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 Department: College of Music
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Korean Traditional Elements and Contemporary Compositional Techniques in Hyowon Woo’s Choral Music As Reflected in Gloria
Among native Korean choral composers, Hyowon Woo has emerged as one of the most significant representatives of choral genre, both in Korea and internationally. She has created a new style of choral music that combines traditional Korean musical elements with contemporary Western compositional techniques, in a synthesis that generates new sonorities and effects. Her choral music falls into three basic categories: music employing direct quotation of Korean folk tunes or other elements, which produce typical Korean sonorities; music using Western practices, which produce modern and Western flavors; and music combining Korean traditional methods with modern Western concepts. Hyowon Woo’s unique contribution to contemporary Korean choral music is ideally represented by her Gloria, which will form the basis for this study. Because traditional Korean music culture has such a strong presence and influence on her choral compositions, detailed knowledge of these elements are essential for the study and performance of her work. The combination of traditional Korean music and Western contemporary techniques lies at the core of her compositional style, and is the principal focus of this study. A detailed understanding of these stylistic elements, both Korean and Western, and how they work together to achieve the composer’s purpose and vision, is vital to achieving an informed performance of this work.  This study is intended to supply the conductor these needed tools and to add to the small but growing body of literature related to the performance practice not only of Woo’s significant body of choral compositions, but of Korean choral music in general.
The use of notated and aural exercises as pedagogical procedures intended to develop harmonic accuracy among beginning jazz improvisers
This study compared the effects from the use of aural and notated exercises as pedagogical procedures for teaching harmonic accuracy to beginning jazz improvisation students. The methods of pedagogy were identified from published pedagogic and historical sources, the results of oral and written traditions of jazz pedagogy. The performance objective was produced from a review of the related literature as a recognized and measurable characteristic of jazz improvisation. The purpose of this study was to compare measurements of harmonic accuracy, following the use of notated and aural exercises as experimental procedures of jazz improvisation pedagogy. A lesson plan, materials, curriculum and outline were developed followed by student recruitment and participation. A total of 20 student volunteers participated in the methods of pedagogy (aural or notation). Data collection consisted of a musical background questionnaire and pre and posttest performance recordings. Student recordings were evaluated by six judges using the “experimental performance evaluation measure.” Statistical analyses were conducted, including comparisons of pre to posttest effects between, and among the methods of pedagogy. Although all student participants performed mostly from notated music prior to this study, students who received the aural method of pedagogy produced greater improvement for all measurement items. While the aural method produced no differences between grade level, the notation method produced significantly lower scores for 9th graders compared to 12th graders; no other significant grade level differences were noted. Conclusions were that although many sources of pedagogy do not include aural exercises as the predominate activity, beginning improvisers who have more experience reading music than playing by ear, learn better from aural, than notated exercises.
The Natural Learning Process and Its Implications for Trombone Pedagogy
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This thesis considers the natural learning process as defined by Timothy Gallwey and Daniel Kohut. This learning theory is examined and applied to trombone pedagogy while also considering physiological attributes to trombone performance. a brief synopsis of the history and lineage of the trombone is considered in order to understand the current setting of the trombone medium.
The Castrato Sacrifice: Was it Justified?
One of the greatest mysteries in the history of music is the castrato singers of the Baroque era. Castration has existed for many thousands of years, but for the first time in history, it was used for artistic purposes. Who were these men who seemingly gave up their masculinity for the sake of music? By examining the time period and circumstances in which these musicians lived, an answer may be found. Exploring the economic, social, and political structure of the 17th and 18th centuries may reveal the mindset behind such a strange yet accepted practice. The in-depth study of their lives and careers will help lift the veil of mystery that surrounds them. Was their physical sacrifice a blessing or a curse? Was it worth it?
