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- Synthetic Cannabinoid Usage among College Students: The Example of K2 and Spice
- The primary goal of this study was to investigate the awareness and prevalence of Spice and K2 usage among a population of college students, as well as the demographics of such users. The study also sought to determine whether or not students prefer these products over natural cannabis, in addition to examining the most popular methods of obtainment and the most commonly reported side effects of K2 and Spice usage. Participants consisted of 643 undergraduate students enrolled at the University of North Texas during the fall 2011 semester. Findings indicate that while students exhibit a relatively high awareness of K2 and Spice, usage of these products is not a prevalent occurrence. Implications of the findings are discussed.
- Job Satisfaction of Juvenile Facility Directors: Results from a National Survey
- This study utilizes a national survey to measure the job satisfaction of juvenile facility directors. The prior literature has focused on the experiences of line personnel within the adult correctional system, and this research serves to provide new information regarding this specific population. The current study will address the predictors and correlates of a director's job satisfaction. It is hypothesized that specific characteristics within the organization will predict job satisfaction. Issues regarding staff within an institution and their effect on a director's job satisfaction are the focus. Results indicate that staff issues significantly contribute to the job satisfaction of a director. Specifically, this research can be used to understand facility director retention, staff and juvenile related issues, and the effect of job satisfaction on criminal justice policy issues.
- A Descriptive Study of the Intelligence Community in the United States of America
- This treatise represents a descriptive study of the intelligence community in the United States. It explores the ramifications of terrorism on the intelligence function, post September 11, 2001. In-depth discussions concerning the structure of the U.S. intelligence community are presented as well as a focus on the defined steps of the intelligence process: planning and directions, collection, analysis, production, and dissemination. The final aspect of this study poses questions and issues relating to the restructuring of the U.S. intelligence community in light of the Homeland Security Act of 2002.
- An unholy alliance: Case studies in narco-terrorism
- This study is designed both as a case study and a literature-based policy analysis to assist interested parties in gaining a better understanding of controversial “narco-terrorism” phenomenon. The objectives of this study are to show the existing connection between some terrorist organizations and drug trafficking to provide academic information about and explanations for terrorism and drug trafficking, to critically analyze the biases of many current narco-terrorism doctrines and to offer a comprehensive and neutral typology that elucidates all types of narco-terrorism. This thesis is presented in four parts. The first part includes an introduction to narco-terrorism and provides a historical background of drug dilemma and terrorism. A number of definitional and conceptual arguments constituting the backbone of the study are laid out in the second part of the study. Third part consists of case studies of three different insurgent groups. An analysis of the information uncovered and presented in previous chapters and a typology of narco-terrorism are provided in the last part. Thesis is concluded with recommendations in an attempt to inspire useful policies for individuals or institutions operating on the field.
- Changing privacy concerns in the Internet era.
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Privacy has always been a respected value regardless of national borders, cultural differences, and time in every society throughout history. This study focuses on the unprecedented changes in the traditional forms of privacy and consequent concerns with regard to invasion of privacy along with the recent emergence and wide use of the Internet. Government intrusion into private domains through the Internet is examined as a major concern. Privacy invasions by Web marketers, hacker threats against privacy, and employer invasion of employee privacy at the workplace are discussed respectively. Then a set of possible solutions to solve the current problems and alleviate the concerns in this field is offered. Legal remedies that need to be performed by the government are presented as the initial solution. Then encryption is introduced as a strong technical method that may be helpful. Finally, a set of individual measures emphasized as complementary practical necessities. Nevertheless, this study indicates that technology will keep making further changes in the form and concerns of privacy that possibly may outdate these findings in the near future, however, privacy itself will always remain as a cherished social value as it has always been so far.
- Measuring the Effects of the TYC Gainesville Resocialization Program on Juvenile Offender Resiliency Levels
- An analysis of the effects of resocialization programming on juvenile offender resiliency levels was conducted with 220 juveniles committed to a maximum security facility. Data were examined on the subjects' age, race/ethnicity, length of time at the facility, level of resocialization, and resiliency score. The resocialization programming contains cognitive and social components that would be instrumental in augmenting juvenile offender resiliency levels. Analysis of the variables did not show a significant increase in juvenile offender resiliency levels. The results did display that students who were at the facility longer and who were in the older age groups had higher levels of resocialization.
- Risk Assessment of Aviation Security and Evaluation of Aviation Security Policies
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Comprising many airplanes, airports, aircrew, and employees, aviation industry is a large sector that is very vulnerable to attacks, whether it is from terrorists or criminals. Aviation history is fraught with examples of airport bombings, hijackings, and sabotage terrorist attacks. The most destructive of which is the tragedy of September 11, 2001, the cornerstone of today's aviation security policies. This study uses risk assessment tools to determine the dimensions of danger and threats against the aviation industry and addresses how vulnerable the aviation sector is. After vulnerabilities and threats are examined, possible impacts of attacks against the aviation security are discussed. This study also explores the pre and post September 11 policies that governments and policy makers develop to reduce risks in aviation sector. In addition, it discusses weaknesses and strengths of these policies which surfaced during the implementations. Finally, this study proposes some recommendations based on vulnerabilities and threats of aviation security.
- International police cooperation as a response to transnational organized crime in Europe: Improvements in extradition.
- International criminality has been a challenging phenomenon for national police forces for years. States have developed international police cooperation relations and extradition instruments in order to fight international criminal activity. This treatise explores the reasons for the rise in transnational organized crime activities in Europe and presents an in-depth explanation concerning the emergence, mandates, and structures of multilateral police collaboration systems such as Interpol, Trevi, Schengen, and Europol. Since the extradition has become an inseparable part of international policing, this study examines the improvements in extradition procedure and emphasizes the importance of extradition. Finally this study compares traditional (European Convention on Extradition of 1957) and new (European Arrest Warrant) extradition systems.
- An Analysis of Adler's Theory and the Female Criminal
- This research paper addressed the following question: Do select case studies conform to Dr. Freda Adler's theory regarding socio-economic influences on female criminal behavior or dispute her theory? My research involved three female criminals: Karla Faye Tucker, Andrea Yates, and Susan Smith. I addressed Adler's theory in detail, other theories, the makeup of the female criminal and various female crimes. This study provided evidence that all three case studies conform to Adler's theory. nIn accordance with Adler's theory, each of these three females committed crimes of accessibility. None of the three individuals sought to commit a premeditated act or to murder unknown victims. They were motivated by emotions arising at a point in time when access/opportunity presented itself.
- Foot and/or Bicycle Patrols in Major Texas Metropolitan Police Departments
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During the last 25 years in law enforcement in the United States, there has been a universal practice of foot and/or bicycle patrols used to accomplish the goal of police patrol enforcement and the philosophy of community policing in metropolitan areas. These tactics of patrol have also been used in police departments in and around the State of Texas. This report is a research project on six major metropolitan police departments in the State of Texas, analyzing their allocation of foot and/or bicycle patrol units within their urban cities. The study assesses their early history in using these two police tactics to address criminal activity and their progression from foot patrol to bicycle patrol. The findings of this research support the proposition that major Texas police departments have adopted the practices and philosophies of other major urban police departments around the US, by using foot and/or bicycle patrols in their cities. There is evidence that major Texas police departments were using foot patrol during the early 1980s in support of community policing and gradually phased out this practice in the early 1990s to adopt the new enforcement tactic of policing on a bicycle.
- Criminal justice responses to emerging computer crime problems
- This study discussed the issue of computer crime as it relates to the criminal justice system, specifically law enforcement. The information was gathered through several books, academic journals, governmental documents, and the Internet. First, the nature and forms of computer crime, Internet crime, and cyber terrorism were analyzed. Next, law enforcement responses were discussed. International aspects of the problem were separately pointed out. Further, detection and investigation of computer crime were examined. Problems related to the each component of the criminal justice system (law enforcement, investigators, prosecutors, and judges) were described. Specific solutions to these problems were offered. In addition, computer crime handling procedures were presented. Results indicate that computer crime will increase in the 21st century, and this problem cannot be controlled by traditional methods alone. Using new technology as preventive measures, and increasing awareness and security conscious culture will prevent the problem in the long run.
- The Integral Role of Training in the Implementation of Hate Crime Legislation
- This research focuses on the association between law enforcement training and implementation of hate crime legislation. The Anti-Defamation League's state hate crime statutory provisions and the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hate Crime Reporting by States data are examined. Section one includes the following: What Constitutes Hate?, The History of Hate Crime Legislation, and Issues Facing Hate Crime Legislation. Section two surveys literature on both Hate Crime Legislation and the training of law enforcement officers. Section three discusses the Anti-Defamation League and FBI data in detail and explains the methods used to test the association between law enforcement training and reporting of hate crime legislation. Findings yield a statistically significant association between law enforcement training and reporting of hate crime legislation.
- Structuralist and interactionist perspectives of collective behavior and control of crowds.
- The purpose of this thesis is to understand the concept of collective behavior from different theoretical perspectives and the policy implications they imply for the Turkish Riot Police Units. The civil disturbances in the 1960s have clearly illustrated range of problems in the domain of crowd control. This work will start with the general characteristics and the classification of collective behavior. Second, two main perspectives on collective behavior, which are the structuralist and the interactionist perspectives, will be examined respectively. The question will be asked whether these two perspectives efficiently and effectively explain the crowds and the crowd control. Finally, the other factors in crowd control will be explored, and recommendations concerning the handling of crowds in a more peaceful manner will be made.
- Problem-oriented approach to criminal investigation: implementation issues and challenges
- As a proactive, information-based policing approach, problem-oriented policing emphasizes the use of crime analysis techniques in the analysis of the underlying causes of the problems that police deal with. In particular, analysis applications can be powerful tools for criminal investigation, such as crime reconstruction, profiling, IAFIS, VICAP, and CODIS. The SARA Model represents a problem-solving strategy of problemoriented policing. It aims to address the underlying causes of the problems and create substantial solutions. However, implementing problem-oriented policing requires a significant change in both the philosophy and structure of police agencies. Not only American policing but also the Turkish National Police should consider problem-oriented policing as an alternative approach for solving criminal activities.
- Recidivism Outcomes among a Cohort of Violent Institutionalized Juvenile Offenders
- Serious and violent juvenile offenders cause a disproportionate amount of harm to society, yet this population receives very little attention within the realm of empirical research. This research study examined the recidivism outcomes of 296 serious and violent offenders previously exposed to rehabilitative treatment in the Capital and Serious Violent Offender Program provided by the Texas Youth Commission. This group of juveniles was followed for three years following their release from institutionalization. This analysis revealed that 52% of those released were rearrested at least once during the follow-up period for any offense, while 48% of those released desisted from crime altogether. Of those 296 released, 34% were rearrested for at least one new felony offense. The analyses indicate that those involved in various forms of institutional misconduct during institutionalization were significantly more likely to recidivate. African-American race and institutional misconduct in the form of rule infractions emerged as the most consistent predictors of recidivism for this sample. This study concludes with a discussion of policy implications and risk assessment related to the decisions that are made to release this population of violent juvenile offenders.
- Serial Killing Myths Versus Reality: A Content Analysis Of Serial Killer Flicks Made Between 1980 and 2001
- Public perceptions about serial homicide are more mythical than fact. Myths about serial homicide are perpetuated through several sources, especially the entertainment media which is a dominant and influential mythmaker. The number of films depicting serial killers and serial killing themes has increased dramatically in recent years. However, the reality of these films is debatable. This research examines the reality, or lack thereof, of the most recent films involving a serial killing theme. Hickey provides a wealth of statistical information on a number of serial killers and serial killings. A content analysis of the fifty top grossing serial killer movies made between 1980 and 2001 was conducted using variables from Hickey research. Research shows similarities and differences between variables, however, results concludes the entertainment media does not accurately portray serial homicide.
- Characteristics of community service programs and probationers in Texas
- As a criminal sanction, community service involves unpaid labor on the part of convicted criminal offenders. Community service was created as an alternative to incarceration for low-level offenders. It now appears, however, that community service is rarely used as a true alternative to prison, but rather as an added condition of probation. The body of research on community service in the United States is modest, so relatively little is known about its characteristics and administration. Data were attained from 88 Texas probation professionals via self-administered written surveys in an effort to gather information about the use of community service as a criminal sanction in Texas. Frequency distribution analyses identified characteristics of both community service programs and offender participants in Texas.
- A survey of the Greater Dallas Crime Commission and its effect on the
- This thesis examines the history of the Greater Dallas Crime Commission and its effectiveness within the criminal justice system. It is a private agency established fifty (50) years ago to monitor and investigate the criminal justice system. Today, it serves as a source of funding for criminal justice agencies, provides awards and recognition forums for law enforcement and lobbies for legal revisions of the criminal code. The research is designed to examine their role within the criminal justice system. Whether current crime theories are supported by the commission is central to the thesis. There are no prior studies available of crime commissions perhaps because they are privately funded and operated by civilians. Crime commissions do exert influence, politically and financially, upon law enforcement. It is reflected often in their history. The extent of this effect is the subject of the paper. To this end, the commission's role in changing state laws, providing funds for police training, recognizing prosecutors and paying awards to informants lends credibility to their role in the criminal justice system. Their function has often changed during the fifty-year history. If there is a deficit, it may be that the commission has the capability, through its sphere of influence, of encouraging civilian actions that may conflict with law enforcement policy. Some examples of these are included in the study.
- A historical analysis of the failures of Camp David 2000 Summit.
- This research seeks to understand the reasons for failures of Bill Clinton, Yasser Arafat, and Ehud Barak's Camp David Summit that was held in July, 2000. The Summit was arranged to complete the last phase of Oslo Peace Process. Numerous researches have attempted to reveal the facts of the summit but, so far, they have failed to present the complete details of what happened before, during, and after the summit. This research explores all aspects of the problem including the various variables that would have had effected the breakdown of the Middle East peace process. Finally, the researcher determines the parameters needed to maintain a substantial peace in the Middle East and what proposed strategies might be followed in order to avoid the previous mistakes in future peace negotiations.
- A Longitudinal Study of Juvenile Facility Directors' Job Satisfaction Levels in the United States
- This national study, focusing on job satisfaction within juvenile facility directors, was conducted by the means of a survey. The study is longitudinal in nature; the survey was conducted in 1995 and 2000. Other past studies have focused on line level employees, guards, and the juveniles, but few have concentrated on juvenile facility directors. Literature on directors is currently lacking, this continuous study will give a better ongoing perspective of their attitudes and beliefs. Findings from this particular study will help to address current concerns inside of the system, starting at the apex. The survey's goal is to correlate factors that have a direct impact on their job satisfaction. Results indicate that staff issues have a dramatic impact on a director's job satisfaction.
- Police Officer Burnout: An Examination of Officer Stress, the Policing Subculture and the Advantages of Family Counseling
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The work of a police officer is stressful and could potentially lead to burnout. As a result, a variety of reactions may occur which include, cynicism, abuse of authority, and in extreme cases suicide. One method which has been proven to be effective in treating officer stress is counseling; however, because of the policing subculture the opportunity to seek counseling has been ignored. In order to successfully manage officer stress, the subculture must be dealt with. Additionally, the officers' family must also be acknowledged as being affected by officer burnout. Counseling services must be made available to the officer's family and through training they can become a source of support instead of an added source of stress to the officer.
- The Appropriate Use of Human Intelligence in Combating Terrorism
- When we looked at different issues in terrorism such as definitions, descriptions and motivations, groups and supporters, tactics, strategies, and victims of terrorists and terrorist activities, we see that terrorism is an issue that can occur at any time, and in any place, and it seems that the terrorism threat will still exist in the future. It is almost impossible to stop all terrorist activities all over the world, but it is possible to formulate an anti-terrorism policy that can keep terrorist activities at a minimum level and prevent planned terror activities by a well developed intelligence network. It seems that to establish a good intelligence collection system an approach in which HUMINT and TECHINT are interdependent with each other is necessary. By using a combination of human and technical intelligence collection methods, intelligence agencies can become more effective and efficient against terrorism.
- An Assessment on the Impact of Family Dynamics on the Runaway Problem Among Teenagers
- Although Turkey is a country with strong social cohesion, figures of runaway children in Turkey are increasing dramatically. This research focused on the factors that cause children to run away and on interaction programs to intervene and/or prevent this problem. Until recently, Turkish family life was able to avoid such problems, but with the effect of westernization and social mobility in Turkey, the basic family structure has become more like the family structure in the western countries. Studies reveal that runaway episodes happen in all families regardless of such factors as economic, race, or geographic situations. Teenagers run away for several reasons; however, early intervention is highly suggested by studies to mitigate the problem. Although, parent-child conflict plays a significant role as a reason for youth leaving home, on the other hand family interaction still remains the best alternative to the problem.
- Getting sober while incarcerated: An exploratory analysis of correctional substance abuse treatment programs
- Substance abuse is an expensive problem facing the American public and the criminal justice field. Using secondary data analysis this study examined 1,921 participants across five substance abuse programs within California and New York jail systems. Specifically this study explored the impact of location, demographic characteristics, offense committed, and previous drug treatment on successful completion of the treatment program. Descriptive analyses were used to examine the demographic characteristics of the sample and the types of drugs used by participants in the thirty days prior to jail admission. Results from bivariate analyses indicated that location, demographic characteristics, and previous drug treatment were all significantly related to successful completion. Implications for current correctional treatment programs and future research on this topic are discussed
- Institutional Misconduct Among Gang Related and Non-Gang Related Institutionalized Delinquents
- The problems that gang members create within adult correctional facilities continue to receive attention in the literature. Gang members within juvenile institutions have received far less attention from researchers, and misconduct of these juveniles, both serious and non-serious, is relatively unexplored. This study explored the institutional misconduct of 4,309 male delinquents released from the Texas Youth Commission. Youths younger at commitment, those with a higher TYC risk score, and those youths with emotional problems were found more likely to commit both serious and non-serious institutional misconduct, regardless of gang membership. This thesis concludes with suggestions for additional research on gang members within juvenile institutions and the relationship of gang membership to institutional misconduct.
- Combating Corruption: A Comparison of National Anti-Corruption Efforts
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The primary goal of this thesis is to provide a comparative analysis of the institutional and organizational mechanisms designed to monitor and control political corruption at the national level. The paper will provide comparisons of these arraignments and control systems across three nations. The thesis will identify differences across countries in terms of organizational and institutional political corruption control mechanisms, and use the CPI index to suggest and identify those control mechanisms that appear to be present in nations with low CPI measurements. Finally, the thesis will conclude with the discussion concerning the future prospects for controlling political corruption in Turkey based on the comparative analysis described above.
- Correlates of recidivism: A study examining the differences between first time felony probationers and recidivist felony probation offenders.
- The purpose of this study is to explore the differences and characteristics between first time felony probationer and recidivist felony probation offender. The importance of said studies grows significantly, given current trends of sentencing offenders to probation. Using archived data on random sample of felony offenders in 2000 and based on information acquired and maintained by the Denton County Community Supervision and Corrections Department (CSCD), the study consists of 40 first time felony offenders and 40 recidivist felony offender placed on probation during the year 2000. The method consists of a longitudinal comparison model. To examine the research question, descriptive statistics are used to compare basic demographics. Then, in order to answer the research question bi-variate significant tests, Chi-square and Independent Sample T-tests were employed when appropriate. Results indicate differences between first time felony probation offenders and recidivist felony probationers.
- FISA and warrantless wire-tapping: Does FISA conform to Fourth Amendment standards?
- Electronic surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes was largely unregulated prior to 1978. The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (hereinafter "FISA") was enacted to implement a judicial authorization process for foreign intelligence electronic surveillance that would effectively balance competing needs for national security and civil liberty under the Fourth Amendment. This study examines the evolution of FISA and its effectiveness under the Fourth Amendment, as assessed by federal reviewing courts and scholars since the statute's enactment. The study concludes that the FISA electronic surveillance authorization process has been effective in providing a constitutional mechanism to obtain foreign intelligence information.
- "It's Technical": Exploring the Determinents to Technical Probation Revocations Among Felony Probationers
- Within the United States, probation has customarily been used as a way to divert offenders away from prison. Over the past two decades the number of offenders who are sentenced to probation has increased tremendously. While there have been more offenders sentenced to probation, there has also been an increase in the number of probationers having that sentence revoked. The most prevalent type of revocation is a technical revocation. Probationers receive technical violations culminating in a revocation when they fail to satisfy the conditions of their probation sentence such as attending rehabilitative programming. The present study adds to the literature on technical revocations by examining characteristics of felony probationers from a large Southern state who were revoked between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009. Findings revealed that female probationers, older probationers, white probationers, and those probationers who had not completed high school were significantly more likely to be revoked for a technical revocation. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research based on these findings are discussed.
- Life without Parole for Juvenile Offenders: Questions of Legality and Adolescent Culpability
- Life without parole for juvenile offenders is a controversial issue across the globe. Recently, the United States stands alone as the only country in the world that allows juvenile offenders to be sentenced to life time confinement without the possibility of parole. Furthermore, the U.S. has seen an increase in juvenile waivers and blended sentences, which has resulted in harsher penalties for juvenile offenders who have committed serious and violent crimes. This analysis examines scientific evidence that shows juveniles are different from adults in terms of brain development, rational decision making abilities, and maturity levels. These findings have questioned the reasoning behind imposing adult punishment on adolescent behavior. This analysis also presents the legal arguments suggesting that juvenile life without parole is unconstitutional and violates the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments. Arguments for and against life sentences were also presented. This study concludes with a discussion of policy implications, whether the U.S. Supreme Court should abolish juvenile life without parole sentencing practices and explores the possible future direction of juvenile sentencing in the United States.
- Case studies in terrorism-drug connection: the Kurdistan Workers' Party, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, and the Shining Path
- This study scrutinizes the drug-terrorism nexus critically with intent to conceive possible remedies for the problem. The vast turnover of the global illicit drug industry constitutes the largest portion of organized crime enterprises' income. Different circles have argued that these enterprises are not the sole actors of the drug business, but terrorist groups, whose ultimate aim is a political change rather than financial strength, also profit from the “business.” The controversial nature of the problem fuelled heated debates and requires an in depth and impartial analysis, which was the main subject of the current study. At the first stage, three different cases, the PKK, the LTTE, and the SL, were studied either to prove or deny the alleged phenomenon. The sampled groups' ideology, structure, and operations helped understand the motives pushing the organizations into the ‘business.' Subsequently, several recommendations capturing vital issues both in countering terrorism and breaking terrorism-drugs link were spelled out.
- A Case Study of Leftist Terrorism in Turkey: DHKP/C
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Change in government has characterized the development of most nations. Sometimes this change has been marked by continued evolution, in a peaceful attempt to move forward. Other times, change has been fraught with violent revolution and terrorism. This process has been the subject of much debate by political scientists and economic philosophers. Today, Turkey suffers from continued threats to its government through violent acts of terrorism conducted by various groups, expressing ideologies of leftist and rightist organizations, as well as ethnic and religious extremists. This thesis examines DHKP/C as the primary leftist revolutionary group effecting Turkey, exploring its historical background in Europe and the Middle East, as well as its philosophical link to Marxism. Further, this treatise discusses the implication of revolution and terrorism expressed by DHKP/C; and explores innovative and peaceful solutions, strategies, and techniques to be used by the police forces of Turkey in combating this group
- An Analysis of Major American Riots: Issues in Riots and Riot Control
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By conducting sound research to understand the concepts surrounding rioting and efficient riot response tactics, professionals, especially whose main job is to ensure the tranquility in the society, will be better prepared to deal with all kinds of civil movements. The purpose of this study, consequently, is to meet the growing need for educational materials in this area and to provide riot response case studies, which demonstrate the numerous administrative challenges faced by law enforcement decision makers. In this study, seven major riots from throughout the United States are discussed including the Hay Market Riot of 1886, the Watts Riot of 1965, and Los Angeles Riots of 1992. Each riot case is studied in five different and independent stages: the setting and pre-disturbance situation, basic causes of the event, the disturbance situation, the response to the riot, and the aftermath of the incident. The study of all of these stages is intended to help police administrators acquire a general perspective on collective violence, and help them prevent future occurrences in their jurisdictions. In this thesis a special reference is given to the deficiencies of American riot policing and some recommendations were formed accordingly. Therefore, the study concludes with a list of general recommendations, which are crucially important for concerned officials to pay attention before, during, and after a riot.
- An Analysis of Terrorist Recruitment by Observing DHKP/C (Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front) Terrorist Organization in Turkey
- Terrorism has been claimed to be a major problem by hundreds of thousands of people in the international arena for years. Either it has been very difficult to determine and understand the reasons for terrorism, or those reasons have never been studied because of the immediate threat of terrorism. This research analyzed the recruitment process of terrorists by studying the DHKP/C terrorist organization and by answering the following questions. The first is "What factors are correlated with joining a terrorist organization?" And the second is "What is the recruitment process of the DHKP/C?" IN the course of this research, I used specific reports written by DHKP/C members and personal experience to come to better understanding of the motivation behind terrorism and the process by which people are recruited in the terrorist organizations.
- Accuracy variations in human facial identification based on time of exposure.
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This study examined the relationship between time of exposure to the human face and accurate subsequent photo line-up identification. A volunteer group of 124 undergraduate students was divided into three approximately equal sized subgroups. The three groups were then exposed to a video or a portion of a video depicting a theft. Exposure times ranged from two minutes to 30 seconds. The subjects were then given a questionnaire and shown a photo line-up of the mock perpetrator and five foils. Subjects were asked to identify the perpetrator and mark that identification on the questionnaire. Results of the experiment indicated that the longer a subject was exposed the greater the possibility of an accurate identification.
- An Analysis of Location and Offender Characteristics for Motor Vehicle Theft in Texas from 2001 to 2005
- Motor vehicle theft is the costliest property crime in the United States equaling billions of dollars in losses each year. Despite law enforcement success in decreasing the rate of motor vehicle theft in recent years, the actual number of thefts has increased. It is vital for law enforcement agencies to know who is committing motor vehicle theft and where vehicles are being stolen. This study answers these questions by examining offender demographic characteristics and the location types most targeted for motor vehicle theft in Texas from 2001 to 2005. The state of Texas was chosen because Texas has continually been ranked second in the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Report for the number of reported incidents of motor vehicle theft in the United States.
- Challenges encountered during law enforcement investigations of terrorist use of information technology.
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The late 20th and early 21st centuries have seen a phenomenal growth in society's use of information technology. Criminals, including terrorists and terrorist organizations, have also adopted information technologies. Information technologies are used to enhance the efficiency, productivity, and effectiveness of terrorist activities and offenses. Investigating terrorist use of information technologies creates a number of challenges for law enforcement officials. While some of the challenges are encountered during conventional criminal investigations, terrorist investigations also present unique challenges. Through content and typological analysis, this study examined open source information to identify, categorize and propose a model of these challenges. Four primary categories were identified: technology, methodology, legal, and administration and human resources challenges.
- A Matter of Due Process: An Examination of How State Mandated Accreditation has Impacted Texas Crime Laboratories
- Mandated accreditation of crime laboratories is a fairly new phenomenon. The state of Texas was the first to require that crime laboratories be accredited in order to be able to present evidence in a criminal proceeding. The laws that govern this are Texas House Bill 2703 and Texas House Bill 1068. The goal of this study is see how the enactment of these laws impacted crime laboratories. There are 42 crime laboratories that are accredited in the state of Texas. This study was conducted by the use of telephone survey interviews. Results indicated that mandated accreditation is a step in the right direction to ensure that objectivity is maintained during the processing and evaluation of physical evidence.
- Political Misuse of Domestic Intelligence: A Case Study on the FBI
- Domestic intelligence is very important in preventing disorder while ensuring unity and security during a time of national crisis. However, if uncontrolled, domestic intelligence can be subject to political misuse, which causes serious damage both to individuals and to democratic institutions. There are various theoretical explanations for political misuse of domestic intelligence. The political use of domestic intelligence is best explained by the sociological theory of unfulfilled needs. On the other hand, political counterintelligence can be best explained by Threat Theory. In order for a domestic intelligence organization to be effective, its organizational discretion must be limited by establishing clear legislation that is not secret, on the focus, limits, and techniques of domestic intelligence. This system must be supported by a multi-level control mechanism.
- Responding to Child Sexual Abuse: Exploring the Case Files of Children Under the Age of 6 Admitted to a Children’s Advocacy Center for Evaluation
- Research suggests that roughly 25% of women and 10% of men within the United States were sexually abused at some point during childhood. With such high rates of victimization affecting society, the current study explores a population of children under the age of 6 who were suspected of being sexually victimized and thus admitted to a children’s advocacy center (CAC) for evaluation. This investigation contributes to the literature concerning child sexual abuse (CSA) by exploring the characteristics of these alleged victims, the characteristics of their suspected offenders, the alleged victim’s familial demographics characteristics, and by looking at the data pertaining to the incarceration rates of the suspected offenders identified within the sample.
- Transnational Organized Crime and Destabilization in Democracies, Russian Organized Crime as Case Study
- Transnational organized crime has been prevalent during the last century, but it recently has been recognized as a threat to the world order. Governments throughout the world, along with the intergovernmental organizations identified this phenomenon as a new threat to domestic and international security. This paper attempts to explain the impacts of transnational organized crime on the functioning of democratic societies by adopting the Russian Organized Crime as case study. The descriptive research with regard to definition, scope and organization of transnational organized crime, along with the objectives, limitations and methodology of this research will be included in the first chapter. Recent trends observed in organized crime`s character and the impact of organized crime on the political economies of democratic regimes will be contained in the following chapters. Pre-conditions for a broader response to transnational organized crime and conclusive remarks will be the context of the last chapter.
- Truancy Intervention: A Study of Dallas Independent School District Participants in the Dallas Challenge Truancy and Class C Enforcement Center
- This research examines agency data for participants in a truancy intervention program. Previous literature provides mostly descriptive information and fails to examine the effects of truancy intervention efforts. The analysis provides a profile of truant participants referred to the program and factors that correlate to successful completion of the program requirements. The results will be applicable to the study program as evaluation research and will be generalized for application to other truancy programs. Directions for future truancy research will be suggested based on the need to continue to evaluate truancy reduction efforts.
- Violent Female Offending: Examining the Role of Psychopathy and Comorbidity with DSM-IV Personality Disorders
- This thesis examines the role of psychopathy in violent female offending, and explores DSM-IV personality disorders that may also be a factor. Past research on female offenders and psychopathy suggest that this is a valid construct when looking at female offenders. This study was driven by two questions: which personality disorders are most common in adult female offenders who are psychopathic, and are adult female offenders who are psychopathic more likely to have been convicted of a violent offense than those who are not psychopathic, but have at least one personality disorder. The results indicate that Cluster B personality disorders were the most common, and Cluster C the least common. The results also showed that those women who were psychopathic were no more likely to have been convicted of a violent crime than those who had at least one personality disorder, but were not psychopathic. Treatment implications and the direction of future research are discussed.
- Communication Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994: A Case Study
- The purpose of this study is: to explore and analyze the Communication Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (CALEA), to identify problems related to CALEA, to identify solutions devised by other countries to overcome problems similar to CALEA's, and to propose feasible solutions to CALEA problems.
- New Organized Crime: Problems and Issues for Information Analysis
- This study illustrates the changing nature of organized crime at both national and international levels. Organized crime groups have changed in that they have entered the realm of high technology. In response this change, the use of new or modified analytical tools is suggested to enhance law enforcement efforts. This study highlights the problems of, and offers particular solutions for information analysis in its use in the fight against organized crime. Ultimately, it is argued that combined crime and intelligence analysis can be an effective and efficient method for the detection and prevention of modern organized crime.
- Media Influence on Executive Police Decision-Making: A Case Study of Police and Media Interaction During the Oklahoma City Bombing Investigation and Trials
- Because media influence public opinion, it is often surmised that media also influence the decisions of police executives. This exploratory case study examined the relationship between police and media during the Oklahoma City bombing investigation and subsequent trials of Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols. Findings indicate that media influence police executive decisions when police and media interact closely. It was found that during the Oklahoma City bombing investigation and trials, police on the outer perimeter were influenced most and police conducting the investigation or who were tasked to court room security were influenced the least. It was concluded, based on the consensus of respondents interviewed, that media do influence police executive decisions.
- Toward Successful Negotiation Strategies in Hostage-Ttaking Situations: Case Study Approach and Future Recommendations
- In the last four decades, hostage situations have rapidly increased in the world due to the threat of terrorism and other social problems. The goals of hostage takers are to achieve certain political, criminal, and/or social benefits through hostage situations. It is not only a police problem but also a governmental problem. Police apply either negotiation or tactical intervention in hostage situations to recover hostages without bloodshed or loss of life. Success in this endeavor is based on effective negotiation. The purposes of this study are to analyze the major actors and their roles in hostage situations, to identify effective negotiation strategies and tools, and to provide some future recommendations for governments, police agencies, and researchers for peaceful resolutions in hostage situations.
- Problems Encountered in Money Laundering Investigations
- The purpose of this study is to identify how the U.S. is responding to money laundering and what kind of problems arise while countering it, beginning with a detailed description of money laundering, its stages, typologies, impacts, and complications. Due to the broad nature of this subject only three main issues form the focal point of this study: problems concerning the banking industry and other financial organizations, problems resulting from the limitations of law enforcement agencies, and problems arising from the lack of cooperation between and within financial institutions and law enforcement agencies. Several probable solutions to the above problems are identified: Considering the financial industry, there are loopholes in the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) and in other regulations that apply to the industry. Thus, there is a comparison of the Subjective Model vs. Objective Model in terms of reporting systems for financial organizations. On the law enforcement side, the priority is the need to update and upgrade their technology and investigation mechanisms in order not to fall behind the criminals. Finally, cooperation is something that can be achieved through mutual respect and understanding of the priorities of each side, which can be achieved by the creation of an upper agency of whose members represent both sides of the combat efforts.
- Homeland Security Roles and Responsibilities: an Examination of Texas Police Chiefs’ Perceptions
- Research has shown that the police industry has entered into an era of homeland security. However, whether the core functions of policing have significantly changed since September 11, 2001, has been the topic of considerable debate. Using secondary data, the research identifies variables that are most influential in predicting whether Texas police chiefs understand their departments’ homeland security roles and responsibilities. The data was originally obtained in 2007 through self-administered surveys of police chiefs attending the Texas Chief Leadership Series (TPCLS) and the New Chief Development Program (NCDP).
- Civil Asset Forfeiture in the Fight Against Drugs (Policy Analysis)
- Even if the main criminals of an organization are incarcerated, they will be replaced by others who would continue illegal activities, unless their financial assets are removed. Thus, civil forfeiture intends to dismantle the economic infrastructure of drug trafficking networks. Civil forfeiture considers the property as guilty, rather than the owner, and it may exist even if there is not a criminal action. Therefore, it is claimed that police agencies have chosen easy targets, such as wealthy drug users rather than major drug traffickers. Consequently, it has been particularly challenged on the basis of the Excessive Fines, Double Jeopardy, and Due Process Clauses. The use of criminal forfeiture instead of civil forfeiture and the elimination of the equitable sharing provision are considered to be the primary solutions.