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The Effects of a Group Parent-coaching Package on the Behavior of Children with Autism and Their Parents

The Effects of a Group Parent-coaching Package on the Behavior of Children with Autism and Their Parents

Date: December 2012
Creator: Vaughn, Brittany M. L.
Description: Support for parents is an important part of treatment programs for children diagnosed with autism. Parent training programs have generally focused on prescribed goals in one-on-one training settings with measures directly related to the goals. Of interest here are the few studies that included collaborative goals, expanded measures, and group training. Benefits of such approaches include the establishment of natural communities of reinforcement and better understanding of the breadth of effects. The purpose of this study was to determine if a group coaching approach would be effective in changing a large range of parent and child skills. This experiment involved group sessions (presentations, discussion, video sharing, and problem solving) and three individual in-vivo coaching sessions. The intervention took place over the course of four weeks. Direct measures included a parent skills checklist and child target behaviors. Results indicated an overall improvement on most measures that maintained or improved at follow-up.
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The Effects of Fines on Cooperation in a Four-Person Prisoner’s Dilemma Game

The Effects of Fines on Cooperation in a Four-Person Prisoner’s Dilemma Game

Date: August 2011
Creator: Morford, Zachary H.
Description: Cooperation is an important area of investigation for behavior analysis. The prisoner’s dilemma game (PDG) provides a useful scenario for studying cooperation in a behavior analytic paradigm. The PDG can be coupled with the concept of the metacontingency to investigate how various contingency arrangements support and promote cooperation in a group. Players in this experiment participated in a PDG and, in some conditions, were given the ability to fine other players but could not talk. The goal of this experiment was to investigate how players’ ability to fine one another affected the players’ patterns of cooperation, and whether fining itself was affected by the addition of a shared group consequence. The data show that participants cooperated in some conditions, but the fines did not seem to affect players’ rates of cooperation.
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Effects of Fixed- and Variable-Ratio Token Exchange Schedules on Performance with Children with Autism

Effects of Fixed- and Variable-Ratio Token Exchange Schedules on Performance with Children with Autism

Date: December 2008
Creator: Greaves, Stephanie A.
Description: The research literature with nonhumans supports findings that token economies are a common component of training programs. The literature suggests that the schedule by which exchange opportunities become available determines the organization of behavioral performances in token economies to a great extent. This study sought to systematically document whether the dynamics observed in basic laboratory procedures will also be observed in a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders and whether altering schedules by which the exchange opportunities become available will attenuate these effects. The participant was exposed to two conditions: 1) a fixed token-production schedule (FR1) with a fixed token-exchange schedule (FR5) and 2) a fixed token-production schedule (FR1) with a variable token-exchange schedule (VR5). Results of the current study did not lend themselves to draw definitive conclusions that the patterns of responding observed in this experiment were in fact due to the change in the token exchange schedule.
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The Effects of Price and Durability on Individual Discounting Functions When Purchasing Hypothetical Goods in a Simulated Internet Store

The Effects of Price and Durability on Individual Discounting Functions When Purchasing Hypothetical Goods in a Simulated Internet Store

Date: August 2012
Creator: Gesick, Jeffrey Glen
Description: Online shopping has rapidly expanded in the last decade. Online shopping necessarily imposes delays on all transactions. Behavior analysis has long studied the effects of delay on choice. Additionally, a number of researchers are beginning to study consumer behavior using a behavior-analytic approach. The current study attempted to extend research focusing on consumer behavior in online contexts. The experimenters attempted to evaluate whether goods acquire functional properties and whether these properties influence consumer choice. The researchers were specifically interested in studying acquisition costs and durability and in simulating a natural online shopping environment. Results from the current study extend the findings showing that delay and price influence choice. The data from the current study provide mixed evidence for control by item durability.
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The Effects of the Delay in a Delayed Match-To-Sample Procedure on Acquisition and Transfer

The Effects of the Delay in a Delayed Match-To-Sample Procedure on Acquisition and Transfer

Date: December 2005
Creator: Smith, Kimberly N.
Description: Twenty-six participants, divided into three groups, learned to relate English words to Czech and Portuguese words in a matching-to-sample procedure. Half the word pairs were learned using English words as samples and foreign words as corresponding comparisons and the other half were learned with the foreign words serving as samples and English words as corresponding comparisons. The only difference in training across the three groups involved a programmed delay between the removal of the sample stimulus and the presentation of comparison stimuli. For Group 0, Group 2, and Group 8, the programmed delay values between sample offset and comparison onset were 0 s, 2 s, and 8 s, respectively. Test trials assessed the extent to which the conditional discriminations established during training had become reversible or the extent to which the effects of learning had transferred to a new situation. The results suggest that the likelihood of transfer was greatest for the group that learned the task with the largest delay (i.e., an 8 s delay between sample offset and comparison onset).
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The Effects of an Electronic Feedback Sign on Speeding