An Approach to the Analytical Study of Jung-Sun Park's Choral Work: Arirang Mass
The significance in Jung-Sun Park's Arirang Mass is the discovery of artistic value in folk song and its applicability to art music. By using fragments of the Arirang folk songs, or by imitating its musical character, composer could create and develop musical characteristics that are recognizably Korean. The work exhibits his remarkable compositional style, which shows a relationship between Korean traditional style and Western style. This analysis demonstrates specific examples of the elements of Korean traditional folksong, such as Sikimsae, Jangdan, Han, and pentatonic scales which are permeated into this mass setting, and how composer uses fragments of the Arirang tune.
Reevaluating twelve-tone music: analytical issues in the second movement of Anton Webern's Quartet for Violin, Clarinet, Tenor-Saxophone and Piano, Op. 22.
Twelve-tone music illustrates many characteristics relative with those of conventional tonal form, though works are based on a different composition method. The fundamental question of twelve-tone music arises in debate on terminology between tonal and atonal as well as methodology of musical analysis. Certain theorists try to approach twelve-tone music by traditional harmonic views rather than by pitch-class set theory. Conventional harmonic aspects arise from the fact that both tonal and twelve-tone music share similar narrative strategies. This point is explored in examining Anton Webern's Quartet for Violin, Clarinet, Tenor-Saxophone and Piano, Op. 22, which displays connection to tonal music. The present study seeks to examine certain features of the composer's working in pitch materials; i.e., the dispositions of pitch classes and the characteristics of the matching dyads, and thereby to disclose the connection between twelve-tone methods and conventional harmony.
Chen Yi and Her Choral Music: A Study of the Composer's Ideal of Fusing Chinese Music and Modern Western Choral Traditions
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Chen Yi's music is well accepted and recognized nationally and internationally through an increasing number of commissions and performances. Major symphony orchestras, choruses, institutions and companies request her compositions on many occasions in order to increase understanding and exploration of Chinese influences on western classical idioms. This study provides the first detailed discussion of her compositional mastery and her fusion of Chinese music with the language of western choral traditions. Chen Yi's reputation as a prominent orchestral composer does not restrain her passion to apply instrumental techniques and materials to her quality choral compositions. This study focuses on (1) how hardship and various life experiences during the ten-year Cultural Revolution shaped Chen Yi's musical inspirations; (2) how the influences of major musical genres, such as traditional Chinese folksong, jingju, model play, 19th-20th century nationalism, impressionism, and serialism are consolidated in her kaleidoscopic compositional techniques; and (3) the application of Chinese languages, pedagogical concepts, and extra-musical elements, such as Chinese poems, paintings, and calligraphies, revealed in her original, intelligent and resourceful choral creations.
An Interpretive Analysis of George Antheil's Sonata for Trumpet and Piano
American composer George Antheil's Sonata for Trumpet and Piano was written in 1951. This dissertation provides historical and theoretical information that gives insight into the interpretation of this sonata. Reasons why the piece deserves greater attention with respect to the standard twentieth century trumpet literature are also given. Antheil's music was influential in the development of classical music in the first half of the 20th century and, more specifically, contributed to the establishment of an American style of classical music. Composed near the end of his life, this sonata has its roots in this heritage. The understanding of Antheil's history, motivations, and compositional techniques is intended to help bring a performance of this sonata to its full potential.
The Texas Bandmasters Association: A Historical Study of Activities, Contributions, and Leadership (1920-1997)
The purpose of the study was to investigate the leadership role of the Texas Bandmasters Association (1920-1997) in the development of the band program in Texas. It sought to determine TBA's effect on the band movement in Texas, and ascertain how the TBA has contributed to the emphasis on performance focus that is associated with the Texas band tradition. In doing so, the study also provided information regarding the association's goals, purposes, activities, and contributions during the time period under investigation. The historical data for the study was compiled from documentary sources and personal interview. Documentary sources included minutes of meetings from 1920-1997, information contained in various periodicals including the Southwestern Musician combined with the Texas Music Educator, and a nearly complete set of clinic-convention programs. Historical data from past researchers, including several masters theses and doctoral dissertations, and tapes and transcripts of interviews conducted by past researchers, as well as interviews conducted by this researcher, were also utilized. Much of the historical data for the study was located at the Texas Music Educators Association archives, housed at the association headquarters in Austin, Texas. The researcher identified five periods of the association's history. In addition to developing a historical chronology, the study identified prominent leaders for each historical period and explored how these individuals shaped the development of the association, which has grown from a small group of municipal bandmasters in 1920, into the largest state band association in the world, with over 2,200 active members. The researcher chronicles the events that led up to the first annual clinic-convention in 1948, and continues through the fiftieth clinic-convention in 1997. Although the first clinic-conventions focused on new music and the marching band exclusively, over the years this original concept has expanded and now encompasses virtually every aspect of band work. The study sought answers to the following research questions: (1) Who were the primary leaders of the association during each historical period? (2) What was TBA's leadership structure during each period? What was its effect on the growth and development of the association? (3) What were TBA's goals and activities during each historical period and to what extent were the goals of the association achieved? What role did the leadership play in achieving these goals? What were TBA's contributions to the band movement in Texas during each historical period? (4) TBA has come to find its present niche in the presentation of an annual clinic-convention centered, at least initially, on new music and the marching band. What was the role of the leadership in making this present state of affairs become reality? Using a previous leadership model, the researcher found that the leaders identified were mainly elected officers and/or executive secretaries of the association. The leadership structure changed over the years in order to meet the association's needs at the time. Goals, activities, and contributions were discussed for each historical period and evaluations were made regarding the extent to which the association's goals were achieved. Finally, the role of the leadership in making the current state of affairs become reality was discussed, as well as recommendations for further research.
The Opening Section of Isang Yun's My Land My People: A Cross-Section of Korean and Western Musical Features
Isang Yun's oratorio My Land My People is organized in four movements, and is scored for orchestra, solo voice and choir. Movements are titled as follows: Rjoksa (History), Hyon-Shil I (Presence I), Hyon-shil II (Presence II), and Mi-rae (Future). This document only covers from measures 1-38 of the first section of the first movement of this work. Even though this work is atonal, the composer emphasizes a harmonically moving, tonal sonority: interval class five includes perfect 4th and 5th, quintal-quartal harmony and authentic cadence moving dominant to tonic. Also, in this document, a comparison with Korean traditional music elements is included to support Isang Yun's musical features.
The Whole as a Result of Its Parts: Assembly in Aaron Copland's Score for The Red Pony
Aaron Copland's music for The Red Pony (1948-49), based on John Steinbeck's story collection, is probably the best known of his film scores. The effectiveness of The Red Pony score stems from Copland's belief that film music should be subordinate to the film it accompanies. Copland composed The Red Pony score using his self-described method of "assembly," augmenting this process with devices to synchronize the music with the picture. Examination of archival sources shows how the score reflects the acknowledged influence of Igor Stravinsky, the needs of the film medium, and the plot of The Red Pony specifically. Despite Copland's modern style characteristics, the music functions much like a conventional Hollywood film score.
Now All the Fingers of This Tree
Now All the Fingers of This Tree is a work in two movements based upon a poem of the same name by E. E. Cummings. It is divided into two movements: The first movement is scored for nine part solo soprano, where one performer records each of the nine vocal lines. The second movement is an electro-acoustic work derived from four phrases of the original recording of the first movement. Total duration of the work is approximately 19 minutes. The paper provides a detailed analysis of both movements as well as a discussion on usage of text, problems addressed with traditional notation techniques, and technology utilized in the production of the work.
In-between Music: The Musical Creation of Cholo Identity in Cochabamba, Bolivia
Music and identity are inextricably linked. While a particular social or ethnic group's music may reflect characteristics of that group, it also functions in creating the identity of the group. In Andean Bolivia, the choloethnic group has very subjective and constantly changing boundaries. Cholo-ness is made possible through mediated cultural performances of all types, in which members actively choose elements from both criollo and Indian cultures. Music is one particularly effective way in which cholos create and maintain their identity. This thesis focuses on the ways in which cholos use music to create a hybrid identity in and around Cochabamba, Bolivia.
The American trumpet sonata in the 1950s: An analytical and sociohistorical discussion of trumpet sonatas by George Antheil, Kent Kennan, Halsey Stevens, and Burnet Tuthill.
