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- The use of notated and aural exercises as pedagogical procedures intended to develop harmonic accuracy among beginning jazz improvisers
- This study compared the effects from the use of aural and notated exercises as pedagogical procedures for teaching harmonic accuracy to beginning jazz improvisation students. The methods of pedagogy were identified from published pedagogic and historical sources, the results of oral and written traditions of jazz pedagogy. The performance objective was produced from a review of the related literature as a recognized and measurable characteristic of jazz improvisation. The purpose of this study was to compare measurements of harmonic accuracy, following the use of notated and aural exercises as experimental procedures of jazz improvisation pedagogy. A lesson plan, materials, curriculum and outline were developed followed by student recruitment and participation. A total of 20 student volunteers participated in the methods of pedagogy (aural or notation). Data collection consisted of a musical background questionnaire and pre and posttest performance recordings. Student recordings were evaluated by six judges using the “experimental performance evaluation measure.” Statistical analyses were conducted, including comparisons of pre to posttest effects between, and among the methods of pedagogy. Although all student participants performed mostly from notated music prior to this study, students who received the aural method of pedagogy produced greater improvement for all measurement items. While the aural method produced no differences between grade level, the notation method produced significantly lower scores for 9th graders compared to 12th graders; no other significant grade level differences were noted. Conclusions were that although many sources of pedagogy do not include aural exercises as the predominate activity, beginning improvisers who have more experience reading music than playing by ear, learn better from aural, than notated exercises.
- Social Self-Concept and Positive Illusory Bias in Boys and Girls With and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
- This study examined differences in social self-concept, as measured by the Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC), between boys and girls with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while controlling for internalizing symptoms. Ninety-six children between the ages of 8 and 13 participated in the study as part of a larger project. Teacher reports of social competence were collected using the Teacher Rating Scale (TRS). The results indicated ADHD children experienced more peer rejection than control children. ADHD girls appeared to be more susceptible to low social self-concept and competence than control children or ADHD boys. Inattentive symptoms were most predictive of teacher reports of competence. Positive illusory bias was not found to serve a protective function in children regardless of ADHD status. The implications of the current study and directions for future research are presented.
- Pursuit of Happiness: Struggling to Preserve Status Quo in Revolutionary Era Nova Scotia
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Following the Glorious Revolution in 1688, the British North American colonies interpreted Parliament's success in removing arbitrary governmental practices and establishing a balanced government as a victory for local representative government. Within these colonies, merchants secured their influence in local government in order to protect their profits and trade networks. The New England merchants that resettled in Nova Scotia in the 1750s successfully established a local government founded upon their rights as British subjects. The attempt by the British government to centralize the imperial administration in 1763 and the perceived threat of reintroducing arbitrary rule by Parliament was a direct threat to the colonial governmental system. Although Nova Scotia chose loyalism in 1775-1776, this decision did not stem from isolation or a differing political philosophy. In fact, it was their cultural and political similarities that led Nova Scotia and New England to separate paths in 1776. Nova Scotia merchants controlling the Assembly were able to confront and defeat attempts that threatened their influence in local politics and on the local economy. With the threat to their authority defeated and new markets opening for the colony, the Nova Scotia merchant class was able to preserve the status quo in local government.
- Evaluating Quality Standards for Teachers in the Field of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
- The purpose of this study is to determine quality indicators in the field of emotional and behavioral disorders based on six empirically validated standards outlined by the Council for Exceptional Children. Invitations to participate in the study were disseminated to a randomized selection of members within the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders. Respondents (N = 199) included teachers (n = 128) and related service personnel (n = 71) who directly and indirectly work with students with emotional and behavioral disorders throughout the United States. A rank order list of the most important knowledge and skills to teachers with regard to demographic characteristics (i.e., types of communities, educational settings, or years of experience) was developed. Additionally, a rank order list was developed to determine which knowledge and skills related service personnel felt should be most important to teachers. Level of agreement was determined between teachers and related service personnel and variances among the rank order lists were examined. Results of the study revealed statistically significant variances in the rank order of knowledge and skills among educational settings of teachers (i.e., self-contained, resource, and general education/inclusion) across the standard of Learning Environments and Social Interactions. Rank orders in two knowledge and skills (i.e., assistive technology and structure) were significant. When rank order was compared between teachers and related service personnel, level of agreement was low within the standards of assessment (58%) and collaboration (63%).
- Evaluating a Doctoral Program in College and University Teaching: A Single Case Study
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This study assessed alumni of the College and University Teaching Program at the University of North Texas and how they perceived the training they received. Three hundred sixty alumni holding a college and university teaching degree were surveyed. One hundred forty-two usable questionnaires were returned. A response rate of 39.4 % was achieved. A survey instrument was used to gather alumni perceptions of learning experiences, academics, and professional benefits as a result of earning a doctorate in the major of college and university teaching at the University of North Texas. Alumni were asked their perceptions on the following: 1) the quality of graduate professional education in college and university teaching degree program, 2) whether they thought the goals and objectives of the program were met, and 3) their recommendations regarding the college and university teaching degree program. It is the overall opinion of the alumni that the quality of the graduate education in college and university teaching degree program was high. The majority of alumni indicated that the program should be reinstated and continued and if the program was still available they would recommend it to others.
- A Computation of Partial Isomorphism Rank on Ordinal Structures
- We compute the partial isomorphism rank, in the sense Scott and Karp, of a pair of ordinal structures using an Ehrenfeucht-Fraisse game. A complete formula is proven by induction given any two arbitrary ordinals written in Cantor normal form.
- Interorganizational Relationships: The Effects of Organizational Efficacy on Member Firm Performance
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Relationships between the collective actors within interorganizational relationships are a growing area of research in management. Interorganizational networks continue to be a popular mechanism used by organizations to achieve greater performance. Organizations develop competencies to work with other organizations, but the confidence of these organizations to use these strengths for a competitive advantage has yet to be empirically examined. The purpose of this study is to examine organizational efficacy, how competencies may related to that efficacy, and the relationship of efficacy with performance. The goal of this study is to observe the relationship among trust, dependence, information quality, continuous quality improvement, and supplier flexibility with organizational efficacy. In addition, the relationship between organizational efficacy and performance is also observed. There are two primary research questions driving this study. First, what is the relationship between trust, dependence, information quality, continuous quality improvement, supplier flexibility and organizational efficacy? Second, what is the relationship between organizational efficacy and performance? The theories supporting the hypotheses generated from these questions include theories such as social cognitive theory, quality improvement, and path-goal theory. Data collected from the suppliers of a large university support the hypotheses. Regression analysis and structure coefficients were used to analyze the data. Results indicate that both research question one and research question two are supported. In addition, the theoretical model as a whole, which indicates a mediating relationship, was examined and discussed. This study contributes to both academic and practice by examining efficacy in an interorganizational setting. In addition, as organizations better understand the relationship between competencies and confidence, they will better know how to collectively work to achieve greater results with more attention being placed on monitoring the relationship in order to experience more desired outcomes. Limitations of the current study and opportunities for future research are also discussed.
- Immediate and subsequent effects of response blocking on self-injurious behavior.
- Abstract In many institutional settings, blocking, response restriction (e.g., restraint, protective equipment), and re-direction procedures are used extensively as intervention for self-injurious behavior (SIB) and other forms of problem behavior. In the current study, a three component, multiple-schedule analysis was used to examine the immediate and subsequent effects of blocking on SIB that persisted in the absence of social reinforcement contingencies. During the first and third components the participant was in the room, alone, with no social consequences for SIB. During the second component (response restriction) the therapist sat in the room with the participant and blocked occurrences of SIB. Results indicated that, although blocking was effective in decreasing SIB while it was being implemented, subsequent effects were idiosyncratic across participants. Evidence of increased levels of SIB following blocking was observed for some participants.
- Cross-Cultural Adaptability of Texas Dental Hygienists and Dental Hygiene Students: A Preliminary Study
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This causal-comparative and correlational study examined cross-cultural adaptability of randomly selected licensed dental hygienists, 1995-2005 graduates, practicing in the state of Texas and first and second-year dental hygiene students attending 5 randomly selected accredited 2 and 4-year dental hygiene schools in the state of Texas. A sample of 289 individuals: 194 enrolled students and 95 licensed dental hygienists, alumni of the 5 schools, completed the 50-item Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI ®) and a brief demographic survey. The purpose of this study was to determine if statistically significant differences existed among and between licensed dental hygienists and first and second-year dental hygiene students in the state of Texas on a cross-cultural adaptability measure. The study also examined relationships among and between cross-cultural adaptability scores, as measured by the CCAI, and several independent variables. The data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS 12). Eight hypotheses related to group differences and relationships among and between groups and variables were tested. The groups were compared on total CCAI scores using a t-test, and on subscale CCAI scores simultaneously using a descriptive discriminant analysis (DDA). A 3X2 MANOVA was used to compare all groups simultaneously on subscale CCAI scores. The sample was also analyzed for statistically significant differences among 3 levels of ethnicity and total CCAI scores using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Lastly, various Pearson correlation analyses were conducted to determine relationships among and between the 3 independent variables mentioned above and total and subscale CCAI scores. The results revealed no statistically significant differences among the various groups and CCAI scores. A statistically significant relationship (r = .148) was found between age and 1 of the 4 CCAI subscale scores, flexibility/openness. No other statistically significant relationships were found. The study concluded that number of years for degree, level of practice, ethnicity, and years employed may not play a significant role in enhancing cross-cultural adaptability. Further research needs to be conducted to determine differences and relationships between and among various dental hygiene groups and their cross-cultural adaptability performance.
- An empirical investigation of the salient dimensions of Baby Boomer and Generation Y consumers' health care decision choices.
- The purpose of this research is to empirically investigate consumers' health care decision choices in a dynamic market setting. The unprecedented demands on the U.S. health care system coupled with the mounting controversies surrounding health care reform suggest that consumers' health care decisions warrant empirical research attention. Toward this end, this dissertation empirically explored (1) the characteristics of consumers who possess a willingness to use non-conventional treatments over conventional treatments, (2) the characteristics of consumers who elect self-medication in lieu of health care practitioner-directed medication, and (3) the salient dimensions of consumers' channel choice for the procurement of health care products. Each of these decision choice factors were tested across two U.S. generational segments to assess whether differences existed across Baby Boomers' and Gen Yers' health care decision choices. The conceptual framework for empirical assessment is Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. From Bandura's social cognitive theory, a general model of healthcare decision choice is proposed to assess consumers' states of mind, states of being and states of action (decision choice). Results indicate that social cognitive factors (e.g., self-efficacy, objectivism) play an important role in each of the decision domains explored in this dissertation. Moreover, health value was found to be an important moderator between the social cognitive factors and health care decision choices. The predictors of the health care decision choices were found to vary across the Baby Boomers and Generation Yers on several dimensions, confirming the notion that generational differences may be a salient dimension of consumers' health care decision choice. The research offers several implications for practitioners, academicians and policy makers. Both descriptive and normative implications are gleaned from the research findings. Most notably, the results indicate that consumers' social cognitive factors and health value may be mechanisms for managing health care decisions.
- The Castrato Sacrifice: Was it Justified?
- One of the greatest mysteries in the history of music is the castrato singers of the Baroque era. Castration has existed for many thousands of years, but for the first time in history, it was used for artistic purposes. Who were these men who seemingly gave up their masculinity for the sake of music? By examining the time period and circumstances in which these musicians lived, an answer may be found. Exploring the economic, social, and political structure of the 17th and 18th centuries may reveal the mindset behind such a strange yet accepted practice. The in-depth study of their lives and careers will help lift the veil of mystery that surrounds them. Was their physical sacrifice a blessing or a curse? Was it worth it?
- Propensity for knowledge sharing: An organizational justice perspective.
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Converting individual knowledge into organizational knowledge can be difficult because individuals refuse to share knowledge for a number of different reasons. Creating an atmosphere of fairness plays an important role in the creation of a knowledge-sharing climate. This dissertation proposes that perceptions of organizational justice are crucial building blocks of that environment, leading to knowledge sharing. Data was collected using a field survey of IT managers representing a broad spectrum of the population in terms of organizational size and industry classification. The survey instrument was developed based on the adaptation of previously validated scales in addition to new items where no existing measures were found. Hypotheses regarding the influence of distributional, procedural, and interactional justice on knowledge sharing processes were tested using structural equation modeling techniques. Based on the theory of reasoned action, which states that attitudes and subjective norms are the major determinants of a person's intention, the hypotheses examining the relationship between attitude toward knowledge sharing, subjective norm and the intention to share knowledge were supported. However, results did not support the hypothesis exploring the relationship between the organizational climate and the intention to share knowledge. The results show that all three types of justice constructs are statistically significant antecedents of organizational climate and interactional justice is an antecedent of an attitude toward knowledge sharing. The study attempts to merge streams of research from sociology and organizational behavior by investigating organizational justice and knowledge management. It contributes to theory by the development of the survey instrument, comprised of seven constructs that were developed by incorporating multiple theories to address various aspects of knowledge sharing and provide application to practice and research. It is relevant to IT managers who need to know how to design information systems that are most effective in distributing knowledge throughout organizations.
- The Legacy of Purgatory: The Continuing English Eschatological Controversy
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This work examines particular attributes of the purgatorial phenomena from pre-Christian history of the Indo-European world to the Early Modern Period of England. An attempt has been made to identify and concentrate attention upon examples which provide the most significant and penetrating look into this evolution. For example, a portion of this paper attempts to determine just how widespread purgatorial customs were throughout England and the various types of community that supported these beliefs pre and post Reformation. By comparing life before and after the reigns of Henry and Edward a conclusion is reached that reveals the Protestant Reformation in England stripped the laity of a fundamental instrument they needed to support their religiosity and custom. This becomes evident in further years as some of those same customs and rituals that had been considered anathema by Protestants, slowly crept back into the liturgy of the new religion. Strong evidence of this is provided, with a strong emphasis placed upon late seventeenth and early eighteenth century death eulogies, with a section of this paper being devoted to the phenomena of the Sin-Eater.
- An Approach to the Analytical Study of Jung-Sun Park's Choral Work: Arirang Mass
- The significance in Jung-Sun Park's Arirang Mass is the discovery of artistic value in folk song and its applicability to art music. By using fragments of the Arirang folk songs, or by imitating its musical character, composer could create and develop musical characteristics that are recognizably Korean. The work exhibits his remarkable compositional style, which shows a relationship between Korean traditional style and Western style. This analysis demonstrates specific examples of the elements of Korean traditional folksong, such as Sikimsae, Jangdan, Han, and pentatonic scales which are permeated into this mass setting, and how composer uses fragments of the Arirang tune.
- Effects of partner violence and psychological abuse on women's mental health over time.
- This study examined the distinct effects of partner violence and psychological abuse on women's mental health over time. Latent growth modeling was used to examine stability and change over time, evaluating the course and consequences of each form of abuse. The size of women's social support network was examined as a mediator. The sample consisted of 835 African American, Euro-American, and Mexican American low-income women. Participants who completed Waves 1, 2, 3, and 5 were included in the study (n = 585). In general, partner violence decreased over time for all groups, while psychological abuse decreased over time for only Euro-American women. Whereas initial and prolonged exposure to psychological abuse was related to and directly impacted women's mental health, partner violence was only related to initial levels of mental health. Surprisingly, social support was only related to initial violence and distress and had no impact on the rate of change over time. These results have important implications for researchers and health care professionals. First, differences in the pattern of results were found for each ethnic group, reaffirming the notion that counselors and researchers must be sensitive to multicultural concerns in both assessment and intervention. For example, psychological abuse had a greater impact on the mental health of African American and Mexican American women than it did for Euro-American women, suggesting a shift in focus depending on the ethnicity of the client may be warranted. Second, this longitudinal study highlights the importance of future research to considerer individual differences in treating and studying victimized women. Understanding factors that contribute to individual trajectories will help counselors gain insight into the problem and in devising plans to prevent or reduce the occurrence and negative health impact of partner abuse.
- The synthesis and study of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating polymer network nanoparticle hydrogels.
- Homogeneous hydrogels made of an interpenetrating network of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) are synthesized by a two-step process; first making PNIPAm hydrogels and then interpenetrating acrylic acid throughout the hydrogel through polymerization. The kinetic growth of the IPN is plotted and an equation is fitted to the data. When diluted to certain concentrations in water, the hydrogels show reversible, inverse thermal gelation at about 34°C. This shows unique application to the medical field, as the transition is just below body temperature. A drug release experiment is performed using high molecular weight dyes, and a phase diagram is created through observation of the purified, concentrated gel at varying concentrations and temperatures.
- Reevaluating twelve-tone music: analytical issues in the second movement of Anton Webern's Quartet for Violin, Clarinet, Tenor-Saxophone and Piano, Op. 22.
- Twelve-tone music illustrates many characteristics relative with those of conventional tonal form, though works are based on a different composition method. The fundamental question of twelve-tone music arises in debate on terminology between tonal and atonal as well as methodology of musical analysis. Certain theorists try to approach twelve-tone music by traditional harmonic views rather than by pitch-class set theory. Conventional harmonic aspects arise from the fact that both tonal and twelve-tone music share similar narrative strategies. This point is explored in examining Anton Webern's Quartet for Violin, Clarinet, Tenor-Saxophone and Piano, Op. 22, which displays connection to tonal music. The present study seeks to examine certain features of the composer's working in pitch materials; i.e., the dispositions of pitch classes and the characteristics of the matching dyads, and thereby to disclose the connection between twelve-tone methods and conventional harmony.
- The Effect of Consumer Shopping Motivations on Online Auction Behaviors: An Investigation of Searching, Bidding, Purchasing, and Selling
- The purposes of the study were to: 1) identify the underlying dimensions of consumer shopping motivations and attitudes toward online auction behaviors; 2) examine the relationships between shopping motivations and online auction behaviors; and 3) examine the relationships between shopping attitudes and online auction behaviors. Students (N = 341) enrolled at the University of North Texas completed self-administered questionnaires measuring shopping motivations, attitudes, online auction behaviors, and demographic characteristics. Using multiple regression analyses to test the hypothesized relationships, shopping motivations and shopping attitudes were significantly related to online auction behaviors. Understanding the relationships is beneficial for companies that seek to retain customers and increase their sales through online auction.
- Correspondence between verbal behavior about reinforcers and performance under schedules of reinforcement.
- Important advancements have been made in the identification of reinforcers over the past decade. The use of preference assessments has become a systematic way to identify preferred events that may function as reinforcers for an individual's behavior. Typically, preference assessments require participants to select stimuli through verbal surveys or engagement with stimuli as preferred or non-preferred. Not all studies go on to directly test the effects of the preferred stimuli, and even fewer studies directly test for the effects of the non- preferred stimuli. The present study systematically identified preferred and non-preferred stimuli in adult human subjects by verbal report and then proceeded to test the effects of both verbally reported preferred and non preferred events on single and concurrent schedules of reinforcement. The results are discussed in terms of contemporary concerns regarding preference and reinforcer assessments.
- Mariama Bâ: un féminisme né à l'intersection de deux cultures.
- Many critics consider Mariama Bâ as a feminist writer, but the reader of her two novels might wonder what characterizes her work as such. Therefore, the aim of each chapter, in order of appearance, is to analyze first the genres, then the elements of African tradition and Western modernity, the characters of both works and the themes of the novels, with the intention of defining the author's feminism, which takes its source in dichotomies, paradoxes and contradictions. In order to expose the author's point of view on the condition of women, it appears important to situate the diegesis in its context. Also, the study is supported by references on the Senegalese culture, by genres, narrative and feminist theories and by critiques on the work itself.
- Chen Yi and Her Choral Music: A Study of the Composer's Ideal of Fusing Chinese Music and Modern Western Choral Traditions
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Chen Yi's music is well accepted and recognized nationally and internationally through an increasing number of commissions and performances. Major symphony orchestras, choruses, institutions and companies request her compositions on many occasions in order to increase understanding and exploration of Chinese influences on western classical idioms. This study provides the first detailed discussion of her compositional mastery and her fusion of Chinese music with the language of western choral traditions. Chen Yi's reputation as a prominent orchestral composer does not restrain her passion to apply instrumental techniques and materials to her quality choral compositions. This study focuses on (1) how hardship and various life experiences during the ten-year Cultural Revolution shaped Chen Yi's musical inspirations; (2) how the influences of major musical genres, such as traditional Chinese folksong, jingju, model play, 19th-20th century nationalism, impressionism, and serialism are consolidated in her kaleidoscopic compositional techniques; and (3) the application of Chinese languages, pedagogical concepts, and extra-musical elements, such as Chinese poems, paintings, and calligraphies, revealed in her original, intelligent and resourceful choral creations.
- English language learners: Does summer school make a difference in young children's literacy scores?
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Many school districts consider literacy and oral language as a top priority for pre-kindergarten students. In the district under study, pre-kindergarten English language learner (ELL) students are encouraged to attend a special summer school program to increase their oral language ability in English. This study compared three groups of children: ELL students attending summer school v. ELL students not attending summer school v. English speaking students not attending summer school. The students' primary reading inventory scores from the end of pre-kindergarten to the middle of kindergarten in the areas of reading, writing and oral language were compared. As expected, ELLs who attended summer school showed significant growth in oral language development from the beginning of summer school to the end of summer school. While it was hypothesized that ELL students attending summer school would show more improvement in oral language than other children over time, there was no significant difference between summer school and non-summer school children's scores by the middle of kindergarten.
- Development of a Multidimensional Approach to Understanding Youthful Offenders: The Influence of Psychosocial and Personality Risk Factors
- This study employed a multivariate, multidimensional approach to understanding psychosocial and personality variables associated with institutional maladjustment and recidivism among youthful offenders. Participants included nine hundred serious and chronic male youthful offenders incarcerated in the Texas Youth Commission (TYC); sample sizes varied by analysis. Empirically-validated psychosocial factors (e.g., intelligence, home approval status), past criminal history variables, and two self-report personality measures of empathy and hostility were entered into hierarchical regression and structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses to predict institutional behavior and recidivism at one- and three-year intervals after release from the TYC. Confirmatory factor analysis of the personality measures revealed one underlying factor indicative of their theoretical constructs of empathy and hostility. Some differences were noted between youth in the specialized treatment programs; however, effect sizes were small to moderate. Overall, regression and SEM results indicated the variables accounted for a meaningful proportion of the variance in the outcomes. Specifically, although length of stay in the TYC was associated with institutional behavior, younger age of onset, higher hostility, and greater home disapproval also contributed significantly. Past criminal behavior was predictive of future reoffending, but lower empathy, greater home disapproval, and younger age of onset accounted for a substantial portion of the variance in recidivism. Institutional maladjustment served as a mediator between the psychosocial and personality variables and the recidivism outcomes. Treatment implications are provided, including a discussion of the tenuous association between length of sentence and recidivism and an emphasis on the importance of evaluating dynamic personality and psychosocial variables beyond static measures of past behavior.
- Electrochemical Study of Under-Potential Deposition Processes on Transition Metal Surfaces
- Copper under-potential deposition (UPD) on iridium was studied due to important implications it presents to the semiconductor industry. Copper UPD allows controlled superfilling on sub-micrometer trenches; iridium has characteristics to prevent copper interconnect penetration into the surrounding dielectric. Copper UPD is not favored on iridium oxides but data shows copper over-potential deposition when lower oxidation state Ir oxide is formed. Effect of anions in solution on silver UPD at platinum (Pt) electrodes was studied with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance. Silver UPD forms about one monolayer in the three different electrolytes employed. When phosphoric acid is used, silver oxide growth is identified due to presence of low coverage hydrous oxide species at potentials prior to the monolayer oxide region oxide region.
- The Pettis Integral and Operator Theory
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Let (Ω, Σ, µ) be a finite measure space and X, a Banach space with continuous dual X*. A scalarly measurable function f: Ω→X is Dunford integrable if for each x* X*, x*f L1(µ). Define the operator Tf. X* → L1(µ) by T(x*) = x*f. Then f is Pettis integrable if and only if this operator is weak*-to-weak continuous. This paper begins with an overview of this function. Work by Robert Huff and Gunnar Stefansson on the operator Tf motivates much of this paper. Conditions that make Tf weak*-to-weak continuous are generalized to weak*-toweak continuous operators on dual spaces. For instance, if Tf is weakly compact and if there exists a separable subspace D X such that for each x* X*, x*f = x*fχDµ-a.e, then f is Pettis integrable. This nation is generalized to bounded operators T: X* → Y. To say that T is determined by D means that if x*| D = 0, then T (x*) = 0. Determining subspaces are used to help prove certain facts about operators on dual spaces. Attention is given to finding determining subspaces far a given T: X* → Y. The kernel of T and the adjoint T* of T are used to construct determining subspaces for T. For example, if T*(Y*) ∩ X is weak* dense in T*(Y*), then T is determined by T*(Y*) ∩ X. Also if ker(T) is weak* closed in X*, then the annihilator of ker(T) (in X) is the unique minimal determining subspace for T.
- Comparison of Bare Root vs. Potted Plants, Species Selection, and Caging Types for Restoration of a Prairie Wetland, and Quantitative Analysis and Descriptive Survey of Plant Communities and Associations at Lewisville Lake Environmental Learning Area (LLELA), Lewisville, TX
- Lewisville Lake Environmental Learning Area (LLELA) is an 809-hectare property in Denton County, TX. A study of the vegetation community identified 466 species in 104 families, with 25% of the species from only two families, Asteraceae and Poaceae. The property demonstrates the characteristics of an early successional community, dominated by weedy species. Prairie communities are dominated by Johnson grass and ragweed, with climax tall grass prairie communities only in areas that have been planted with native grass seed. Forest communities are similarly in an early successional stage, dominated by the hackberry-elm-ash alliance, with small remnants of native Cross Timbers found in isolated patches. Species richness and diversity were highest in the forests and lowest in the wetlands; evenness, though not different across ecosystems, demonstrated a strong seasonal component. The species list was compared with previously reported lists for Denton County, and 256 species identified had not been previously reported for the county. A wetland restoration study was conducted to determine if there was a difference in survival and growth between potted transplants with intact root systems and bare-root transplants. Two different mesh sizes were used for protection, and the success of the different caging was evaluated. Of eight species, only four survived through the second growing season. There was no significant difference in the success of the propagule types for Sagittaria latifolia. The treatments planted with intact root systems showed significantly higher growth and reproduction than the bare-root treatments for Eleocharis quadrangulata, Heteranthera dubia, and Vallisneria americana. There was no survival recorded in the coarse mesh cages, likely due to the presence of crayfish that are able to get through the coarser mesh and feed on the transplants.
- Concentrations of Triclosan in the City of Denton Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pecan Creek, and the Influent and Effluent of an Experimental Constructed Wetland
- The Pecan Creek Waste Reclamation Plant in Denton, Texas, an activated sludge WWTP, was sampled monthly for ten months to determine seasonal and site variation in concentrations of triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol), an antibacterial additive. SNK separation after the highly significant ANOVA on ranked data were: summer = fall > winter = spring and influent > downstream = effluent = wetland inflow > wetland outflow (a=0.05). After the plant converted to ultraviolet disinfection, measurements were made before and after the UV basin to determine if significant amounts of triclosan were converted to dioxin. Percent loss at each of the treatment steps was determined. Concentrations of triclosan in the downstream site were below the published NOEC for the most sensitive species.
- Ecotoxicological Investigations in Effluent-Dominated Stream Mesocosms
- The University of North Texas Stream Research Facility (UNTSRF) was designed to examine contaminant impacts on effluent-dominated stream ecosystems. Stream mesocosms, fed municipal effluent from the City of Denton, TX, Pecan Creek Water Reclamation Plant (PCWRP), were treated with 0, 15 or 140 µg/L cadmium for a 10-day study in August 2000. Laboratory toxicity test and stream macroinvertebrate responses indicated that cadmium bioavailability was reduced by constituents of effluent-dominated streams. The Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) for Cd was used to predict a 48 hour Cd EC50 for Ceriodaphnia dubia of 280 µg/L in these effluent-dominated streams. This value is higher that an EC50 of 38.3 µg/L Cd and a 7-day reproduction effect level of 3.3 µg/L Cd generated for C. dubia in reconstituted laboratory hard water. These results support use of a cadmium BLM for establishing site-specific acute water quality criteria in effluent-dominated streams. Although not affected by 15 µg/L treatments, organisms accumulated Cd in 15 µg/L treated streams. Hence, over longer exposure periods, Cd accumulation may increase and a no effect level may be lower than the observed 10-day no effect level of 15 µg/L. A toxicity identification evaluation procedure was utilized with in vitro and in vivo bioassays to identify estrogenic compounds in PCWRP effluent, previously identified to seasonally induce vitellogenin (VTG) in male fathead minnows. Steroids, nonylphenol ethoxylate metabolites, and other unidentified compounds were identified as causative effluent estrogens. These findings suggest that in vivo VTG bioassays should be used to confirm in vitro Yeast Estrogen Screening assay activity when effluents are fractionated or screened for estrogenicity. A subsequent 90-day cadmium study was initiated to assess long-term effluent and cadmium effects on fish endocrine function. Juvenile fathead minnows were placed in UNTSRF pool sections of replicate streams treated with 0, 5, 20 or 80 µg/L Cd. Male VTG was induced at each treatment level, indicating that PCWRP effluent was estrogenic during fall 2001. 20 and 80 µg/L Cd treatments reduced male circulating estradiol levels and critical swimming performance. Future studies are needed to assess impacts of environmental estrogen exposure on fish calcium metabolism and vertebral integrity.
- Determination of Habitat Preferences of Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) on the Rolling Plains of Texas Using GIS and Remote Sensing
- The Rocker b Ranch on the southern Rolling Plains has one of the last sizeable populations of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in Texas. To investigate habitat utilization on the ranch, pronghorn were fitted with GPS/VHF collars and were released into pastures surrounded by a variety of fences to determine how fence types affected habitat selection. Habitat parameters chosen for analysis were vegetation, elevation, slope, aspect, and distances to water, roads, and oil wells. Results showed that pronghorn on the ranch crossed modified fencing significantly less than other types of fencing. Pronghorn selected for all habitat parameters to various degrees, with the most important being vegetation type. Habitat selection could be attributed to correspondence of vegetation type with other parameters or spatial arrangements of physical features of the landscape. Seasonal differences in habitat utilization were evident, and animals tended to move shorter distances at night than they did during daylight hours.
- Effects of Sublethal Copper Exposure on Escape Behavior and Growth of Rana pipiens Tadpoles
- This research is designed to test how sublethal exposure to copper affects tadpole predator-escape behavior and how quickly tadpoles recover. After exposure, tadpoles were separated. Escape behavior was recorded for two-thirds of exposed tadpoles while one-third of the exposed population was measured weekly to determine growth and recovery. Control tadpoles were consumed within 15 minutes whereas those exposed to higher concentrations were consumed at a slower rate, which does not support the hypotheses. Although the rate of predation was lower, tadpoles exposed to higher Cu concentrations were on average, 1.47 cm in total body length. Those exposed to 0.93 mg/L averaged 0.86 cm. After being placed into clean water, treatment tadpoles recovered after 20 days.
- Comparison of client attendance, attrition, and outcomes in 2 class system packages.
- Using the principles of systems analysis as a guide, this study compared two class schedule formats used by Behavior Management and Parenting Services (BMAPS) in order to address the following research questions: 1) What effects do 2 different class formats have on student attrition and appointment keeping? 2) What effects do 2 different class formats have on student outcomes on a pre and posttest assessment? 3) What effects do 2 different class formats have on staff procedures? BMAPS provides parent education to individuals referred by Child Protective Services. The current research included approximately 200 referred clients with an appointment or class scheduled with BMAPS between January 1, 2006 and September 22, 2007. Data was collected by reviewing client files for class attendance and performance records. Results of this study allow BMAPS to enlist the class format that is correlated with better attrition rates and client outcomes.
- From Block to Traditional Schedule: The Impact on Academic Achievement, Attendance Rates, and Dropout Rates
- The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of school schedule on student achievement and attendance of ninth and tenth grade students in metropolitan area Texas high schools (n = 22) and campus dropout rates. High schools that were analyzed in this study made a transition from A/B block scheduling in the 2003-04 school year to a traditional school schedule in the 2004-05 school year. Academic achievement, attendance rates and dropout rates were gathered through the archived files of the Texas Agency through the Academic Indicator of Excellence System (AEIS). Academic achievement was measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Reading/Language Arts and Mathematics standardized tests. This study compared the mean scores of ninth grader student achievement, attendance, and dropout rates from the 2003-04 school year to the mean scores of the tenth graders from the same schools from the 2004-05 school year, after the schools converted from an A/B block schedule to a traditional class schedule. Each independent variable was divided into four subgroups; campus mean results, minority student results, limited English proficient (LEP) student results, and low-socioeconomic student results. Students under the A/B block scored significantly higher in reading achievement than when they were instructed the following year under a traditional schedule. Paired sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the data for each subgroup, and showed there was a statistically significance in reading / language arts student achievement scores for all subgroups. Statistical significance was determined with a ninety five percent confidence level (p < 0.05). Statistical analysis revealed varied results in mean scores for math academic achievement and attendance rates, but no statistical significant difference. Comparison of data showed a slight increase in mean scores for dropout rates in traditional schedule, however the results were not significant.
- Personality and the prediction of outcome following rehabilitation in persons with acquired brain injuries: The Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD).
- Neuropsychological rehabilitation following acquired brain injury is increasingly recognized as essential with the advancements in research evidence of its effectiveness, particularly as current estimates of disability following the most common forms of brain injury (traumatic brain injury and cerebrovascular accident) are so high. Improvements in predictive capabilities of researchers and clinicians are paramount in designing effective interventions. As many variables associated with outcome following brain injury are not controllable (e.g. severity of the injury, age, education), it is essential that rehabilitation programs design interventions to target those variables that are susceptible to amelioration. While personality factors have been shown to affect outcome in other medical illnesses, only a few studies have examined the influence of personality on outcome following neurorehabilitation for acquired brain injury. The results of these studies have been mixed. This study used the Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD) to predict outcome as measured by the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Index (MPAI-4) following brain injury rehabilitation in a heterogeneous sample of persons with acquired brain injuries (N = 50). It was hypothesized that specific coping styles scales from the MBMD (Introversive, Dejected, Oppositional), which are based on Millon's personality system, would predict outcome. Results indicated that both the Introversive and Oppositional coping styles scales accounted for significant amounts of variance in outcome beyond that accounted for by the severity of the injury alone (p < .001). In both cases, individuals with mild/moderate-moderate/severe limitations following completion of the rehabilitation program had significantly higher scores on the Introversive and Oppositional coping compared to individuals with more successful outcomes. The hypothesis that a dejected coping style would predict outcome was not supported. Implications for rehabilitation are discussed in the context of Millon's personality system.
- The Nonadditive Generalization of Klimontovich's S-Theorem for Open Systems and Boltzmann's Orthodes
- We show that the nonadditive open systems can be studied in a consistent manner by using a generalized version of S-theorem. This new generalized S-theorem can further be considered as an indication of self-organization in nonadditive open systems as prescribed by Haken. The nonadditive S-theorem is then illustrated by using the modified Van der Pol oscillator. Finally, Tsallis entropy as an equilibrium entropy is studied by using Boltzmann's method of orthodes. This part of dissertation shows that Tsallis ensemble is on equal footing with the microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical ensembles. However, the associated entropy turns out to be Renyi entropy.
- Adult attachment and posttraumatic growth in sexual assault survivors.
- Posttraumatic growth, defined as positive psychological changes in the aftermath of adversity and suffering, is a relatively recent focus in psychological research. The addition of this concept to the literature has provided a new, more resiliency-based framework through which to view survivors of various forms of trauma. Despite estimates that over half of all sexual assaults are not reported to the authorities, current crime statistics indicate that 1 in 4 women are sexually assaulted in their lifetime (Campbell & Wasco, 2005). Given the large percentage of the population that is impacted by sexual assault, it is essential that professionals better understand the factors that influence the successful healing and growth that can occur post-trauma. The purpose of this study was to further expand the literature on posttraumatic growth in sexual assault survivors by considering this phenomenon through the lens of attachment theory. Specifically, this study tested a proposed model of the inter-relationships among subjective and objective perceptions of threat during the sexual assault, adult romantic attachment, and posttraumatic growth. It was hypothesized that adult romantic attachment and parent-child attachment would mediate the relationship between subjective, or perceived threat, defined as the victim's perception of life threat, and objective threat, defined as the severity of the sexually aggressive act perpetrated on the victim, and posttraumatic growth. Finally, it was hypothesized that subjective threat appraisal would better predict posttraumatic growth than objective threat appraisal. Contrary to hypotheses, results of the study indicated that adult romantic attachment and parent-child attachment did not mediate the relationship between subjective and objective threat appraisal and posttraumatic growth. Thus, both path analytic models were not viable. However, exploratory analysis indicated that both subjective and objective threat appraisal were directly related to posttraumatic growth, with subjective perceived threat appraisal accounting for more of the variance.
- An Interpretive Analysis of George Antheil's Sonata for Trumpet and Piano
- American composer George Antheil's Sonata for Trumpet and Piano was written in 1951. This dissertation provides historical and theoretical information that gives insight into the interpretation of this sonata. Reasons why the piece deserves greater attention with respect to the standard twentieth century trumpet literature are also given. Antheil's music was influential in the development of classical music in the first half of the 20th century and, more specifically, contributed to the establishment of an American style of classical music. Composed near the end of his life, this sonata has its roots in this heritage. The understanding of Antheil's history, motivations, and compositional techniques is intended to help bring a performance of this sonata to its full potential.
- Synthesis and Characterization of 2,3-Dichloropyrrolo[1,2-a]benzimidazol-1-one and Its Methylthiol Derivatives
- Condensation of 2,3-dichloromaleic anhydride and o-phenylenediamine in refluxing toluene affords the three compounds 2,3-dichloro-N-o-C6H4(NH2)maleimide (1), N,N¢-o-C6H4-bis(2,3-dichloromaleimide) (2), and 2,3-dichloropyrrolo[1,2-a]benzimidazol-1-one (3), with compound 1 as the major product. Repeating the same reaction in the presence of added PTSA furnishes compound 3 as the major product. Treatment of 3 with methylthiol in the presence of pyridine affords monosulfide compounds 2-chloro-3-methylthiopyrrolo[1,2-a]benzimidazol-1-one (4) and and the disulfide derivatives 2,3-di(methylthio)pyrrolo[1,2-a]benzimidazol-1-one (5). The substitution of the first chlorine group in compound 3 occurs regioselectively at C-3 to produce compound 4, followed by replacement of the remaining chlorine group to furnish the disulfide compounds 5. The new compounds 1-5 have been isolated by column chromatography and characterized by IR, NMR, XRD, CV and etc.
- Computational studies of bonding and phosphorescent properties of group 12 oligomers and extended excimers.
- Density functional (ca, BLYP, BPW91, B3LYP and B3PW91), MP2 and CCSD(T) methods in combination with LANL2DZ or cc-pVxZ-PP (where x=D(double), T(triple) Q(quadruple), and 5(quintuple)) basis sets have been employed in computing electronic transition energies of zinc and cadmium monomers. CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z-PP combination finds values that are 150 cm-1 from the experimental value for the zinc monomer and 240 cm-1 remove from the cadmium monomer excitation experimental value. These method/basis set combinations are also used to find spectroscopic values (re, De, we, wexe, Be , and Te) that rival experimental values for dimers and excimers. Examples of this can be seen with the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z-PP combination phosphorescent emission results. The values found are within 120 cm-1 of the zinc emission energy and 290 cm-1 of the cadmium emission energy. While this combination rigorously models spectroscopic constants for monomers, dimers, and excimers, it does not efficiently model these constants for larger clusters with available modern computational resources. It is important to show spectroscopic trends (bonding, phosphorescent excitation and emissions) as clusters increase as the monomer and dimer emission energies do not model solid state metallophilic interactions and phosphorescence. The MP2/LANL2DZ combinations show qualitative cooperative bonding trends in group oligomers and extended excimers as size increases and shape change. Changes in excitation and emission energies are also shown as a function of size and shape of the clusters.
- Theoretical and Practical Record of the Making of the Documentary Film, A Native American Dream
- This textual record of the making of the social issue documentary film A Native American Dream examines theoretical and practical considerations of the filmmaker during the pre-production, production, and post-production stages. It also examines the disciplines of anthropology and ethnography in terms of modern documentary filmmaking and evaluates the film within these contexts.
- The Texas Bandmasters Association: A Historical Study of Activities, Contributions, and Leadership (1920-1997)
- The purpose of the study was to investigate the leadership role of the Texas Bandmasters Association (1920-1997) in the development of the band program in Texas. It sought to determine TBA's effect on the band movement in Texas, and ascertain how the TBA has contributed to the emphasis on performance focus that is associated with the Texas band tradition. In doing so, the study also provided information regarding the association's goals, purposes, activities, and contributions during the time period under investigation. The historical data for the study was compiled from documentary sources and personal interview. Documentary sources included minutes of meetings from 1920-1997, information contained in various periodicals including the Southwestern Musician combined with the Texas Music Educator, and a nearly complete set of clinic-convention programs. Historical data from past researchers, including several masters theses and doctoral dissertations, and tapes and transcripts of interviews conducted by past researchers, as well as interviews conducted by this researcher, were also utilized. Much of the historical data for the study was located at the Texas Music Educators Association archives, housed at the association headquarters in Austin, Texas. The researcher identified five periods of the association's history. In addition to developing a historical chronology, the study identified prominent leaders for each historical period and explored how these individuals shaped the development of the association, which has grown from a small group of municipal bandmasters in 1920, into the largest state band association in the world, with over 2,200 active members. The researcher chronicles the events that led up to the first annual clinic-convention in 1948, and continues through the fiftieth clinic-convention in 1997. Although the first clinic-conventions focused on new music and the marching band exclusively, over the years this original concept has expanded and now encompasses virtually every aspect of band work. The study sought answers to the following research questions: (1) Who were the primary leaders of the association during each historical period? (2) What was TBA's leadership structure during each period? What was its effect on the growth and development of the association? (3) What were TBA's goals and activities during each historical period and to what extent were the goals of the association achieved? What role did the leadership play in achieving these goals? What were TBA's contributions to the band movement in Texas during each historical period? (4) TBA has come to find its present niche in the presentation of an annual clinic-convention centered, at least initially, on new music and the marching band. What was the role of the leadership in making this present state of affairs become reality? Using a previous leadership model, the researcher found that the leaders identified were mainly elected officers and/or executive secretaries of the association. The leadership structure changed over the years in order to meet the association's needs at the time. Goals, activities, and contributions were discussed for each historical period and evaluations were made regarding the extent to which the association's goals were achieved. Finally, the role of the leadership in making the current state of affairs become reality was discussed, as well as recommendations for further research.
- The Effects of Interspersed Trials and Density of Reinforcement on Accuracy, Looking Away, and Self-injurious Behavior of a Child with Autism
- This research examines the effects of task interspersal and density of reinforcement on several behaviors of an autistic 6-year-old boy during the performance of a visual matching task and two auditory matching tasks. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of interspersing high and low accuracy tasks on correct matching responses, positions of matching responses, looking away, and self-injurious behavior (SIB). The effects of interspersed trials were evaluated using an ABAB multiple treatments design. Results indicated that interspersed trials produced slightly more correct responses during the visual matching task; however, correct responses decreased during the other two tasks. The use of interspersed trials also decreased looking away from the stimuli and SIB. Experiment 2 evaluated the effects of reinforcement density apart from task interspersal. Two conditions, reinforce-corrects-only and reinforce-all-responses, were compared in Experiment 2. Correct responses increased slightly for all three tasks during the reinforce-all-responses condition. Looking away and SIB were very infrequent throughout Experiment 2.
- The Reformation-era Church courts of England: A study of the acta of the archidiaconal and consistory court at Chester, 1540-1542
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Much work has been done over the last fifty years in the study of the English ecclesiastical courts. One court that thus far has escaped much significant scholarly attention, however, is the one located in Chester, England. The author analyzes the acta of that court in order to determine what types of cases were being heard during the years 1540-42. His analysis shows that the Chester court did not deviate significantly from the general legal and theological structure and function of Tudor church courts of the period.
- Wellness in student affairs: An exploration of the profession and its practitioners.
- This mixed design study surveyed members of the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) to determine the baseline for wellness among student affairs administrators and within the profession. In addition to describing the wellness levels of the administrators and comparing them to the wellness of the general population, the study explored how wellness is represented within the student affairs profession, as reflected in the literature and practice. Student affairs administrators' wellness was assessed utilizing the Five Factor Wel Wellness Inventory (Myers & Sweeney, 2004). Collectively, the administrators posted "well" scores on the six factors utilized in the study and scored higher than the norms reported for the 5F-Wel general population. However, there was a broad range of actual scores across individuals indicating that not everyone can be considered to be maintaining a well-balanced lifestyle. The administrators' wellness was not affected by their length of time in the student affairs profession but was negatively associated with the number of hours they worked per week. The administrators possessed a holistic view of wellness and could articulate the behaviors and conditions associated with achieving, and failing to achieve, balance. However, reported engagement in certain wellness behaviors (e.g., physical activity and healthy eating) was not always reflected in the 5F-Wel scores. Additionally, the administrators noted a lack of focus on wellness issues in the student affairs literature, professional organizations, and most pointedly, in graduate preparation programs. The study creates a context for individual exploration of balance given the "norms" of the profession and instigates dialog focused on building healthy workplaces that facilitate positive role modeling experiences for students and staff. Recommendations for practitioners, graduate program faculty, and the profession aim to maximize personal wellness, create balanced professionals, and facilitate congruence between the student affairs profession's espoused values and wellness philosophy and the enculturation of professionals into this ideology.
- Teacher Turnover among Teachers of Students with Emotional and Behavior Disorders
- The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that compel teachers of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) to quit or stay in their job. Invitations to participate in the study were sent to a sample of educators from each the four census regions of the United States who currently work or have worked in the past worked with students with E/BD and have participated in one or more of the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD) professional development events. A total of 156 educators responded to the online survey and 9 participated in the focus groups. Quantitative information generated from the survey was analyzed using frequency distributions and ANOVA, whereas, qualitative information were analyzed by summarizing and sorting information into different categories. The results were presented in narrative and tabular form and organized in response to each of the research questions. The projected high teacher turnover as depicted in the findings, were mainly attributed to workplace variables and classroom conditions. Both variables are likely to be associated with high levels of dissatisfaction and lack of commitment eventually leading to decisions by teachers of students with E/BD to leave their job. Most respondents perceived themselves as being adequately prepared for responsibilities associated with teaching students with E/BD. The low variances associated with the grouping variable, career decisions did not explain a significant amount of variance in perceived levels of preparedness with regards to implementation of various program components and instructional activities. Hence, teacher qualifications and perceptions did not play a significant role in career decisions made by teachers of students with E/BD. In addition, findings reveal the need for all future teachers regardless of their certification to take specialized courses in special education to ensure that all teachers understand the unique characteristics and needs of students with E/BD. Respondents recommended that all pre-service teachers would benefit from actual hands-on training through structured field experiences and practicum.
- The effects of an inquiry-based American history program on the achievement of middle school and high school students.
- Implicit in the call for educational reform in the teaching of social studies has been the suggestion that pursuing inquiry-based principles will lead to improvement in student achievement. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two types of pedagogy: traditional and inquiry-based upon student achievement as measured by a standards-based, state administered examination. Second, this study examined the relationship between the treatment teachers' level of implementation and student achievement. A nonequivalent control group posttest and experimental design was used in this study. Subjects involved in this study include 84 secondary American history teachers and their respective students from a large urban public school district in Texas. The sample consisted of two groups, one taught by traditional/didactic instruction (n=48) and the other taught by inquiry-based pedagogy (n=36). Data for this study were collected using a classroom observation protocol based upon the level of use rubric developed by the concerns-based adoption model. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p<.05) was used to measure the effects of inquiry-based instruction and traditional pedagogy on student achievement. Student achievement results were measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for American history, grades 8 and 11. The study found that mean scores of the Grade 8 History Alive! group were significantly higher than the scores of the control group, but not for the Grade 11 History Alive! group. However, a comparison of mean scores by teachers' level-of-use suggested that the more faithful the teacher in designing standards-based lessons and delivering them through inquiry, the greater retention of American history student's knowledge about the subject.
- Teacher certification content area tests: Predictors of teacher knowledge for post-baccalaureate secondary candidates.
- In response to a growing teacher shortage, increasing numbers of secondary teachers are prepared through streamlined certification programs. For this reason, assessing candidates' content area knowledge gained from institutions of higher education across the United States is an important program admission factor as candidates must demonstrate content area knowledge by passing a Texas content area certification test (TExES). This study examines content knowledge for candidates enrolled in an online post-baccalaureate program from September 1, 2002 through April 30, 2005. Academic transcript analysis and grades 8-12 subject tests of the TExES were used as a proxy for subject matter knowledge for a sample of individuals seeking initial teacher certification in a post-baccalaureate teacher certification at the University of North Texas. Descriptive data,linear regression, and logistic regression analyses were used to draw conclusions about the content area knowledge of the individuals in the sample. Scores on the TExES were used to determine the relationships between the content area knowledge of initial certification students and the number of content area courses completed, the grade point averages, and time elapsed between the completion of the last content area course and the student's initial attempt on the TExES. Results differed by the content area of the candidates. Analysis of variance results indicate significant differences between the five test groups with regard to number of courses taken F(4,139) = 9.334, p < .001 grade point average F(4,139) = 5.733, p < .001 and time between the last course taken F(4,139) = 6.135, p < .001. The three-predictor model was statistically significant F(3,32) = 3.753, p = .02 for the History test group. The variable, upper-level grade point average accounted for approximately 12% variance among scores within the History test group, and the variable months of time elapsed between last content area course work and the initial state content examination accounted for approximately 13% of variance among scores.
- Relationships between selected sociometric variables and academic performance for counselors in training.
- The purpose of this research was to examine what relationships existed between selected sociometric variables and measures of academic performance for students in a counselor training program. The sociometric variables included counseling ability, counseling knowledge, and friendship. Academic performance measures included subject GPAs, group counseling participation and final grades, prepracticum grades, and practicum grades. Data was collected from sociometric questionnaires and academic records from the years 1991 to 2004, for 840 subjects who participated in a group counseling class at the University of North Texas. Counseling knowledge had the highest correlations with all academic measures except group counseling final grades, in which counseling ability had the highest strength. The strongest correlations for all three sociometric variables occurred with group counseling final grades; correlations were r = 0.42 for counseling ability, r = 0.40 for counseling knowledge, and r = 0.30 for friendship. The sociometric variable of friendship had the lowest correlations in all academic measures, but was more significant than expected. The friendship sociometric variable may account for likeability as a factor in making sociometric choices. Combined sociometric scores led to increased correlation strength and explained variances that reached the large level of 30% with group counseling final grades. A statistically significant difference was found between A and B grade students in group counseling, on all three sociometric variables. Effect sizes were generally large. Standard deviations for the A and B grade subjects were also large and could limit predictability of grades, based on sociometric scores alone. Results strongly suggested that all three sociometric variables would be a valuable source of information regarding counselor preparation. Results also validated that individual sociometric perceptions of others tended toward agreement. Significant correlations were found over a variety of academic measures and over a time-span of 14 years, suggesting a degree of consistency and stability in sociometric measures.
- The Opening Section of Isang Yun's My Land My People: A Cross-Section of Korean and Western Musical Features
- Isang Yun's oratorio My Land My People is organized in four movements, and is scored for orchestra, solo voice and choir. Movements are titled as follows: Rjoksa (History), Hyon-Shil I (Presence I), Hyon-shil II (Presence II), and Mi-rae (Future). This document only covers from measures 1-38 of the first section of the first movement of this work. Even though this work is atonal, the composer emphasizes a harmonically moving, tonal sonority: interval class five includes perfect 4th and 5th, quintal-quartal harmony and authentic cadence moving dominant to tonic. Also, in this document, a comparison with Korean traditional music elements is included to support Isang Yun's musical features.
- The impact of selected school factors on the test performance of African-American economically disadvantaged elementary students.
- In order for America to retain its superior position in a global economy it is imperative that all students receive educational opportunities that will prepare them for the future. Currently, African-American economically disadvantaged students in the United States perform lower on standardized tests than their grade and age-level peers. Educators must find ways to improve the performance of students in this group in order to maximize future opportunities. Through a mixed-methodology approach, the current study finds three school factors that may positively impact the performance of African-American economically disadvantaged students: high expectations, student-teacher relationships and teacher effectiveness. Quantitative and qualitative analysis provides perspectives from principals primarily from a large urban school district on the impact of these factors on student performance.
- Reported Impact of a Correctional Facility's Presence on Community Solidarity: Huntsville, Texas
- The problem examined is community solidarity in a well-established prison town. The primary question addressed in this study is "what is the reported impact of a correctional facility's presence on community solidarity?" This study is concerned with the community's perception about the problems, as well as the benefits involved in the housing of a prison and in particular the solidarity of the community. The relevant literature dates from 1929 to 2004 and examines a wide range of concepts associated with community studies and prison studies. Based on themes found in the review of prison literature; work issues, safety, concern about children, stress, community image, benefits, community identity, and community cohesion, seven research questions were constructed. A semi-structured interview was conducted of 81 residents of Walker County in Huntsville, Texas. Huntsville houses 9 prisons. The prison system is the primary employer in the county. A qualitative data analysis using Altius/tr as a tool for content analysis was used. Throughout the data, community residents consistently indicated solidarity. Emerging from the data were seven themes associated with community solidarity:(a) unqualified community pride, (b) normalization, (c) defensiveness against the media, (d) qualified community pride, (e) denial, (f) community and myths, (g) economics.