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- Participation in Student Financial Aid Programs during the Freshman Year and Persistence in a Private University
- The study determined the overall persistence rate of first-time full-time entrants into a mid-sized private university during the fall semesters 1989 to 1991 to the 2nd year (1990 to 1992). The study compared the retention rate of recipients and nonrecipients of a variety of financial aid programs. Included is a comparison of groups receiving various types of financial assistance and whether or not there are differences between the groups with respect to types of assistance, gender, ethnicity (African American, Hispanic, Anglo), high school grade point average, and national test scores (SAT, ACT). The types of assistance studied were categorized by academic scholarships, university-operated student employment, need-based grants, activity awards, entitlements, and loans. The question of whether renewal, elimination, or reduction in assistance relates to retention was also studied.
- Service-learning in 4-year Public Colleges and Universities : Programs, Profiles, Problems, and Prospects
- This study investigated the levels of involvement in service-learning programs and activities in 4-year public colleges and university that held membership in the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS).
- An investigation of the current status of fund raising activities and training within student affairs divisions in Texas colleges and universities.
- The primary focus of this study was to discover the depth of involvement with fundraising by student affairs professionals in Texas. It sought to determine the predominance of chief student affairs officers trained in development and the types of training that they received. Cooperation between student affairs divisions and development offices was also studied and whether there was a correlation between a cooperative relationship and the number of successful fundraising goals. This study includes a review of related literature on student affairs fundraising, a description of the methodology, results of the survey, conclusions, implications, and recommendations that may assist in future decision-making concerning future involvement in fundraising. The surveys were mailed to 149 four-year (public and private) institutions and two-year public institutions in Texas. The senior staff members of both the student affairs office and development office were asked to complete a survey. There was a 60.7% return rate consisting of responses from 72 development offices and 95 student affairs offices for a total of 167 usable responses. The study found that 59% of the student affairs officers had some formal training and/or on the job training. Involvement in fundraising was reported by 62.1% of the chief student affairs officers. Eighteen percent reported that they employed a development officer exclusively for student affairs fundraising, and another 30% had a development officer assigned to student affairs. Most development officers and student affairs officers perceived the other officer as cooperative rather than competitive in raising funds. Recommendations from this study include studying community college fundraising structures separately for more depth, conducting qualitative interviews with student affairs development officers, making a comparison of student affairs offices that have full-time development officers, and comparing the differences in fundraising success between development officers and chief student affairs officers. Recommendations for the professions include resource development training for student affairs officers and student affairs education for development officers.
- Graduate Professional Training in Christian Education at Dallas Theological Seminary and Alumni Perceptions of Program Quality
- This study assessed the quality of graduate professional training in Christian education at Dallas Theological Seminary (DTS) in terms of the perceptions of program alumni. The subjects of the investigation were 780 alumni who graduated from DTS between 1984 and 2000. The Christian Education program was assessed utilizing Daniel Stufflebeam's CIPP model and alumni data collected from a survey instrument. A response rate of 65% (N=504) was achieved. The research procedure employed a non-experimental design methodology for the quantitative component and open-ended questions for the qualitative component. Most results were statistically significant at the .05 alpha level utilizing chi-square goodness-of-fit tests.
- Leadership Frames of Female Presidents of American Research Universities
- This study used case studies to examine the leadership frames of female presidents of four-year, public and private, coeducational research institutions both from the Intensive and Extensive Carnegie classifications within the United States. The population (N=30) surveyed was sent the Leadership Orientation Questionnaire (Self) developed from the previous research conducted by Lee Bolman and Terrance Deal. The Bolman and Deal leadership frame theory condensed existing organizational theories into a four-frame perspective consisting of a structural, human resource, political, and symbolic frame. Bolman and Deal theorized that the ability to use more than one frame is considered to be critical to the success of leaders and intensify that leader's capacity for making decisions and taking effective actions. The Leadership Orientation Questionnaire (Self) contains five sections that include rating scales for personal demographics, the four frames, eight leadership dimensions, and management and leadership effectiveness. The research questions sought to identify the demographic characteristics and academic histories of the survey participants and the associations between these variables, the leadership frames represented among the survey participants, and how many, and which, of the four frames the survey participants use collectively. This study allowed its participants to examine their perceptions of their own leadership frames in order to analyze the frame that dominates the way certain universities communicate. Thirteen of the thirty presidents (43%) completed and returned the survey. Survey participants who had 20 or more years of experience were more likely to exhibit the human resource or symbolic frame as their dominant style; presidents whose years of experience numbered less than 20 years exhibited a mulitframe perspective in their decision-making process. Overall, this research found that the survey participants exhibited most often the human resource frame, followed by the symbolic, structural, and political frames.
- Filial Therapy with Immigrant Korean Parents in the United States
- This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of filial therapy training in: (a) increasing immigrant Korean parents' empathic behavior with their children; (b) increasing immigrant Korean parents' acceptance level toward their children; and (c) reducing immigrant Korean parents' stress related to parenting.The experimental group, consisting of 17 immigrant Korean parents in the United States, received 10 weekly 2-hour filial therapy training sessions and participated in weekly 30-minute play sessions with one of their children. The control group, consisting of 15 immigrant Korean parents in the United States, received no treatment during the ten weeks. All the parents were videotaped playing with their child before and after the training as a means of measuring change in empathic behavior. The two written self-report instruments completed for pretesting and posttesting purposes were the Porter Parental Acceptance Scale and the Parenting Stress Index. Analyses of covariance revealed that the immigrant Korean parents in the experimental group had significant changes in 10 of 12 hypotheses, including (a) a significant increase in their level of empathic interactions with their children; (b) a significant increase in their attitude of acceptance toward their children; and (c) a significant reduction in their level of stress related to parenting. This study supports the use of filial therapy for promoting the parent-child relationship in immigrant Korean families in the United States. Filial therapy helps immigrant Korean parents to be therapeutic agents for their children. It helps them regain their own power as parents and restore positive relationships with their children.
- Filial Therapy with Teachers of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Preschool Children
- The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Filial Therapy training in increasing teachers of deaf and hard of hearing preschool students': 1) empathic responsiveness with their students; 2) communication of acceptance to their students; 3) allowance of self-direction by their students. A second purpose was to determine the effectiveness of Filial Therapy training in reducing experimental group students': 1) overall behavior problems; 2) internalizing behaviors; and 3) externalizing behavior problems. Filial Therapy is a didactic/dynamic modality used by play therapists to train parents and teachers to be therapeutic agents with their children and students. Teachers are taught primary child-centered play therapy skills for use with their own students in weekly play sessions with their students. Teachers learn to create a special environment that enhances and strengthens the teacher-student emotional bond by means of which both teacher and child are assisted in personal growth and change. The experimental group (N=24) consisted of 12 teachers, who participated in 11 weekly Filial Therapy training sessions (22 total instructional hours) during the fall semester at the preschool of a center for communications disorders, and 12 students chosen by the teachers as their student of focus. Teachers and students met once a week during the training for 30 minute teacher student play sessions in a room specified for this purpose. The non-treatment comparison group received no training during the 11 weeks. Teacher participants completed two written instruments: the Child Behavior Checklist/Caregiver-Teacher Report Form and the Meadow-Kendall Social-Emotional Assessment Inventory for Deaf and Hearing Impaired Students. Teachers who received Filial Therapy training were videotaped during student teacher play sessions. The videotaped sessions were used for pretest and posttest evaluation for the Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interaction. Analysis of covariance revealed the children in the experimental group significantly decreased overall behavior problems. Teachers in the experimental group increased communication of empathy with their students of focus, significantly increased their attitude of acceptance with their students, and significantly increased in their ability to allow the students appropriate self-direction. This study supports Filial Therapy as an effective method of training teachers of deaf and hard of hearing preschool children to be therapeutic agents of change with their students.
- An Investigation of the Efficacy of Play Therapy with Young Children
- This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of play therapy as a method of intervention for children with a variety of emotional and behavioral problems. Specifically, the study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of play therapy in: (a) improving self-concepts of children with adjustment difficulties; (b) reducing internalizing behavior problems, such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety, and depression; (c) reducing externalizing behavioral problems such as aggression and delinquent behaviors; (d) reducing overall behavior problems, social problems, thought problems, and attention problems of children with adjustment difficulties; and (e) reducing parenting stress of parents of children who were experiencing adjustment difficulties.The experimental group consisted of 15 children who were experiencing a variety of adjustment difficulties and received play therapy once per week for 7 to 10 weeks. The control group consisted of 14 children who were experiencing a variety of adjustment difficulties and who were on a waiting list to receive intervention, and therefore, did not receive any treatment during the time of data collection. Experimental and control group children were administered the Joseph Pre-School and Primary Self-Concept Screening Test and parents of all participants completed the Child Behavior Checklist and the Parenting Stress Index at pretest and posttest data collection times. A gain scores analysis revealed that children in the experimental group demonstrated a significant improvement on internalizing behavior problems. Also, a reduction in externalizing behavior problems and parenting stress was observed. No improvement in self-concept was demonstrated. This study provides evidence that play therapy is a viable intervention for treating a variety of emotional and behavioral difficulties in young children, particularly children who are experiencing internalizing behavior problems.
- A Comparison of the Cognitive Style Similarity and Communication Style Adjustment Index Methods to Study Counseling Supervision Performance
- This study was designed to examine two questions. First, does increasing Myers-Briggs Type similarity correlate with improved performance by counselor supervisor/supervisee dyads? Second, is the Communication Style Adjustment Index superior to the cognitive style scale matching procedure as a method of quantifying MBTI similarity in dyads? Sixty-eight supervisor/supervisee dyads were recruited from University of North Texas Counselor Education Master's level practicum classes. Supervisee class rankings and supervisor performance ratings were correlated with the dyads' MBTI similarity as measured by the Communication Style Adjustment Index and the cognitive style matching procedure. While none of the hypotheses were supported it was noted that there was interaction approaching significance between dyadic similarity using the Communication Style Adjustment Index and supervisor performance ratings.
- Alcohol and other drugs: Attitudes and use among graduate/professional students at a health science center.
- Alcohol and other drug use continue to be a major issue on college and university campuses. Few studies have examined alcohol and other drug related issues for a graduate or professional student population. This study examines attitudes, incidents, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use among students enrolled at an academic heath science center. This study incorporated a descriptive research design and utilized the CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey for the collection of data. The data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics and represented in tables as frequencies and percentages. The survey was mailed to all students enrolled in didactic course work at the University of North Texas Health Science Center (UNTHSC) during the fall 2001 semester. This included master's students in physician assistant studies, master's and doctoral students in the biomedical sciences, master's and doctoral students in public health, as well as first and second year medical students. Of the 565 students enrolled in didactic course work, 321 responded to the survey for a return rate of 56.8 %. Statistically significant findings are reported for students at UNTHSC in relation to perceptions of use, actual use, reasons for use, and consequences for use. Similar findings are shown relative to age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, and academic program. Additionally, the UNTHSC students reported statistically significant lower levels of alcohol and drug use, as well as consequences of use than the students represented in the CORE Institutes 2000 national data set. This study identifies the need to investigate alcohol and drug related attitudes, behaviors, and consequences among students studying for professions in health related fields. However, the findings are only relevant to UNTHSC and cannot be generalized to any other population. The study provides personnel at UNTHSC a guide for the development of prevention and intervention programs.
- Ethics of Teaching: Beliefs and Behaviors of Community College Faculty
- This study examines the ethical beliefs and behaviors of full-time community college faculty. Respondents report to what degree they practice sixty-two behaviors as teachers and whether they believe the behaviors to be ethical. Survey participants engaged in few of the behaviors, and only reported two actions as ethical: (1) accepting inexpensive gifts from students and (2) teaching values or ethics. The participants reported diverse responses to questions about behavior of a sexual nature, but most agreed that sexual relationships with students or colleagues at the same, higher or lower rank were unethical. Additional findings relate to the presence of diversity among the faculty, using school resources to publish textbooks and external publications, selling goods to students, and an expansive list of other behaviors. Findings of this study are compared to results from earlier studies that utilized the same or similar survey instrument with teaching faculty. The study has implications for organizational policy and procedure, for faculty training and development, the teaching of ethics or values in the classroom and for future research.
- A Study of the Relationship Between the Levels of Self-Awareness within Students Enrolled in Counseling Practicum and the Measurements of Their Counseling Effectiveness
- Counselor self-awareness is considered an important aspect of counseling effectiveness according to the American Counseling Association and the American Psychological Association and in numerous studies and articles within the counseling literature. With the effort to improve the effectiveness of counseling practicum students comes the need to understand the relationship between effectiveness ratings and the levels of counselor self-awareness. Gestalt Therapy literature, and the development of the Personal Orientation Inventory (Shostrom, 1963) provided the working definition of self-awareness in this study. Research and evaluation are means for improving the correlation between students' characteristics in counselor training programs and their effectiveness as perceived by faculty and doctoral supervisors. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of practicum students' ages and their levels of self-awareness upon counseling effectiveness as measured by faculty and doctoral supervisors in a university clinic setting. Twenty-nine students who were enrolled in four practicum classes were administered the Personal Orientation Instrument. Four faculty supervisors and eight doctoral supervisors were administered the Counselor Effectiveness Rating Scale (Myrick & Kelley, 1971). The instruments were administered in the tenth week of the counseling practicum semester. Analyses of the data revealed a statistically significant interaction between the older practicum students' levels of self-awareness and their counselor effectiveness as rated by the more experienced faculty supervisors. Further analyses of the data revealed that there was a statistically significant main effect between the practicum students' age groups and their counselor effectiveness as rated by the less experienced doctoral supervisors.
- A Study of Practices and Procedures used to Prepare Competent Group Leaders by Instructors in CACREP-Accredited Master's Level Group Courses
- This study identified the practices and procedures of instruction that is being implemented by group counseling instructors at CACREP-accredited institutions. A survey questionnaire developed by the researcher was used to gather data from 160 CACREP-accredited counseling units across the United States. The survey was designed to collect input from group instructors on how the didactic, practicum, and experiential components of the master's level group course are being implemented. Three assumptions were made in conducting this study: 1.) The majority of master's level group instructors will report that they use a didactic component in preparing students to become effective group leaders, 2.) The majority of master's level group instructors will report that they use an experiential component in preparing students to become effective group leaders, and 3.) The majority of master's level group instructors will report that they use a practicum component in preparing students to become effective group leaders. The survey questionnaire and, consequently, the results were divided into the respective sections of didactic, experiential, and practicum. The results indicated that each of these components were utilized in the instruction of master's level group courses.
- A comparison of moral reasoning and moral orientation of American and Turkish university students.
- This study compares American and Turkish male and female university students in terms of moral orientation (justice and care) and Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning to examine the influence of culture and gender on moral development. A total of 324 undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 46 are administered the Defining Issues Test (DIT) and the Measure of Moral Orientation (MMO). Statistical analyses indicate Turkish participants reflect more postconventional reasoning, while American participants reflect more conventional reasoning, particularly Stage 4 reasoning. Analyses also reveal Turkish participants reflect significantly more care orientation and more justice orientation compared to American participants. These findings are discussed in terms of cultural and gender influences in moral decision-making.
- Occupational therapy academic program faculty attitudes toward tenure as measured by the Tenure Attitude Scale
- This study explored attitudes of occupational therapy faculty toward tenure and selected alternatives to tenure. A survey method was employed, and the Tenure Attitude Survey Instrument, (TASI), was created for use in the study. Additionally, a questionnaire sought information regarding respondents' rank, tenure and administrative status, institutional type, and years in academia. Participants were accredited occupational therapy professional program faculty who identified their primary work setting as "Academic" on the 2000-2001 American Occupational Therapy Association membership survey. Factor analysis of 577 surveys examined the structure of scores on the TASI, and the instrument consisted of 4 scales, and 18 items, as follows: Scale One: Attitude toward academic freedom and job security protection, 7 items; Scale Two: Attitude toward tenure in general, 6 items; Scale Three: Attitude toward stop-the-tenure clock provisions, 2 items; and Scale Four: Attitude toward post-tenure review, 3 items. Cronbach's alpha was conducted, as follows: TASI overall alpha = .7915; Scale 1 alpha = .7884; Scale 2 alpha = .8420; Scale 3 alpha = .7020; Scale 4 alpha = .4229. Proportional analysis showed that most respondents were full time faculty (88.1%); taught full time at public institutions (52.8%); were tenured or tenure-track (55.5%); had no administrative duties (70.5%); with a rank of instructor or lecturer (17.5%), or assistant professor (45.7%). Time in academia ranged from 1-40 years, with a mean of 11.27 years, median of 9.25 years, and mode of 4 years. Attitudes toward, and support for, the continuation of tenure and for selected proposed alternatives to tenure were analyzed according to the following: faculty rank, administrative status, and tenure status. Respondents held generally favorable attitudes toward tenure as measured by Scales 1 and 2 of the TASI, and the best predictors of faculty attitude toward tenure were tenure status and rank. Due to low reliability scores on Scales 3 and 4, no conclusions can be drawn regarding respondents' attitudes toward alternatives to tenure.
- Mandatory Continuing Education in Nursing: a Texas Perspective
- This study investigated Texas nurses' attitudes toward mandatory continuing education, and their perceptions of skill improvement, knowledge enrichment and improvement of health care to the public as a result of participation in twenty contact hours of continuing education programs as required by the Board of Nurse Examiners for the State of Texas. This sample of Texas nurses felt that the goals set forth by the Board of Nurse Examiners for the State of Texas had been met by participation in mandatory continuing education. However, given the small return rate, the attitudes of these nurses may not represent the attitudes of the majority of Texas nurses.
- Factors Influencing Freshmen Students' College Choice at the University of North Texas: a Focus Group Study
- This study focused on factors that may influence freshmen students when choosing their colleges, specifically those who attend metropolitan universities such as the University of North Texas. In addition to identifying major characteristics of the institution that attract students, it also explored the sources of information that students considered important when making their choice about where to attend college. The primary instrument for gathering the data was focus groups. These informal, small groups provided a format for in-depth discussion and probing questioning about the needs, wants and influential factors driving freshmen college choice. Ten focus groups were held with between six and ten students in a specially designed room on the campus of the University of North Texas. A professional moderator was employed and sessions were observed via a two-way mirror and tape recorded for later transcription. The major questions addressed in the focus groups included: What factors influenced students the most to attend the University of North Texas? What did they consider the level of friendliness on campus? And how did the marketing materials that the university distributed impact their decision to attend? The study found that the factors that most influenced freshmen to attend the University of North Texas were low cost, convenient location and the good academic reputation of their field of study. Students believed North Texas to have a very friendly campus and were pleased with the overall academic environment. They were not, however, impressed or greatly influenced by the marketing materials currently being used by the University and suggested ways to improve the design and distribution of these materials to make them more effective. Additional observations were made concerning these and related questions. A partial transcription of the focus group sessions is included.
- Theological Higher Education in Cuba: A Case Study of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary
- This research attempted to provide a comprehensive overview of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary within the context of theological education in Cuba and the Cuban Revolution. Three major purposes directed this research. The first one was historical: to document and evaluate the rise, survival and achievements of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary, which has continued its mission through extraordinary political opposition and economical difficulties. The second major purpose was institutional: to gain insight into Cuban seminary modus operandi. The third purpose of the study was to identify perceived needs of the seminary. This study sought to provide information that can facilitate a better understanding of Cuban Christian theological higher education. The Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary was founded in the city of Santiago the Cuba on October 10, 1949 by the Eastern Baptist Convention. This seminary exists for the purpose of training pastors for the Eastern Baptist Convention. The school offers a four-year program leading to a bachelor in theology degree. The Eastern Cuba Baptist Convention experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for the convention and the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary started in 1965 when many important people were recruited to work at the Military Units to Aid Production (UMAP). Fidel Castro recognized in 1991 that the Cuban Communist Party erroneously made atheism its religion. Although the Cuban communist regime never issued an antireligious policy, in subtle ways Christians suffered the consequences of the religious ideological conflict. Nevertheless, today the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary operates independently and without the direction of the Cuban government. Communism and Christianity have learned to live together in Cuba even though they started with difficulties. Theological education in Cuba not only survived the negative effects of the Cuban revolution, but also has emerged stronger than ever. Economic resources are the primary need of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary. The seminary has been through many difficulties during its history. Nevertheless, these days represent the best time in the seminary history.
- An analysis of the effects of high school student concurrent enrollment at Collin County Community College District.
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As efforts to provide seamless transitions from high school to college grow, so do the numbers of high school students who concurrently enroll in college courses across the country. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various aspects of the concurrent enrollment program at Collin County Community College District in Texas. Six research questions were designed to address student success and continuing enrollment patterns after high school graduation, as well as evaluate differences in the various models of dual credit classes offered by the college. Literature related to concurrent enrollment and dual credit programs, senior year of high school, and part-time faculty effectiveness was reviewed. Student issues addressed include: grade performance of concurrent enrollment students compared to the general college population; the percentage of concurrent enrollment students who continue at the college after high school graduation; and a comparison of continuing concurrent enrollment students with a matched sample (based on high school class rank), on the student success factors of fall-to-spring retention rates, fall-to-fall retention rates, grade point averages, and completion rates. Findings were generally positive related to the impact of concurrent enrollment on students and their subsequent success at the college. Various models of offering concurrent enrollment courses were also evaluated as measured by student performance in subsequent courses. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences based on the location at which the courses were taught (high school, college campus, or a college center); differences based on the mix of students in the class (all from one high school; all high school representing several schools; or a mix of high school and college students); and differences based on the employment status of the instructor (full-time college instructor; part-time college instructor; or high school teacher). Differences were examined for the entire sample, and for the academic disciplines of economics, English, and government.
- Clinical and educational efficacy of a university-based biofeedback therapy clinic.
- This study is a qualitative analysis and a quantitative analysis of all peripheral biofeedback client data files of the University of North Texas Biofeedback Research and Training Laboratory since its establishment in 1991 and through the year of 2002. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and educational efficacy of the BRTL. Clients' electromyography and temperature measures, self-report of homework relaxation exercises and progress, and the pre- and post-Stress Signal Checklist were reviewed and analyzed. In regard to clinical efficacy, results indicate statistically significant changes in both temperature training and muscle tension training as a whole group. When divided into subtypes based on the clients' primary presenting problem, findings indicate statistical significance in chronic pain, tension headache, and temporomandibular jaw pain on temperature training, and show statistical significance in chronic pain, tension headache, hypertension, migraine headache, stress, and temporomandibular jaw pain on muscle tension training. When analyzing the Stress Signal Checklist, only 25% of clients had complete information on both pre- and post-Stress Signal Checklist. For these 25%, 87.5% reported symptoms decreased. When reviewing the clients' self-reported progress in therapist's session notes, there is no procedure for computing a treatment success to failure ratio due to the inconsistency of therapists in recording clients' statements. This study also identifies three basic biofeedback learning curves that show how people learn self-regulation skills in biofeedback therapy: 1) steady state and trainable (low variability), 2) phasic state and trainable (high variability), and 3) phasic state and low trainable (high variability).
- A Study of Department Chairs in Two-Year Colleges: A Comparison of the 1992 International Community College Chair Survey to Department Chairs in the North Texas Community College Consortium
- A study was conducted to gather information from department chairs serving in the 26 two-year colleges that are members of the North Texas Community College Consortium using the International Community College Chair Survey (ICCCS). The ICCCS is designed to gather insights into four aspects of the chairs' professional lives: personal characteristics, responsibilities challenges, and strategies. The study compared the demographic data and the respondents' perceptions of the challenges their units will face in the next 5 years to the original survey conducted in 1992. The regional sample included 616 first-line administrators, and a 30.5% response rate was achieved. The demographic distribution of the regional respondents shows significant shifts in gender, age, education, experience and release time but constancy in race and stability of the population. Similarities between the two samples exist regarding the challenges of maintaining program quality, providing technology, and managing financial issues. The regional sample expresses greater concern about the challenges of distance education, external accountability, and student matters.
- Counseling Students' Technological Competence
- Technology has a profound influence on how business, education, entertainment, and interpersonal communications are conducted. Mental health professionals have been exploring how technology can support and enhance client care since the 1960s. In the last decade the influence of technology in the practice of counseling has increased dramatically. As the use of technology increased, so did the expectations for counselor preparation programs to include technology instruction. In 1999, the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) developed the Technical Competencies for Counselor Education Students: Recommended Guidelines for Program Development. This study examines the technological competence of counseling students at one southwestern university based on the ACES recommendations.
- Child-Centered Group Play Therapy with Children with Speech Difficulties
- The problem with which this investigation was concerned was that of determining the efficacy of child-centered group play therapy with pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children with speech difficulties as an intervention strategy for improving specific speech problems in the areas of articulation, receptive language, and expressive language. A second purpose was that of determining the efficacy of child-centered group play therapy in improving self-esteem, positive social interaction, and in decreasing anxiety and withdrawal behaviors among pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children with speech difficulties. The experimental group consisted of 11 children who received 25 group play therapy sessions one time a week in addition to their directive speech therapy sessions. The comparison group consisted of 10 children who received only their directive speech therapy sessions. The Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised, and the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals - 3 were used to measure receptive and expressive language skills. The Burks' Behavior Rating Scale was used to measure symptoms of anxiety, withdrawal, poor self-esteem, and poor social skills as observed by parents and teachers. Twelve hypotheses were tested using ANCOVA and Eta Squared. Child-centered group play therapy was shown to have a large practical significance in helping children improve their expressive language skills. Child-centered group play therapy was shown to have a medium practical significance in increasing children's receptive language skills. Small sample size may have contributed to the lack of statistical significance as calculated by the analysis of covariance. Child-centered group play therapy was shown to have a small yet positive impact upon children's articulation skills and anxiety. Although not significant at the .05 level, these results indicate a slightly larger increase in articulation skills and a slightly larger decrease in symptoms of anxiety among those children who received group play therapy as compared to those who did not. Child-centered group play therapy was shown to have a mixed effect upon children's self-esteem, withdrawal behaviors, and positive social interactions. This study supports the use of child-centered group play therapy as an effective intervention strategy for children with speech difficulties to improve expressive and receptive language skill development.
- Priorities of the Professoriate in Historically Black Private Colleges and Universities
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The intent of the study was to ascertain the importance faculty at Historically Black Private Colleges and Universities in Texas place upon academic activities of research, teaching and service. A survey of faculty at 4 historically black private colleges and universities in Texas (HBCUs) was conducted to collect data from 158 faculty members; 107 usable questionnaires were returned. A response rate of 67.7 percent was achieved. The pattern that emerged from the data indicates the HBCU faculty in this study lean toward teaching and service as being a viable measure for tenure and promotion. The HBCU faculty in this study should remain cognizant that they are an intricate element within the higher education discipline. According to the perceptions of the HBCU faculty, several indicated that their college/university is important; however, they indicated that their academic discipline is less important in comparison. According to the perceptions of the HBCU faculty, many respondents indicated that their job is a source of considerable personal strain. A comparison with the findings of the 1989 Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching reveals more similarities than differences.
- Community college faculty knowledge of legal issues and students with disabilities: A case study.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of Prince George's Community College faculty knowledge of the legal issues, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, The Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, and recent court decisions, related to the provision of classroom accommodations for students with disabilities at the postsecondary level. The focus of the study was to determine if a difference existed between the knowledge of full-time and part-time faculty. Part-time faculty comprise over 50 % of the instructional staffs at most community colleges and are considered an integral part of their institutions, yet they are offered little opportunity for professional development. The variables of gender, department affiliation, teaching at more than one institution, number of years of teaching experience, number of students taught with a disability, and number of individuals known with a disability also were reviewed. Data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 158 faculty members at the college. Twenty-nine packets were returned as undeliverable. Of the 129 deliverable packets, 57 were returned for a response rate of 44.2%. Results from the analysis of data indicated that faculty have very limited knowledge of the legal issues concerning students with disabilities. Only 26.9% of respondents scored at an acceptable level of knowledge. Additional analysis suggested no relationship existed between faculty knowledge and gender, faculty status (full-time and part-time), department affiliation, teaching at more than one institution, number of years of teaching experience, or number of individuals known with a disability. A relationship was found at the p < .05 level of significant between faculty knowledge and number of students taught with a disability. Faculty who scored in the acceptable range had a mean score of 24 or more students taught with a disability. Faculty scoring in the unacceptable range had a mean score of 11 students taught with a disability.
- The effects of a computer-mediated intervention on "at-risk" preschool students' receptive vocabulary and computer literacy skills.
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This study examined the effects of a computer-mediated intervention on "at-risk" preschool students' receptive vocabulary development, computer-literacy skills, and enthusiasm for leaning. Twenty-two preschool-aged children attending an urban primary public school and participating in government subsidized school lunch program participated in the study. A pretest/posttest control-group design and case-study participant observations were used for data collection. Students were assigned to one of two treatment groups. Eleven preschool students with pretest School Readiness Composite (SRC) standard scores of 80, or below, on the Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised (BBCS-R), were assigned to the intervention group. Eleven pre-school students matched by age level and teacher comprised the comparison group. The intervention group received computer-mediated instruction while the comparison group received classroom teacher instruction. The first research question examined the effect of the intervention on students' receptive vocabulary analyzing groups' pretest and posttest BBCS-R School Readiness Composite mean scores. Combined analysis of a Two-Factor Repeated Measures and a Posttest only ANCOVA revealed that computer-mediated instruction was as effective as classroom teacher instruction in helping "at-risk" students acquire readiness receptive vocabulary. The second research question examined the effect of the intervention on "at-risk" student's computer-literacy skills analyzing participants pretest and posttest mean scores on the Computer Input Observation Rubric (CIOR), a rubric developed by the researcher. Analysis of One-Factor ANOVA and of Two-Factor Repeated Measures indicated that computer intervention significantly increased students' computer literacy skills. The third research question examined the impact of computer-mediated intervention on preschool students' enthusiasm for learning and followed descriptive case study methodology. Students' level of task involvement and positive-self statements confirmed enthusiasm for learning with technology.
- Pre- and Post-matriculation Demographic and Academic Profiles of Undergraduate Hispanic Students: A Single Institution Case Study
- This study sought to identify pre- and post-matriculation characteristics of undergraduate Hispanic students at the University of North Texas (UNT). The study also examined demographic trends among this population. Eleven purposes guided the study: 1) to determine geographic origins of the undergraduate Hispanic students at UNT in terms of location of educational institution attended prior to matriculation; 2) to establish whether students entered UNT as true freshmen or transfer students; 3) to ascertain the gender composition of undergraduate Hispanic students at UNT; 4) to report the highest level of education achieved by parents of undergraduate Hispanic students at UNT; 5) to explore patterns in major selection of undergraduate Hispanic students at UNT and who or what influenced that choice of major; 6) to ascertain the percentage of undergraduate Hispanic students at UNT who plan to use financial aid during their enrollment; 7) to examine the graduation rates among undergraduate Hispanic students at UNT; 8) to determine who is most influential in the academic decisions made by Hispanic undergraduate students at UNT; 9) to discover what type of emotional support is given to Hispanic students pertaining to their college enrollment and success; 10) to establish why Hispanic undergraduate students elect to attend UNT; and 11) to discover what factors prohibit new undergraduate Hispanic students at UNT from graduating. Data were collected from undergraduate Hispanic students attending spring 2003 orientation using a new-student survey instrument. Additional data were collected using UNT student information system reports. Chi-square statistics were performed to identify significant results. Results of the study indicated both characteristics substantiated in previous research and characteristics unique to this sample existed among the undergraduate Hispanic students at UNT. The results, particularly as concerned with the parental influence exerted on students in the study, departed from the finding of past research. Additional research on this population was warranted and suggested.
- The Characteristics of Play Therapy Sessions with Children: A Preliminary Investigation
- This research study investigated various characteristics of children in play therapy and their play behaviors during sessions. Specifically, this research investigated how gender, age, ethnicity, household and presenting problem of children impacted the play therapy process. Thirty-two cases of children who received ten or more sessions of play therapy at the Child and Family Resource Clinic, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas between the years of 1998-2002 and met specified criteria were coded and entered into a computer spreadsheet for analysis. The background information provided by the parent/guardian of each child was analyzed using various measures of central tendency to summarize and describe the data sets. The session summary data completed by play therapists at the CFRC was examined using analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance. Analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance revealed statistical significance between the following variables: a) males and use of dolls (.01), animals (.007) and weapons (.014), and males and expression of happy (.048), confident (.042) curious (.007) and flat (.029) during play therapy sessions; b) young children and use of vehicles (.050) during play therapy sessions; c) Caucasian children and expression of happy (.011), and confident (.008) during play therapy sessions; d) children residing in single parent households and use of hammer (.049) and puppets (.048) during play therapy sessions; and e) a variety of presenting problems and toy use/play behavior, feelings expressed and themes played out during play therapy sessions. Frequency of toy use and emotional expression were also investigated as well as session peaks of toy use, emotions expressed and themes. Analysis revealed that the toys used most often during play therapy sessions included the following categories: sandbox, easel/paints, dolls, weapons, crafts and money. Feelings expressed most often in play therapy sessions included excited, pleased, focused, interested, proud, curious, frustrated and confident. Analysis also indicated a positive shift in the overall dynamics of play therapy sessions, as reported by play therapists, during sessions 9-13.
- Participation in a study-abroad program and persistence at a liberal arts university.
- This study used a quasi-experimental design with 1,237 students to investigate the association between participation in a study-abroad program and persistence at a liberal arts university. The theoretical basis for the study was Tinto's Theory of Individual Departure. The independent variable of interest, also known as the treatment, was participation in the University of Dallas Rome Program during the sophomore year. The control group consisted of students who were qualified to participate in the Rome Program, but chose not to do so. The dependent variable was the number of fall and spring semesters enrolled as an undergraduate at the University of Dallas post-treatment through spring 2003. Nine variables that measured background characteristics, academic integration, and social integration explained 3.8% of the variation in number of semesters enrolled post-treatment. Participation in the Rome Program explained an additional 4.2%. In all of the statistical measures examined in this study (incremental increase in R2, b weights, adjusted β weights, and structure coefficients), there was evidence of an important positive association between participation in the Rome Program and persistence. Based on the b weight in the regression equation, holding all other variables constant, students who participated in the Rome Program persisted on average .83 semesters longer post-treatment at the University of Dallas than those who did not go to Rome. Of the 1,007 students in this study who went to Rome, 96% were enrolled at the University of Dallas one semester after Rome participation and 91% were still enrolled after two semesters. This compared to 80% and 72%, respectively, for the 230 students in the control group. Of the 674 students in the study who went to Rome and had the opportunity to graduate within 4 years, 79% graduated within 4 years. This compared to 51% for the 123 students in the control group. Persistence during and after the sophomore year was not associated to the same extent with pre-entry background characteristics, academic integration, and social integration as was persistence from freshman to sophomore year.
- A comparison of individual supervision and triadic supervision.
- This study was designed to measure and compare individual supervision to triadic supervision in promoting counselor effectiveness and counselor development. During individual supervision, one counselor met with one supervisor for an hour. Two models of triadic supervision were created for this study: Split Focus and Single Focus. Triadic consists of two supervisees and one supervisor meeting for one hour. During the Split Focus, 30 minutes was allocated to each counselor for supervision. During the Single Focus, the whole hour was spent supervising only one of the counselors. The next week, the whole hour was spent supervising the other counselor. Three comparison groups were employed to determine the effectiveness of the three supervision models. An instrument was used to evaluate counselor effectiveness and another instrument was used to evaluate counselor development. 47 masters-level counseling students enrolled in practicum participated in this study. The practicum met for 16 weeks. Each counselor filled out a Supervisee Levels Questionnaire-Revised at the beginning (pre-test) and at the end (post-test) of the semester. This instrument determined the counselor's developmental growth. Each counselor submitted a tape of a counseling session at the beginning (pre-tape) and at the end (post-tape) of the semester. The tape was rated on-site by the doctoral supervisor utilizing the Counselor Rating Form-Short. An objective rater also rated the submitted tapes utilizing the same instrument. The instrument determines counselor effectiveness. At the end of the study, an Analysis of Covariance determined that the three supervision models did differ in developmental growth. The Split Focus grew significantly compared to Single Focus and compared to Individual supervision. However, the Single Focus grew significantly on the factor self and other awareness compared to Individual. In terms of effectiveness, an Analysis of Covariance determined that the three supervision models did not differ significantly.
- An Assessment of the Parent Orientation Program at the University of North Texas
- Although most institutions offer a parent program option to the orientation program, there has been little formalized research into the quality, planning or programming of parent orientation. There has been very little research into the impact parent orientation has on parents and whether or not they feel that such programs have met their needs, particularly by gender, minority status, educational background, or by geographic distance from the institution. This study seeks to determine the effectiveness of the parent orientation program at the University of North Texas to the parents who participate in this program. The study attempts to measure whether parents feel that they have adequate information about the institution to adequately support their student through the college transition; if parents feel welcomed by the UNT campus community; and if they feel that they have developed resources and institutional contacts that may be useful in the future in assisting their child to have a successful college experience at UNT. The study, conducted in the summer of 2002, had 736 respondents. An instrument developed to determine parent's perceptions of the effectiveness of the parent orientation program consisted of 31 questions using a Likert scale. A t-Test was utilized to analyze the data because it is designed to compare the means of the same variable with two different groups. Generally, all aspects of the parent orientation program were found to be positive by each subgroup. Parents found value in the orientation program and how it prepared them to support their new college student. In all four components studied, women had a stronger feeling than the males. Minority status had no significant impact on the outcomes of orientation according to the participants. Educational background proved not to be a significant factor. Distance parents lived from UNT revealed significant difference in three of the four categories. The farther a parent resides from UNT, the more valuable the orientation experience was for them.
- The effects of an oral history interview on counselor trainees' confidence and couples' intimacy.
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A major concern many counselor trainees face when preparing to see their first couple-client is that of confidence because they have had little to no experience in interacting in a professional capacity with couples. Many beginning counselors experience anxiety, which can inhibit their effectiveness with clients (Scanlon & Baille, 1994). Introducing counselor trainees to a relatively non-threatening interaction with couples might reduce the initial anxiety that characterizes the neophyte counselor venturing into new clinical territory. The interaction may also enhance feelings of warmth and closeness of the couples. John Gottman's Oral History Interview (Gottman, 1999) was the protocol used in the interaction between trainee and couple. An instrument developed for this study to measure couple counseling confidence, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, 1983), and the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (Schaefer & Olson, 1981) were used to assess levels of counselor confidence, counselor anxiety, and couple intimacy, respectively. The confidence instrument and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered to 37 students who were enrolled in four graduate level introductory couple counseling classes and who interviewed couples, as well as to 34 counselor-trainees who were enrolled in five graduate level counseling courses other than couple counseling and who did not interview couples. Analyses of the quantitative data revealed no statistically significant differences in confidence between trainees who interviewed a couple and trainees who did not interview a couple. Analyses of qualitative data suggested there were differences. The Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships was administered to 67 individual couple participants who were interviewed by counselor trainees, and 35 individual couple participants who were not interviewed by counselor-trainees. Analyses of the quantitative data revealed no statistically significant differences in couples who participated in the Oral History Interview and those who did not. Analyses of qualitative data suggested there were differences. Regarding both counselor confidence and couple intimacy, future research using a larger sample size and more refined quantitative methods appears warranted.
- Speaking up-speaking out: What does it take to prepare early childhood professionals to advocate for children and families?
- The early childhood profession regards advocacy as a professional and ethical responsibility yet little is known about advocacy instructional practices in teacher education programs. This study surveyed selected early childhood teacher educators who currently prepare undergraduate preservice professionals in two- and four-year institutions throughout the United States to identify and evaluate the existing advocacy training practices in preservice education. The study was designed to: (a) determine what leaders in the field of early childhood believe constitutes appropriate advocacy training for preprofessionals, (b) describe the advocacy activities of teacher educators, (c) determine if there is a difference in the advocacy instructional practices of two- and four-year institutions, and (d) recommend a model for advocacy in preprofessional programs. The participants included 607 teacher educators who responded to a mailed questionnaire and 14 leaders of early childhood professional organizations who participated in telephone interviews. Participants represented 48 states and all geographic regions of the United States. Results indicate that teacher educators and leaders believe advocacy instruction is important in preparation programs. The most frequently included advocacy activities are professionalism and understanding the professional role. Advocacy skills and strategies focused on public policy were included the least. Findings show that teacher educators participate in a variety of advocacy activities although few participate in public policy activities. No statistically significant differences were found between two- and four-year institutions in advocacy instructional practices. Based on study data, the researcher developed the Brunson Model for Advocacy Instruction in order to provide the profession with a consistent and sequenced approach to advocacy instruction. Recommendations for future research include: investigation of effective strategies for teaching advocacy; a study of the developmental nature of advocacy; and a study of the Brunson Model for Advocacy Instruction to determine the model's effectiveness in preparing professionals who will have the ability to speak up and speak out for children and families.
- Writing proficiency among graduate students in higher education programs.
- This study explored the extent to which graduate students enrolled in Higher Education courses were proficient at writing. While writing proficiency has been extensively studied in elementary students, high school students, and undergraduates, little attention has been paid to formally evaluating graduate student proficiency. Despite the relatively new idea of assessing graduate student writing, it is a concern for graduate faculty and a valid area for study. This study was based on a sample of graduate students enrolled in at least one course in Higher Education at public institutions of higher education in the United States. A total sample size of 97 students was obtained. Two instruments were administered to the participants: A General Information and Writing Experience Questionnaire (G-WEQ) and the SAT II: Writing Test, Part B. The G-WEQ was designed to capture demographic information about the participants, as well as allow participants to provide a self-assessment of writing and describe the writing experiences they are currently encountering in graduate school. To assess writing proficiency for the participants, the SAT II: Writing Test, Part B was used. The purpose of the test is to "measure [test takers'] ability to...recognize faults in usage and structure, and to use language with sensitivity to meaning" (Educational Testing Service, 1999-2000, p.7). The z-Statistic for a Single Sample Mean significance test was used to determine whether the sample mean scored significantly higher than the population mean on the SAT II: Writing Test. This was not the case (z=0.295, p<0.38). The graduate students in this sample did not score significantly higher on the SAT II: Writing Test, Part B than the typical high school senior whose scores enter into the norm group.
- Faculty Attitudes Toward Residential and Distance Learning: A Case Study in Instructional Mode Preferences Among Theological Seminary Faculty
- Twenty-first century learners have bought into a cafeteria-style mentality for obtaining higher education that learning should be available at the student's convenience. Institutions that ignore this postmodern trend will likely find their applicant pools dwindling along with significant reductions in entering class sizes. Students will simply choose other schools able to provide respected, accredited, and useful learning which fits their busy lifestyles. Since 1987, Dallas Theological Seminary (Texas), a 76-year-old graduate school of theology in the conservative, evangelical, free-church movement, has offered distance learning classes in both extension and print-based delivery models. Because the faculty plays a pivotal role in the successful or unsuccessful implementation of online courses (McKenzie, Mims, Bennett, & Waugh, 2000), the present study uncovered the attitudes of full-time, graduate theological faculty at Dallas Theological Seminary (DTS) regarding distance learning and the likelihood of faculty to adopt this delivery innovation. Bruce Manning's (1976) Trouble-Shooting Checklist (TSC) for Higher Education Institutions was the instrument used in the study. The TSC is a nonparametric test designed to uncover differences between the observed and expected levels of acceptance that a department, program, or institution possesses regarding change toward distance learning in contrast to residential learning. The checklist's two major purposes are to provide an overall norm-referenced, predictive score estimating the organization's likelihood of adopting and implementing an innovation and to profile the strengths and weaknesses of an organization's environment (culture) relative to the adoption and implementation of innovations. Five scales provide a comprehensive understanding of the organizational climate, personality and leadership characteristics of participants, communication pathways within the organization, the degree of sophistication or expertise within the organization, and the receptivity of the students. An official administration of the instrument was conducted involving all full-time faculty at DTS. Frequency counts, percentage distributions, and the chi-square goodness-of-fit statistic were used to analyze the data at the .05 alpha level. A summary of findings from the questionnaire was prepared indicating that significant change must take place within the faculty culture of DTS before distance learning innovations can be implemented.
- Faculty Practice Among Commission of Collegiate Nursing Education Accredited Nursing Schools
- This descriptive survey study investigated the value of faculty practice among Commission of Collegiate Nurse Education (CCNE) Accredited Nursing Schools. The sample included all CCNE accredited schools that offered a Masters degree. Subjects from the 66 schools in the sample the dean and three Nurse Practitioner faculty who are teaching a clinical course. Response rate was 51% for the deans and 35% for the faculty. The opinions of deans were compared to the opinions of faculty on the views of faculty practice as research and the incorporation of faculty practice in the tenure and merit review system. The results showed faculty and deans differed on the value of faculty practice as research. However, only 6.5 % of statistically significance difference was contributable to whether the response was from a dean of a faculty. There was no significant difference to the inclusion of faculty practice in the tenure and merit review system. Boyer's expanded definition of research was used as a theoretical background. Deans viewed faculty practice more important as compared to the traditional faculty expectation of research than faculty did. The operational definition of faculty practice was that it required scholarly outcomes from the practice. Deans were more willing than faculty to acknowledge there were scholarly measurable outcomes to evaluate faculty practice than faculty were. The greatest difference in opinion of outcomes was the deans were more willing to accept clinically focused articles as an outcome than faculty were. Faculty were asked how the money from faculty practice was distributed. Faculty overwhelmingly reported that money generated from faculty practice most often goes to the individual faculty member. Suggested areas for future research involve investigation of the role of tenure committees in tenure decisions relating to research and faculty practice.
- Effects of heart rate variability biofeedback-assisted stress management training on pregnant women and fetal heart rate measures.
- This study examined effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback-assisted stress management training in reducing anxiety and stress in pregnant women and the effect of maternal stress management skills practice on fetal heart rate measures in real time. Participants were seven working pregnant women who volunteered in response to recruitment announcements and invitations from cooperating midwives. Reported state and trait anxiety and pregnancy specific stress were measured during five 45- to 50-minute training sessions. Training included bibliotherapy, instruction in the use of emotion-focused stress management techniques, and HRV biofeedback. Subjects used portable biofeedback units for home practice and were encouraged to practice the skills for 20 minutes a day and for short periods of time during stressful life events. At the end of training, fetal heart rate was monitored and concurrent maternal HRV measures were recorded. Repeated measures ANOVA and paired samples t-test analysis of study data revealed no statistically significant reductions in state or trait anxiety measures or in pregnancy specific stress measures. Partial eta squared (n²) and Cohen's d calculations found small to medium effect sizes on the various test scales. Friedman's analysis of variance of biofeedback measures showed a statistically significant decrease in low HRV coherence scores (X2 = 10.53, p = .03) and medium HRV coherence scores (X2 = 11.58, p = .02) and a statistically significant increase in high HRV coherence scores (X2 = 18.16, p = .001). This change is an indication of improved autonomic function. Results of concurrent maternal and fetal HRV recordings were generally inconclusive. A qualitative discussion of individual subject results is included. During follow-up interviews five subjects reported that they felt they were better able to cope with stress at the end of the study than at the beginning, that they used the stress management skills during labor, and that they continue to practice the skills in their daily lives.
- Perceptions of assurance service services performed by certified public accountants: Accounting education assessment applications
- The overall purpose of this study was to examine how Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) perceive the potential use of assurance services to assess quality in accounting education programs. Survey questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 250 CPAs in the north central Texas area. The questionnaire was designed to obtain demographic information and information relating to the respondents' perceptions of quality assessment of accounting education programs. An analysis of the results of this study suggest the following: CPAs consider (1) certain established criteria, such as SAT scores and faculty-to-student ratios, as effective measures for assessing quality attributes in accounting education programs and (2) traditional measures currently used for quality assessment in accounting education programs as only moderately effective by CPAs. CPAs are apparently seeking increased involvement with accounting education quality assessment and formulation of educational standards. They view the potential application of assurance services to accounting education quality as a way to offer a wider range of services to the public. CPAs perceive assurance services as a type of quality assessment that can be used to complement, but not replace, some of the more effective traditional methods, and as a way of enhancing the quality assessment process for accounting education.
- Christian Higher Education at Dallas Theological Seminary: An Assessment of Doctor of Ministry Programs
- This study involved non-experimental research to identify alumni perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of the Doctor of Ministry degree program at Dallas Theological Seminary. An international survey was conducted to collect data from 165 Doctor of Ministry degree holders from Dallas Theological Seminary; 131 usable questionnaires were returned. A response rate of 79.4 percent was achieved. The intent of the study was to ascertain (a) the extent to which D.Min. alumni perceive that the objectives and goals of Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary are being met, (b) alumni-perceived strengths of Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary, (c) alumni-perceived weaknesses of Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary, (d) compare the findings of this case study assessment with a 1987 national study of Doctor of Ministry programs, and (e) make recommendations for the improvement of D. Min programs at Dallas Theological Seminary. The pattern that emerged from the data indicates that the D.Min. alumni believe objectives and goals of the Doctor of Ministry program at Dallas Theological Seminary are being met. In the opinion of the alumni, Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary has its strengths. The overall opinion of the D.Min. faculty and curriculum are strong indicators of its strength. The D.Min. program has had a positive impact on the lives of its alumni and on their ministries. In the opinion of the alumni, Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary also has its weaknesses. A casual comparison of the findings of this case study assessment with a similar 1987 national study of Doctor of Ministry programs revealed more similarities than differences. The alumni provided a number of suggestions to be implemented into the Doctor of Ministry curriculum, structure, faculty, administration, overall image of the program, its purpose and objectives.
- Analyzing the financial condition of higher education institutions using financial ratio analysis.
- The problem concerned the financial indicators used to evaluate the financial condition of the six sister higher education institutions under the authority of the Board of Regents of Oklahoma Colleges. The purposes were to determine the financial ratios that best indicate financial condition; to calculate those financial ratios for the six designated Oklahoma higher education institutions; and to evaluate and compare the financial condition of the six institutions. This study attempted to further the use of financial ratio analysis as an objective addition to subjective studies that examine an institution's definition of its mission, objectives, and goals and its own assessment of the degree to which its resources allow it to attain those goals. The data were obtained from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System; the financial reports were audited by independent certified public accountants and presented to the Board of Regents of Oklahoma Colleges; and John Minter Associates, Inc., provided the national norms. The set of financial ratios identified provides a means to study a single higher education institution through trend analysis and in comparison to national norms. It also works well with a sample of homogeneous institutions with interinstitutional comparison. The techniques are intended to provide a general profile of an institutions financial health. Cause-and-effect ratio analysis has been proposed as another technique to aid administrators in determining changes in their financial statements and what may have caused them. The study identified a set of financial ratios that summarize the financial condition of a higher education institution. The ratios helped to analyze the financial solvency and viability of the six Oklahoma higher education institutions and focused on the ability of the institutions to meet current and future financial requirements. The importance of financial statement analysis should not be underestimated. The understandable format of financial ratios allows virtually any stakeholder to acquire a basic comprehension of the most critical financial policies of institutions and their financial condition.
- Mentoring in Nursing Doctoral Education: Processes, Perceptions, Problems and Prospects
- This study described the mentoring relationship between doctoral nursing students and their committee chairs. Twenty-two public university doctoral programs responded to a request for names and addresses of their doctoral candidates. The Major Professor Mentoring Scale was used to measure the mentoring relationship. The survey also included demographic and open-ended questions regarding the student-committee chair relationship. Surveys were mailed to 269 doctoral students with an 86% return rate. A principal components analysis was performed to identify the structure underpinning the relationship. The typical doctoral student in this sample was found to be a 44 year old Caucasian female, married with children, working full or part time while pursuing a PhD degree. Students traveled an average of 85 miles each way to campus and nearly half had selected their program based on its location. The typical committee chair was a Caucasian, tenured, associate or full professor between 46 and 69 years of age. The majority of chairs were married and had funded research projects. The students in the study reported knowing their chairs for an average of five years. The study revealed that mentoring is occurring in the majority of relationships between doctoral nursing students and their committee chairs. Students identified many strengths and weaknesses in their relationships with their chairs although the relationship appears to be largely positive. The mentoring relationship is composed of four principal components, the largest of which is psychosocial support. Dissertation support, role modeling and scholarly collaboration comprise the other three components. The factor receiving the most positive rating was role modeling, suggesting that students see their chairs as intelligent and hard-working. Students also report positive feelings about both the psychosocial and dissertation support they have received from their chairs. Students reported more neutral feelings about scholarly collaboration suggesting that this is not a frequent occurrence in the relationship. Demographic variables including age, sex, race, geographic distance and family status were not predictors for mentoring scores.
- The Relationship Between Sociometric Status of Preschool Children and Parenting Styles
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The purpose of the project was to examine the relationship between the social development of preschool children and parenting styles. Preschool social development was accessed by the use of sociometry. Parenting styles of mothers and fathers were determined by a questionnaire. The parenting styles and the sociometric status of the children were analyzed to determine a relationship using the chi-square analysis. The analysis indicated that there was no significant relationship between parenting styles and the sociometric status of preschool children. It is recommended that more research be done in the fields of parenting styles and sociometry.
- Chief student affairs officers in 4-year public institutions of higher education: An exploratory investigation into their conflict management styles and praxis
- This study investigated the conflict management styles of chief student affairs officers in 4-year public institutions of higher education in the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. The data for the study were collected using Hall's Conflict Management Survey. The sample for the study consisted of 25 chief student affairs officers. The purpose of the study was to identify the conflict management style preferences of chief student affairs officers. The other variables studied to ascertain if they had an impact on the style preferences were age, gender, number of years of experience as a chief student affairs officer, ethnicity, and the size (enrollment) of their employing institution. The study found statistically significant associations (p<.05) between ethnicity and conflict management style, specifically the synergistic and win-lose styles, and between the synergistic style and age. The association between ethnicity and conflict management style could be attributed to the fact that the Caucasian group of chief student affairs officers comprised 66.7 % of the synergistic styles and 100 % of the win-lose styles. The association between the synergistic style and age could be due to the fact that the majority of the chief student affairs officers had a synergistic style, and of that group, 66.7 % were in the 50-59 age range. No statistically significant associations were found for correlations between conflict management style and gender; conflict management styles and number of years of experience as a chief student affairs officer; or conflict management styles and size (enrollment) of their employing institutions. The lack of significance shows that there are no associations between the conflict management styles of chief student affairs officers stratified according to gender, number of years of experience, and size (enrollment) of their employing institutions.
- Mental Health Professionals' Comparative Evaluations of the Integral Intake, The Life-Style Introductory Interview, and the Multimodal Life History Inventory
- This research study was performed in an attempt to fill an apparent void regarding the relative utility and comprehensiveness of three published, theoretically-based, idiographic, initial assessment inventories: Integral Intake (II), Life-Style Introductory Interview (LI), and Multimodal Life History Inventory (MI). “Experts” -- defined as professors of counseling or psychology and licensed practitioners who have been practicing as counselors or psychologists for at least five years - read through the inventories and then evaluated them by responding to both (qualitative) open-ended questions as well (quantitative) rankings and ratings. The researcher posed three primary research questions: 1) how do participants' evaluations differ regarding the overall helpfulness of the three inventories; 2) how do participants' evaluations differ regarding the comprehensiveness -- both relative to each of the eight dimensions of the client (thoughts, emotions, behaviors, physical aspects of the client, physical aspects of the client's environment, culture, spirituality, and what is most meaningful to the client) and overall -- of the three inventories; and 3) how do participants' evaluations differ regarding the efficiency with which the three inventories assessed the eight dimensions. Results indicated that participants consistently evaluated the II and MI as more helpful, comprehensive, and efficient than the LI - both overall and relative to the eight specific dimensions. The LI was consistently evaluated as the worst of the three inventories -- on all dimensions. The MI was evaluated as the best inventory on four dimensions: the client's thoughts, emotions, behaviors, and physical aspects. The II was evaluated as the best inventory on seven dimensions: physical aspects of the client's environment, client's culture, client's spirituality, what is most meaningful to the client, and, notably, on overall comprehensiveness, overall efficiency, and overall helpfulness. Another goal of this research was to obtain feedback from the participants relative to how to improve the II. This goal was also accomplished and the researcher will implement this feedback into subsequent versions of the Integral Intake.
- An Investigation into the Current Practices of Group Counseling Instructors in the Delivery of the Required Experiential Group in Accredited Institutions
- This study was designed to determine the diverse practices of group counseling instructors in the delivery of the required experiential group. A small group experience (experiential group) is required of all counseling students in accredited institutions. The accreditation body for counseling programs is the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP). The experiential group has been considered to be a valuable and integral part of counselor training. However, the group has been controversial because of ethical issues involving dual relationships and the right to privacy. The purpose of this study was to determine how group counseling instructors deliver the experiential group, compare current practices to recommended practices in the literature, and recommend changes based on disparities that may exist. The difference between this study and previous surveys of group counseling instructors is that the sample in this study involves CACREP institutions exclusively and the focus is on CACREP standards rather than the standards of the Association for Specialists in Group Work. The results of the study showed that approximately one third of the instructors surveyed indicated that they also serve as leaders of the experiential group. Many of these instructors who serve as group leaders also indicated that they use the group for gatekeeping. Instructors in this study also indicated that understanding group process was the most important goal of the required experiential group. Personal growth was not ranked highly as a goal of the experiential group.
- Culture and Anxiety: a Cross-Cultural Study
- By measuring interactions among and between anxiety and the independent variables of country of origin, gender, level of education, and age, this study attempted to gain insight into how students from different countries experience anxiety on a U.S. college campus. Results of the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and the univariate test(ANOVA) indicated that the gender and level of education of the subjects made no significant difference. However, when it came to country of origin, there were significant differences between two of the cultural groups and respective anxiety level. Findings also support a positive correlation between age and anxiety levels, with the youngest participants having the lowest anxiety levels.
- Pedagogical and Andragogical Principles of John Wesley's Anthology
- This study is a historical and philosophical analysis of significant educational concepts John Wesley espoused during his lifetime from 1703-1791. Specifically this document examines Wesley's use of pedagogical and andragogical principles through the educational undertakings of the early Methodist movement.
- High-temperature corrosion of aluminum alloys: Oxide-alloy interactions and sulfur interface chemistry
- The spallation of aluminum, chromium, and iron oxide scales is a chronic problem that critically impacts technological applications like aerospace, power plant operation, catalysis, petrochemical industry, and the fabrication of composite materials. The presence of interfacial impurities, mainly sulfur, has been reported to accelerate spallation, thereby promoting the high-temperature corrosion of metals and alloys. The precise mechanism for sulfur-induced destruction of oxides, however, is ambiguous. The objective of the present research is to elucidate the microscopic mechanism for the high-temperature corrosion of aluminum alloys in the presence of sulfur. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies were conducted under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions on oxidized sulfur-free and sulfur-modified Al/Fe and Ni3Al(111). Evaporative deposition of aluminum onto a sulfur-covered iron surface results in the insertion of aluminum between the sulfur adlayer and the substrate, producing an Fe-Al-S interface. Aluminum oxidation at 300 K is retarded in the presence of sulfur. Oxide destabilization, and the formation of metallic aluminum are observed at temperatures > 600 K when sulfur is located at the Al2O3-Fe interface, while the sulfur-free interface is stable up to 900 K. In contrast, the thermal stability (up to at least 1100 K) of the Al2O3 formed on an Ni3Al(111) surface is unaffected by sulfur. Sulfur remains at the oxide-Ni3Al(111) interface after oxidation at 300 K. During annealing, aluminum segregation to the g ¢ -Al2O3-Ni3Al(111) interface occurs, coincident with the removal of sulfur from the interfacial region. A comparison of the results observed for the Al2O3/Fe and Al2O3/Ni3Al systems indicates that the high-temperature stability of Al2O3 films on aluminum alloys is connected with the concentration of aluminum in the alloy.
- Reflections on the Development of Children of Alcoholics
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The specific purpose of this study was to try and understand why unique experiences of living with an alcoholic parent could create developmental deficits which emotionally challenge COAs' when faced with the life lessons a college environment offers. This study offered four possible explanations for experiencing challenges in its theoretical background: (1) psychosocial development, (2) the epistemology of alcoholism and its effects on the family, (3) personality development and the concurrence of building resilience, and (4) the college environment itself, with the phenomenon of binge drinking--forcing COAs to confront family alcoholism. A total of 7 participated in this study--4 men and 3 women. Despite the dynamic differences in the answers overall, all 7 participants acknowledged one important concept. When the participants were asked about their own drinking habits, each participant said, though in different ways, they had to be careful with their drinking habits. Participants seemed to be aware that whether alcoholism is genetic or a learned addiction, they were at risk of becoming alcoholics themselves. This study found overall, as previous literature suggests, no matter how COAs are studied, they are found to be a heterogeneous population. Specifically, this study's results points out that they are indeed heterogeneous, yet similar in that all participants in this study, it could be argued, exhibit some vulnerability in regard to parental alcoholism.
- Performance measurement, feedback, and reward processes in research and development work teams: Effects on perceptions of performance
- Organizations have had difficulty managing the performance of their knowledge work teams. Many of these troubles have been linked to antiquated or inadequate performance management systems along with a scarcity of empirical research on this important human resource initiative. These problems are magnified when managing the performance of research and development teams because greater ambiguity and uncertainty exists in these environments, while projects are unique and continually evolving. In addition, performance management in R&D has only recently been accepted as important while individuals in these settings are often resistant to teams. This study represented the first step in the process of understanding relationships between performance management practices and perceptions of performance in R&D work teams. Participants were 132 R&D team leaders representing 20 organizations that agreed to complete a survey via the Internet. The survey instrument was designed to examine the relationships between performance measurement, feedback, and reward processes utilized by teams in relation to measures of customer satisfaction, psychological and team effectiveness, and resource utilization and development. The most important level of performance measurement occurred at the business unit level followed next by the individual level while team level measurement was unrelated to team performance. A simple measurement system with three to seven performance measures focused on objective results, outcomes, and customer satisfaction appeared ideal. Team participation in the performance management process, most notably the process of setting performance measures, goals, and objectives was also important. The use of multiple raters, frequent performance appraisals, and frequent feedback were identified as meaningful. Specific types of rewards were unrelated to performance although some evidence suggested that business unit rewards were superior to team and individual rewards. It was speculated that R&D teams function more like working groups rather than real teams. The focus in R&D seems to be on business unit projects, products, or designs where the aggregate of individual and team contributions determine larger project outcomes.