries, Tuna Agreement Between the United States of America and Canada Amending The Treaty of May 26, 1981 Effected by Exchange of Notes Signed at Washington, October 3 and 9, 1997.
“. . .the Treaties and Other International Acts Series issued under the authority of the Secretary of State shall be competent evidence . . . of the treaties, international agreements other than treaties, and proclamations by the President of such treaties and international agreements other than treaties, as the case may be, therein contained, in all the courts of law and equity and of maritime jurisdiction, and in all the tribunals and public offices of the United States, and of the several States, without any further proof or authentication thereof.”
FITness Testing: Exploring the myths and misconceptions about feed-in tariff policies
The booklet argues that in spite of the recent surge in renewable electricity markets, the United States will need to dramatically increase the amount of installed renewable energy in order to improve energy security, create new jobs, and address the growing risks of climate change.
Florida’s Energy and Climate Change Action Plan: 2007
This report provides findings and recommendations addressing 11 charges, framed by three principal energy challenges facing Florida: stimulate economic development, achieve energy security and address the effects of global climate change.
Forest Carbon Accounting: Overview & Principles
This report reinforces UNDP's capacity building efforts by presenting the main principles, practices and challenges of carbon accounting in the forestry sector. It highlights the historic, current and future needs for forest carbon accounting; principles and good practice; the process of forest carbon accounting; and existing guidance and toolkits available for forestry carbon accounting.
Forests and Emissions: A contribution to the Eliasch Review
This report discusses the impacts of deforestation and reforestation on carbon emissions and carbon storage, and how change in land cover will affect future trends in climate change and carbon levels.
From the Drylands to the Market: Policy Opportunities and Challenges in Dryland Areas of East Africa.
This paper presents a summary of the challenges, opportunities and policies adopted by the three East African countries –Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania- to address the production and marketing of goods and services from drylands. It also provides recommendations on policy that could enhance production and marketing of relevant products. It is based on three national policy studies undertaken in the three countries, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.
From the Edge: Science to Support Restoration of Pacific Salmon
According the preface, this report represents the scientific understanding of salmon and salmon declines in the year 2000. The report provides an overview of salmon population trends, and ways to aid in and measure recovery.
Fueling sustainable development: The energy productivity solution
The booklet describes the mounting policy and business concerns surrounding the supply of energy and argues that the most cost-effective way to address these concerns is through improving energy productivity and adopting existing energy-efficient technologies that pay for themselves in future energy savings. The document supports the role of public policy in encouraging consumers and businesses to capture the benefits of higher energy productivity.
Fueling Transportation Finance: A Primer on the Gas Tax
This report is about a study of the collection, allocation, and use of federal and state taxes on motor fuels the “gas tax”.
Further Work of the IPCC on Emission Scenarios
This report summarizes recommendations for the development and assessment of new emission scenarios for possible use in the IPCC 5th Assessment Report.
Future Climate Change Research and Observations: GCOS, WCRP and IGBP Learning from the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report
Learning from the authors of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report and its findings to help guide future strategies for climate change observations and research was the key objective of a workshop organised jointly by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) in Sydney, Australia, 4-6 October 2007.
G8 Climate Scorecards
The report concludes with a global cumulative GHG emission cap for the period from 2010 till 2050. It outlines mid-term and long-term cumulative emission allowances for key countries under the three equity approaches and trajectories for these countries to keep global warming below 2 degrees Celsius. The objective of the report is to initiate a constructive debate among and foster long-term commitments of the parties while moving towards a fair, ambitious and binding Copenhagen agreement.
General Assembly of North Carolina Session 2005: Session Law 2005-442 Senate Bill 1134
An act to establish the legislative commission on global climate change: to direct the commission to study issues related to global warming, the emerging carbon economy, and whether it is appropriate and desirable for the state to establish a global warming pollutant reduction goal; and, if the commission determines that the establishment of a goal is appropriate and desirable, to authorize the commission to develop a recommended goal.
GEO Year Book 2004/5: An Overview of Our Changing Environment
This publication discusses global environmental efforts, successes, and setbacks of 2004.
GEO Year Book 2006: An Overview of Our Changing Environment
This publication describes major global environmental issues and policy decisions during 2006.
GEO Year Book 2007: An Overview of Our Changing Environment
This publication is an overview of major global environmental issues and policy decisions during the course of 2007.
Getting Ready for REDD: Toward an Effective and Equitable Policy on International Forest Carbon
“Getting Ready for REDD” is one in a series of papers examining in more detail some of the issues raised in the Greenprint,
The Global Carbon Cycle
A brochure explaining the likely dynamics of the carbon-climate-human system with projections for the future, and recommendations for points of intervention and windows of opportunity for human societies to manage this system.
Global Carbon Finance: A quantitative modelling framework to explore scenarios of the Global Deal on Climate Change
According to the abstract, the purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative research methodology for analyzing the costs of dealing with climate change.
Global Carbon Project: The Science Framework and Implementation
Carbon cycle research is often carried out in isolation from research on energy systems and normally focuses only on the biophysical patterns and processes of carbon sources and sinks. The Global Carbon Project represents a significant advance beyond the status quo in several important ways. First, the problem is conceptualised from the outset as one involving fully integrated human and natural components; the emphasis is on the carbon-climate-human system (fossil-fuel based energy systems + biophysical carbon cycle + physical climate system) and not simply on the biophysical carbon cycle alone. Secondly, the development of new methodologies for analysing and modelling the integrated carbon cycle is a central feature of the project. Thirdly, the project provides an internally consistent framework for the coordination and integration of the many national and regional carbon cycle research programmes that are being established around the world. Fourthly, the project addresses questions of direct policy relevance, such as the management strategies and sustainable regional development pathways required to achieve stabilisation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Finally, the Global Carbon Project goes beyond the traditional set of stakeholders for a global change research project by seeking to engage the industrial and energy sectors as well as the economic development and resource management sectors in the developing regions of the world.
Global Change and Mountain Regions: The Mountain Research Initiative
The strong altitudinal gradients in mountain regions provide unique and sometimes the best opportunities to detect and analyse global change processes and phenomena. Meteorological, hydrological, cryospheric and ecological conditions change strongly over relatively short distances; thus biodiversity tends to be high, and characteristic sequences of ecosystems and cryospheric systems are found along mountain slopes. The boundaries between these systems experience shifts due to environmental change and thus may be used as indicators of such changes. The higher parts of many mountain ranges are not affected by direct human activities. These areas include many national parks and other protected environments. They may serve as locations where the environmental impacts of climate change alone, including changes in atmospheric chemistry, can be studied directly. Mountain regions are distributed all over the globe, from the Equator almost to the poles and from oceanic to highly continental climates. This global distribution allows us to perform comparative regional studies and to analyse the regional differentiation of environmental change processes as characterised above. Therefore, within the IGBP an Initiative for Collaborative Research on Global Change and Mountain Regions was developed, which strives to achieve an integrated approach for observing, modelling and investigating global change phenomena and processes in mountain regions, including their impacts on ecosystems and socio-economic systems.
Global Change and the Earth System: A planet under pressure
The PAGES research community works toward improving our understanding of the Earth's changing environment. By placing current and future global changes in a long term perspective, they can be assessed relative to natural variability. Since the industrial revolution, the Earth System has become increasingly affected by human activities. Natural and human processes are woven into a complex tapestry of forcings, responses, feedbacks and consequences. Deciphering this complexity is essential as we plan for the future. Paleoenvironmental research is the only way to investigate Earth System processes that operate on timescales longer than the period of instrumental records.
Global Change Coastal Zone Management Synthesis Report
Change in the coastal zone has always been an integral topic in the APN’s research framework, and that there are serious coastal problems and issues in the Asia-Pacific region that need to be addressed. With this in mind, the 8th APN Inter-Governmental Meeting, held in Hanoi in March 2003, endorsed the initiation of a two-year APN Global Change Coastal Zone Management Synthesis. The APN Coastal Zone Management Synthesis identified research gaps and needs for future coastal zone research in the Asia-Pacific region. Products and outputs of the synthesis are available in electronic and printed formats, the first a Coastal Zone Management Synthesis Report, the second a substantial publication, a book emphasising research gaps and a broad research agenda for the region.
Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States
This brochure highlights a report that summarizes the science of climate change, and the impacts of climate change on the United States.
Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States: A State of Knowledge Report from the U.S. Global Change Research Program
This book is the most comprehensive report to date on the wide range of impacts of climate change in the United States. It is written in plain language to better inform members of the public and policymakers. The report finds that global warming is unequivocal, primarily human-induced, and its impacts are already apparent in transportation, agriculture, health, and water and energy supplies. These impacts are expected to grow with continued climate change - the higher the levels of greenhouse gas emissions, the greater the impacts. The report illustrates how these impacts can be kept to a minimum if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced. The choices we make now will determine the severity of climate change impacts in the future. This book will help citizens, business leaders, and policymakers at all levels to make informed decisions about responding to climate change and its impacts. Likely to set the policy agenda across the US for the next few years Features examples of actions currently being pursued in various regions to address climate change. Summarizes in one place the current and projected affects of climate change in the United States
Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States: Highlights
This booklet highlights key findings of Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, a state of knowledge report about the observed and projected consequences of climate change for our nation and people. It is an authoritative scientific report written in plain language, with the goal of better informing public and private decision making at all levels. The report draws from a large body of scientific information including the set of 21 synthesis and assessment products from the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the assessments of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and much more. It also includes new information published since these assessments were released. While the primary focus of the report is on the impacts of climate change in the United States, it also discusses some of the actions society is already taking or can take to respond to the climate challenge. These include limiting climate change by, for example, reducing emissions of heat-trapping gases or increasing their removal from the atmosphere. The importance of our current choices about heat-trapping emissions is underscored by comparing impacts resulting from higher versus lower emissions scenarios. Choices about emissions made now will have far-reaching consequences for climate change impacts, with lower emissions reducing the magnitude of climate change impacts and the rate at which they appear. The report also identifies examples of options currently being pursued to cope with or adapt to the impacts of climate change and/or other environmental issues. One example of adaptation is included in this booklet. There is generally insufficient information at present to evaluate the effectiveness, costs, and benefits of potential adaptation actions. This booklet includes a brief overview of the 10 key findings of the report, using examples from the report to illustrate each finding. References for material in this booklet, including figures, can be found in the full report.
Global Drylands Imperative Challenge Paper: Pastoralism and Mobility In Drylands
Nomadic pastoralists and the dryland ecosystems they occupy form a critically important but little known livelihood system. Pastoralists have been ill-served by development policies and actions so far, since planners have almost without exception tried to convert the pastoralists into something else, judged more modern, more progressive and more productive. Happily this is now changing, as researchers and planners revise their ideas and identify a new development agenda. Many of these changes have resulted from successfully listening to herders themselves
The Global Drylands Imperative: Devolving Resource Rights and the MDGs in Africa
The paper analyzes a sample of existing or in-formulation policy frameworks governing access and security of tenure over major natural assets such as land, forests and wildlife. The fundamental question that runs through the analysis in the paper concerns the extent to which security of resource tenure can mediate the achievement of the MDGs.
The Global Drylands Initiative: Land Tenure Reform and The Drylands
The paper focuses on the need to rethink conventional wisdom on land tenure approaches and asks how we can best respond to the land tenure problems. It provides a comparative overview of land tenure systems in the drylands, identifies challenges and trends in land tenure reform projects, and offers ideas for decision-makers.
Global Environmental Change and Food Systems: Science Plan and Implementation Strategy
Recent years have seen a greatly increased understanding of how global environmental change will affect crop and animal productivity and these results pave the way for broader analyses of global environmental change impacts on food production. However, there is a need to think beyond productivity and production - food security is the ultimate concern, as it is of greater relevance to societal well-being and hence policy-making. To address this broader concept of food security, research and policy formulation needs to be set within the context of food systems, rather than just food supply. This will allow a more thorough understanding of the links between food security and the environment, and make clearer where technical and policy interventions in food systems might be help them adapt to global environmental change.