The Effects of an Electronic Feedback Sign on Speeding

Date: May 2006
Creator: Flores, Jaime
Description: Although a handful of experiments have utilized indirect feedback in attempts to reduce speeding on roadways, fewer experiments have utilized direct feedback as a means to reduce incidences of speeding. The current study evaluated the effects of direct and individualized feedback provided by a large electronic feedback sign that displayed the speed of oncoming vehicles as they approached the sign along the roadways of a college campus. The effects of the sign were evaluated using a non-simultaneous multiple baseline experimental design employing two control conditions and intervention phase. Each condition was implemented at three sites on the college campus. The results showed that intervention produced significant decreases in both measures of vehicle speeds at each site, relative to measures collected during both control conditions.
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Effects of Conditional Discrimination Training on Symmetry and Semantic Priming

Effects of Conditional Discrimination Training on Symmetry and Semantic Priming

Date: August 2011
Creator: Hudgins, Caleb D.
Description: Psychologists interested in the study of language find that people are faster at making decisions about words that are related than they are at making decisions about words that are not related – an effect called semantic priming. This phenomenon has largely only been document in laboratory settings using natural languages as contest and real words as stimuli. The current study explores the relation between the semantic priming effect and a laboratory procedure designed to give rise to performances that can be described as linguistic. Six adult participants learned to partition a collection of eight stimuli into two sets of four stimuli. Following this, the subjects showed the semantic priming effect within a set of stimuli but not across sets. These data suggest that it may be possible to study linguistic phenomenon in laboratory-based procedures allowing better control and the ability to ask very precise questions about linguistic functioning.
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The Effects of PECS Training on Symbolic Matching Skills in Learners with Autism

The Effects of PECS Training on Symbolic Matching Skills in Learners with Autism

Date: May 2009
Creator: Cranmer, Elizabeth
Description: This study evaluated whether picture exchange communication system (PECS) training would result in the development of conditional relations among corresponding pictures, objects (reinforcers) and spoken words used in PECS training with learners with developmental disabilities. Three participants with autism and mental retardation were trained to use PECS. Match-to-sample procedures were used to assess all possible conditional relations among stimuli before, during, and after PECS training. None of the three participants in this study acquired conditional discriminations involving the pictures, reinforcers, and spoken words used in their PECS training.
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Effects of Picture Exchange Training on Communication Topographies

Effects of Picture Exchange Training on Communication Topographies

Date: May 2009
Creator: Haray, Aimee H.
Description: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) has been used with children with autism and other developmental disabilities as an alternative to vocal communication. Some researchers have reported rapid acquisition of picture-exchange requesting as well as increased vocal speech and increased spontaneous social interactions following PECS training. Earlier research has found that although 3 children with autism learned to exchange pictures for preferred items during PECS training, requesting topographies did not change and vocal speech did not increase after PECS training. The present study evaluated the effects of PECS training on requesting topographies, especially vocal speech, with 3 participants with autism and mental retardation. Only one participant maintained picture-exchange requesting, and none of the participants showed an increase in vocal speech during probe sessions conducted after each PECS training phase.
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The effects of ARCS-based confidence strategies on learner confidence and performance in distance education.

The effects of ARCS-based confidence strategies on learner confidence and performance in distance education.

Date: May 2006
Creator: Huett, Jason Bond
Description: The purpose of this research was to manipulate the component of confidence found in Keller's ARCS model to enhance the confidence and performance of undergraduate students enrolled in an online course at a Texas university using SAM 2003 software delivery. This study also tested whether the aforementioned confidence tactics had any unintentional effect on the remaining attention, relevance, and satisfaction subscales of the ARCS model as well as on learners' overall motivation for the class and the instructional materials. This study was conducted over a 5.5-week period with an initial sample of 81 total students. Two quantitative surveys were used to measure confidence and motivation: (a) the Course Interest Survey (CIS), and (b) the Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS). The results indicated that the treatment group showed statistically greater gains than the control group in terms of learner confidence on the CIS but not the IMMS. In terms of performance, the treatment group outperformed the control group on all of the individual posttest measures and on the overall aggregate mean performance score. The results showed no statistically significant difference on the attention subsection of the ARCS model. However, statistically significant differences were noted for the relevance and satisfaction subscales of ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries