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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Environmental Policy Collection
How Healthy is the Upper Trinity River?: Biological and Water Quality Perspectives
This conference report contains discussions and papers from a symposium hosted at Texas Christian University, in Fort Worth, Texas, examining the ecological health of the Upper Trinity River, and the impacts of various human activity, such as agriculture, urbanization, and waste management. The papers cover the effect of water quality on urban rivers, long-term water quality trends in the Trinity River, solutions that may improve water quality in the river, as well as biological, agricultural and waste-water issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29406/
Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act
This document is intended to assist Federal agencies with analyzing cumulative effects during the NEPA process. It outlines general principles, common cumulative effects assessment methodologies, and resources for additional information and background data. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31126/
The National Environmental Policy Act: A Study of Its Effectiveness After Twenty-five Years
This report provides a detailed perspective on how the National Environmental Policy Act has affected federal agency decision making. The report summarizes how the Act has been implemented, how federal agency performance aligns with the intent of NEPA's framers, reactions from the public, NEPA stakeholders, and federal decision makers, and future challenges with ensuring the Act's continued effectiveness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31142/
Incorporating biodiversity considerations into environmental impact analysis under the National Environmental Policy Act
This report outlines general concepts that underlie biological diversity analysis and management, and discusses methods for considering biodiversity in current and future NEPA analyses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31161/
Inter-American Convention on Sea Turtles : message from the President of the United States transmitting Inter-American Convention for the Protection and Conservation of Sea Turtles, with annexes, done at Caracas December 1, 1996, (The "Convention"), which was signed by the United States, subject to ratification on December 13, 1996
This treaty provides the legal framework for member countries in the Americas and the Caribbean to take actions for the benefit of sea turtles digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31100/
WMO Statement on the Status of the Global Climate in 1995
There is continuing international concern about global warming and its potential to cause serious disruption to vulnerable social and economic sectors of society as well as to sustainable development efforts. As recently as December 1995, scientists of the World Meteorological Organization/United Nations Environment Programme (WMO/UNEP) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change stated that "the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate", through emissions of greenhouse gases. At the same time, there is a developing capability within national Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) to provide comprehensive information on past, present, and future (seasons to a year ahead) climate and its variations, to a wide spectrum of users. The rapid development of global communications systems means that such information can be provided on a timely basis and is, therefore, of great use to national decision makers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12058/
Constitution of the People's Republic of China (excerpts of envivonment-related articles)
Excerpts of envivonment-related articles in the Constitution of the People's Republic of China. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12059/
The Terrestrial Biosphere and Global Change: Implications for Natural and Managed Ecosystems
From the perspective of terrestrial ecosystems, the most important component of global change over the next three or four decades will likely be land-use/cover change. It is driven largely by the need to feed the expanding human population, expected to increase by almost one billion (109) people per decade for the next three decades at least. Much of this increase will occur in developing countries in the low-latitude regions of the world. To meet the associated food demand, crop yields will need to increase, consistently, by over 2% every year through this period. Despite advances in technology, increasing food production must lead to intensification of agriculture in areas which are already cropped, and conversion of forests and grasslands into cropping systems. Much of the latter will occur in semi-arid regions and on lands which are marginally suitable for cultivation, increasing the risk of soil erosion, accelerated water use, and further land degradation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12038/
Ocean Biogeochemistry and Global Change
From the perspective of terrestrial ecosystems, the most important component of global change over the next three or four decades will likely be land-use/cover change. It is driven largely by the need to feed the expanding human population, expected to increase by almost one billion (109) people per decade for the next three decades at least. Much of this increase will occur in developing countries in the low-latitude regions of the world. To meet the associated food demand, crop yields will need to increase, consistently, by over 2% every year through this period. Despite advances in technology, increasing food production must lead to intensification of agriculture in areas which are already cropped, and conversion of forests and grasslands into cropping systems. Much of the latter will occur in semi-arid regions and on lands which are marginally suitable for cultivation, increasing the risk of soil erosion, accelerated water use, and further land degradation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12039/
Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics: Implementation Plan
This document describes plans for the implementation of the Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics (GLOBEC) programme element of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). This Implementation Plan is an international response to the need to understand how global change, in the broadest sense, will affect the abundance, diversity and productivity of marine populations comprising a major component of oceanic ecosystems. The Plan describes the consensus view, developed under the auspices of the GLOBEC Scientific Steering Committee (SSC), on the research required to fulfill the scientific goals laid out in the GLOBEC Science Plan (IGBP Report No. 40). The Implementation Plan expands on the Science Plan, drawing on the results and recommendations of workshops, meetings, and reports thereof, that have been sponsored under the auspices of GLOBEC. The GLOBEC research programme has four major components which, are described in detail in this Implementation Plan; the research Foci, Framework Activities, Regional Programmes, and Integrating Activity. These are summarized in the Table of Contents, and in schematic diagrams within the text. They are the elements that have been planned by, and will be implemented under the auspices of, the GLOBEC SSC. National GLOBEC programmes may select those aspects of this international framework which are relevant to meeting national objectives, or they may develop new directions as needed to meet specific national needs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12004/
Global Wetland Distribution and Functional Characterization: Trace Gases and the Hydrologic Cycle
The IGBP Wetlands workshop (Santa Barbara, CA, USA,16-20 May 1996) was held for the purpose of identifying data and research needs for characterizing wetlands in terms of their role in biogeochemical and hydrologic cycles. Wetlands cover only about 1% of the Earth's surface, yet are responsible for a much greater proportion of biogeochemical fluxes between the land surface, the atmosphere and hydrologic systems. They play a particularly important function in processing methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and sulphur as well as in sequestering carbon. Considerable progress has been made in the past 10 years regarding wetlands and methane: a global digital dataset of wetlands (Matthews and Fung 1987) was produced and global observations of methane have been combined with global three-dimensional atmospheric modelling (Fung et al. 1991) to constrain modelled fluxes of methane from high-latitude wetlands. Furthermore, significant advances have been made in understanding the biogeochemical processes that control fluxes of methane and other trace gases. The progress has made clear that present wetland classification schemes do not accurately reflect their roles in these processes because they have been based on wetland attributes such as dominant plant types which do not reflect differences in the functions of wetlands regarding biogeochemical cycles. Further, traditional wetland classifications cannot be distinguished on the basis of global remotely sensed observations. Consequently, it has been impossible to accurately quantify the distribution of key fluxes on the basis of observed land cover. The workshop developed a wetland parameterization scheme based on observable quantities to better incorporate wetlands into global land surface characterization schemes so that the relation between land cover and biogeochemical fluxes can be more accurately determined. An improved understanding of this relation will make it possible to better use observed or historical changes in land cover to infer changes in biogeochemical fluxes, including the cycles of gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12003/
Land-Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC): Implementation Strategy
The Implementation Strategy of the Land-Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC) project specifies in greater detail the activities and projects that will fulfil the mandate outlined in the LUCC Science/Research Plan published in 1995. The project, a joint initiative of IGBP and IHDP, is addressing important global change questions on the local, regional and global scale. The planned and ongoing activities involve a wide community of natural and social scientists. The new understanding of land-use and land-cover change dynamics following from the work carried out under the LUCC Implementation Strategy will be of crucial importance to the global environmental change research community as well as to decision-makers at the local, regional and global levels. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12005/
Past Global Changes (PAGES) Status Report and Implementation Plan
This document summarizes progress made thus far by the Past Global Changes (PAGES) programme element of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). The document also outlines the implementation plans for most of the Foci, Activities and Tasks currently within the PAGES remit. The plan first introduces the scope and rationale of PAGES science and explains how PAGES is organized structurally and scientifically to achieve its goals. For all of the palaeosciences relevant to IGBP goals, PAGES has sought to identify and create the organizational structures needed to support continued work and progress. Models intended to predict future environmental changes must, in order to demonstrate their effectiveness, be capable of accurately reproducing conditions known to have occurred in the past. Through the organization of coordinated national and international scientific efforts, PAGES seeks to obtain and interpret a variety of palaeoclimatic records and to provide the data essential for the validation of predictive climate models. PAGES activities include integration and intercomparison of ice, ocean and terrestrial palaeorecords and encourages the creation of consistent analytical and data-base methodologies across the palaeosciences. PAGES has already played a crucial role in the archiving, management and dissemination of palaeodata. This is fully summarized in the recently published Global Palaeoenvironmental Data Workshop Report (95-2). The growing significance of this type of activity is evidenced by the steep increase in consultation and use of the data currently in the public domain and accessible electronically, and by the growing importance of such data for model validation and intercomparison. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12002/
START Implementation Plan 1997-2002
The primary goals of the SysTem for Analysis, Research and Training in global change science (START), which is co-sponsored by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP); the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP); and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) are to promote regional global change science and to enhance the capacity of individuals, institutions and developing regions to undertake such research. START capacity building initiatives include the recognition that human capacity building is much more than training and that, as with all development, sustainable development is best. Once-off training exercises are easy to organize, but are the least effective method of capacity enhancement and result in large cost/benefit ratios. In contrast, sustained development of human capacity through continual involvement with research maximizes efficiency and minimizes the cost/benefit ratio. START seeks to enhance regional global change research while at the same time enhancing the individual and institutional capacity to conduct such research. The details as to how START operates, and how it plans to encompass its vision and meet its objectives are given in the START Implementation Plan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12001/
Predicting Global Change Impacts on Mountain Hydrology and Ecology: Integrated Catchment Hydrology/Altitudinal Gradient Studies: A workshop report
Documentation resulting from an international workshop in Kathmandu, Nepal, 30 March - 2 April 1996. The following themes were addressed by the working groups: 1. "Role of ecology and hydrology for the sustainable development in mountain regions" (the "human dimensions"). 2. "Coupled ecological and hydrological studies along altitudinal gradients in mountain regions", with a sub-group dealing with the "Assessment of the spatial distribution pattern of basic water balance components." 3. "Impacts of global change on the ecology and hydrology in mountain regions", with a sub-group on the "Identification of global change impacts on hydrology and ecology in high mountain areas." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12000/
Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Pollution From Environmental Noise
This Law is enacted for the purpose of preventing and controlling environmental noise pollution, protecting and improving the living environment, ensuring human health, and promoting economic and social development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12065/
Summary for Policymakers:Scientific-Technical Analyses of Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change - IPCC Working Group II
This summary of assessment provides scientific, technical and economic information that can be used, inter alia, in evaluating whether the projected range of plausible impacts constitutes "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system," as referred to in Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and in evaluating adaptation and mitigation options that could be used in progressing towards the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12062/
Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution by Solid Waste
This law was established in China to prevent the pollution of the environment by solid waste, to ensure public health and safety, and to promote the development of socialist modernization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12066/
Summary for Policymakers: The Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change -IPCC Working Group III
This summary report assesses a large part of the existing literature on the socioeconomics of climate change and identifies areas in which a consensus has emerged on key issues and areas where differences exist1. The chapters have been arranged so that they cover several key issues. First, frameworks for socioeconomic assessment of costs and benefits of action and inaction are described. Particular attention is given to the applicability of costbenefit analysis, the incorporation of equity and social considerations, and consideration of intergenerational equity issues. Second, the economic and social benefits of limiting greenhouse gas emissions and enhancing sinks are reviewed. Third, the economic, social and environmental costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions are assessed. Next, generic mitigation and adaptation response options are reviewed, methods for assessing the costs and effectiveness of different response options are summarized, and integrated assessment techniques are discussed. Finally, the report provides an economic assessment of policy instruments to combat climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12045/
Summary for Policymakers: The Science of Climate Change - IPCC Working Group I
Greenhouse gas concentrations have continued to increase. Anthropogenic aerosols tend to produce negative radiative forcings. Climate has changed over the past century. The balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate. Climate is expected to continue to change in the future. There are still many uncertainties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12046/
Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act
This law was passed by the Republic of China (Taiwan) to protect public health and the environment by preventing soil and groundwater pollution, and by promoting the sustainable use of soil and groundwater. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc25985/
Organic Act of the National Institute of Environmental Analysis, Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan
This law, passed by the Republic of China (Taiwan) establishes the role National Institute of Environmental Analysis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc25980/
Organic Act of the Environmental Protection Personnel Training Institute, Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan
This law was passed by the Republic of China (Taiwan) in order to support the training of government officials in certain areas of environmental regulation, assessment, inspection, arbitration, and enforcement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc25973/
Climate Change: The Evidence Mounts Up
This article was published in Nature and summarized the presentations of a six-day symposium held 3-8 July 1995 on Climate Variability and Forcing over the past mellennium. Our present climate is unusually warm, and the pattern of warming over the past century strongly suggests an anthropogenic influence from greenhouse gas and sulphate aerosols. That was the message emerging from a week-long symposium examining climate variability over the past 1,000 years, which brought together results from a growing array of observational techniques, analyses of natural records and model results. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11972/
Report of the Ninth Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The Panel at its ninth session would set the stage for the assessment process envisaged over the next two years. The panels also stressed the need for a high scientific and technical standard which would ensure the best information to decision-makers. The panel discussed and adopted various draft reports, including the draft work plan of working groups. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11895/
Report of the Sixth Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The Sixth session of the IPCC approved the report of the fifth session and agreed on many issues including establishing an IPCC Task force to make proposals on the future structure of IPCC. The Panel also decided on an interim expansion of the IPCC Bureau. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11892/
Report of the Fifth Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The Fifth session of the IPCC discussed on the IPCC work program for 1991 and beyond and provided objective analysis of scientific and technical assessment of the issue of climate change. The Panel also approved the report of the fourth session. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11891/
Report of the Eleventh Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The panel discussed and adopted various draft reports including the report of the tenth session and the IPCC Synthesis Report. The Panel also accepted contributions of Working Group to its Second Assessment. Among other issues, the Panel considered the budget and assessed the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program (IPCC NGGIP). Also, special report on Land use Change and Forestry provided digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11897/
Report of the Fourth Session of the WMO/UNEP Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The Fourth session of the IPCC highlighted that developed (industrialized) countries are responsible for some 75% of the total emission of carbon dioxide and a clear commitment to stabilize and then reduce greenhouse gas emission is necessary. Also, the Panel emphasized the need for massive expansion of research and development in new energy sources and more efficient resource management procedures. discussed on the IPCC work program for 1991 and beyond and provided objective analysis of scientific and technical assessment of the issue of climate change. The Panel also approved the report of the fourth session. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11890/
Report of the Twelfth Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The main actions of the Panel includes acceptence of revised 1996 IPCC guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, the election of the Chairman-elect, and approval of the program and budget for 1997. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11898/
Report of the Eighth Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The major tasks of the eighth session of the IPCC included deciding on the future IPCC structure, and agreeing on work plans of working Groups and Subgroups. The panel discussed and adopted various draft reports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11894/
Report of the Thirteenth Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The Panel approved various draft reports including the draft report of the 12th session. The Panel noted the draft decision paper (introduced by Dr. Watson) on the TAR, and after extensive discussions and amendments, the panel approved the decision line by line. The panel deferred the decision on the adoption procedure for the the report underlying the summary for policymakers of the synthesis report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11899/
Report of the Tenth Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The Panel at its tenth session called on partnerships and collaboration to address climate change, and stress the importance of involving experts from developing countries and countries with economies in transition in the activities of the Panel. The panel discussed and adopted various draft reports, and identified the following three areas on which IPCC needed to focus in its future work: Identification of gaps and uncertainties, preparations for the Third Assessment Report, and the development of methodologies on greenhouse gas inventories. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11896/
Report of the Seventh Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The primary objective of the Seventh session of the IPCC was to agree on the contents of the 1992 IPCC Supplement. Accordingly, the panel was informed of the results of the session of the IPCC Task Force on IPCC Structure and expressed its view on the future of its work in the last section of the 1992 Supplement (which would be further developed at its 8th's session. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11893/
IPCC Technical Guidelines for Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations
This guideline provides a means for assessing the impacts of potential climate change and of evaluating appropriate adaptations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11970/
Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop Final Report: Circles of Wisdom
The Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop was held on October 28 through November 01, 1998, as part of a series of workshops being held around the U.S. to improve the understanding of the potential consequences of climate variability and change for the Nation. This workshop was specifically designed by Native Peoples to examine the impacts of climate change and extreme weather variability on Native Peoples and Native Homelands from an indigenous cultural and spiritual perspective and to develop recommendations as well as identify potential response actions. Native Peoples, with our spiritual traditions and long community histories of change, adaptation, and survival in specific regions, are providing a unique contribution to the assessment and understanding of climate change as well as to the development of sustainable economies in this country. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11974/
Selected Translated Abstracts of Chinese-Language Climate Change Publications
This report contains English-translated abstracts of important Chinese-language literature concerning global climate change for the years 1995-1998. This body of abstracts includes the topics of adaption, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation, and trace gas emission. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title index are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11936/
Pollution Prevention Act of 1990
The Pollution Prevention Act focused industry, government, and public attention on reducing the amount of pollution through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use. Opportunities for source reduction are often not realized because of existing regulations, and the industrial resources required for compliance, focus on treatment and disposal. Source reduction is fundamentally different and more desirable than waste management or pollution control. Pollution prevention also includes other practices that increase efficiency in the use of energy, water, or other natural resources, and protect our resource base through conservation. Practices include recycling, source reduction, and sustainable agriculture. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11933/
Oil Pollution Act of 1990
The Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990 streamlined and strengthened EPA's ability to prevent and respond to catastrophic oil spills. A trust fund financed by a tax on oil is available to clean up spills when the responsible party is incapable or unwilling to do so. The OPA requires oil storage facilities and vessels to submit to the Federal government plans detailing how they will respond to large discharges. EPA has published regulations for above ground storage facilities; the Coast Guard has done so for oil tankers. The OPA also requires the development of Area Contingency Plans to prepare and plan for oil spill response on a regional scale. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11988/
Report of the Fifteenth Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The Panel discussed and adopted a number of draft reports including the budget. A special report on Land use Change and Forestry provided. The Panel also assessed the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program (IPCC NGGIP). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11901/
Report of the Fourteenth Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The Panel considered a number of issues and approved various draft reports. Among other agenda items, the panel assessed the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program (IPCC NGGIP), and IPCC special report on ,Land use, Land Use Change and Forestry. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11900/
Law of the People's Republic of China on Conserving Energy
This Law is formulated in order to promote energy conservation by all sectors of society, increase energy efficiency to benefit economic development, protect the environment, ensure national economic and social development, and meet the people's needs in everyday life. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11921/
Law of the People's Republic of China on Water and Soil Conservation
This Law was established for the purpose of the prevention and control of soil erosion; the protection and rational utilization of water and soil resources; the mitigation of flooding, drought, and sandstorm; the improvement of ecological environment and the development of production. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11927/
Climate Change and Human Health, USGCRP Seminar, 10 July 1995.
In this USGRP Seminar, Dr. Epstein discusses the implications of climate change and the emergence of diseases and viruses such as the hantavirus, dengue fever, ebola, cholera, malaria, and eastern equine encephalitis. These signals of global change can be costly to health, commerce, tourism, and transportation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11838/
Climate Change 1995: IPCC Second Assessment Report
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) completed its Second Assessment Report in December 1995. The major conclusions are that greenhouse gas concentrations are increasing, the global climate has been changing, and will likely continue to change, probably due to human influence. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11834/
Ice Core Records of Past Climate Changes: Implications for the Future, USGCRP Seminar, 18 September 1995.
This document provides a brief overview of Dr. Thompson's talk on records of changes in climate in general and the most significant implications of the ice core records of past climate changes in particular. Because climate processes that have operated in the past continue to operate today, ice core records are providing very valuable insights. Within the last two decades, long cores of glacial ice have been used to establish and improve the record of past changes in climate. Analysis of ice cores from Antarctica, Greenland and tropical and subtropical areas have provided a wealth of detailed information on past climate changes. As the ice in these glaciers and ice sheets grew over time, layer by layer, tiny pockets of air were trapped within each layer, preserving a continuous record of the natural changes in the concentrations of greenhouse and other gases. In addition, these ice cores have preserved indirect/proxy records of changes in temperature (which can be closely estimated from the isotopic record of oxygen trapped in the ice), in the concentration of windblown dust, and in volcanic activity. By combining this information, these ice cores have preserved a 200,000-year history of climate changes and factors contributing to these changes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11839/
Floods and Drought, USGCRP Seminar, 8 May 1995.
In this USGCRP seminar, issues about the impact of drought and floods in the news and feel it in the cost of goods and services would be discussed. Each year seems to bring with it droughts or floods that cause billions of dollars in economic losses and untold societal disruption to major parts of our nation. (Drought in the Midwest in 1988 and in the Southeast in 1989. Floods in the Mississippi River Basin in 1992 and in California in 1994). Around the world the situation is the same, even worse in some instances. What causes these extreme events and conditions? Can we predict the occurrence of such events as a means of being prepared, and reducing the impacts of extreme climate events? Can we be better prepared? What success to date has there been in predicting such events? What's the prognosis? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11836/
Marine Environment Protection Law of the People's Republic of China
This law is enacted to protect and improve the marine environment, conserve marine resources, prevent pollution damages, maintain ecological balance, safeguard human health and promote sustainable economic and social development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11931/
Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [As Amended Through P.L. 105-394, November 13, 1998]: An Act for the development and control of atomic energy
The Atomic Energy Act (AEA) established the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to promote the "utilization of atomic energy for peaceful purposes to the maximum extent consistent with the common defense and security and with the health and safety of the public." Since the abolition of the AEC, much of the AEA has been carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy. When EPA was formed, however, the AEC's authority to issue generally applicable environmental radiation standards was transferred to EPA. Other federal and state organizations must follow these standards when developing requirements for their areas of radiation protection. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11950/
Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics (GLOBEC) Science Plan
Human population and associated industrial activities continue to increase rapidly, and have reached levels that put the environment under stress in many areas of the world. In addition natural fluctuations of the Earth's physical and biological systems, often occur in time frames that are not readily evident to man. Such fluctuations cause additional stress on the environment, and can result in changes that impact society in terms of diminished availability of clean water, unspoiled land and natural vegetation, minerals, fish stocks, and clean air. Human societies are making a rapidly increasing number of policy and management decisions that attempt to allow both for natural fluctuations and to limit or modify human impact. Such decisions are often ineffective, as a result of economic, political and social constraints, and inadequate understanding of the interactions between human activities and natural responses. Improved understanding of such issues is important in its own right, and will contribute to ameliorating economic, political and social constraints. Developing improved understanding of environmental change is within the realm of the natural sciences and is being addressed by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and other programmes concerned with describing and understanding the Earth System. Natural variability, occurring over a variety of time scales, dominates the health of complex marine ecosystems, regardless of fishing or other environmental pressure. We are only now beginning to compile quantitative documentation of such variability, and consequently our knowledge concerning its causes remains at the level of hypotheses. Understanding of the role of variability in the functioning of marine ecosystems is essential if we are to effectively manage global marine living resources such as fisheries during this period of tremendously increased human impact, and concurrent dependence, on these resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11997/
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