The trumpet, or some ancestral form of the trumpet, has existed nearly as long as civilization itself. Despite its long history, however, the trumpet's solo repertoire remained limited and relatively unvaried until the second half of the twentieth century. Like most music, the American trumpet sonatas from the 1950s are a reflection of the culture and history surrounding their composition. The purpose of this research is to show how the trumpet sonatas by George Antheil, Kent Kennan, Halsey Stevens, and Burnet Tuthill are both distinctly American and unmistakably from the 1950s. The post-war era in America is often viewed as a time of unbridled optimism stemming from economic prosperity and the nation's military and industrial supremacy. The decade of the 1950s is often viewed today as a simpler, happier time in America's history. The trumpet sonatas of this era reflect this primarily in their ebullient rhythms and brilliant, often heroic melodies. However, darker characteristics of the decade (the rise of communism, for example) also make veiled appearances in these four sonatas. After an overview of the social and musical trends of the decade, the central chapter of the work delineates formal, thematic, and tonal structures of each of the four sonatas and their constituent movements. Highlighted throughout the analyses are similarities between the pieces, especially intervallic structures, motivic rhythms, and melodic construction. The final chapter discusses these similarities further and integrates them into 1950s American history and culture.
Toward a Critical Edition of Gordon Jacob's William Byrd Suite: A Comparison of Extant Editions with The Fitzwilliam Virginal Book
Despite being recognized as one of the most important compositions in the twentieth¬ century wind band repertoire, the William Byrd Suite presents many obstacles for the conductor and ensemble members. Since its initial publication in 1924, the piece has contained many discrepancies of pitch, articulation, rhythm, dynamics, and phrase completion that appear in the score as well as the parts. Although the work was reissued by Boosey & Hawkes in 1960 and 1991, many of the original errors remained intact. The sheer amount of inconsistencies causes great difficulties for the musicians involved in the rehearsal process, slowing efficiency and resulting in a frustrating impediment to a quality performance. The primary purpose of this study was the creation of a critical edition of Jacob's William Byrd Suite that eliminates errors of extant editions, incorporates modern instrumentation, and considers the source material. To accomplish this, the present project looks at all sources, including the autograph manuscript, orchestral version, published editions, and errata. The editorial process examines the governing philosophy, subsequent editorial decisions and indications, and the final organization of the parts. The study concludes with the inclusion of the full score of the new critical edition.
Choral resonance: Re-examining concepts of tone and unification.
Resonant singing creates possibilities with dynamic shading, subtlety of phrasing, and rich vibrant tone that astonishes listeners. Choral singing that employs resonance as a fundamental ensemble virtue yields impressive results that lend themselves well to the varying demands of any choral score. Fortunately, choruses of every level can benefit from an increased understanding of the basic principles of resonance in the singing voice. Research on issues of upper partial energy and the presence of the singer's formant in a choral ensemble has been limited in approach. Many published studies regarding upper partial energy in the choral ensemble are based on what the ensemble is already doing, which is linked to the teaching of that specific director and that specific choir. Research must include a wider range of aesthetic choices with regard to choral unification. Through examining spectrograms that represent the sound of some of the most renowned choirs, it is possible to see that many of these ensembles are producing tone that contains a high level of upper formant energy. Interviews with established conductors reveal approaches and teaching methodologies that reinforce this type of singing. It is possible to teach the individuals in a choir to increase the level of resonance in their voices, creating a collective sound containing a vibrancy that is easier to tune and unify. This paper explores resonance in choral singing by first explaining the basic principles of sound production, then defining a resonant tone as one containing the strong presence in the upper partials generally associated with classically trained singers, and finally discussing how this type of resonance is developed in choirs.
An analysis of the American Concerto by Ellen Taaffe Zwilich, identifying the use of motives, and a guide for performance preparation.
Ellen Taaffe Zwilich is an important figure in the compositional world, having written a diverse body of works for which she has received many accolades, including the coveted Pulitzer Prize. The second chapter examines this American composer, the commission of the American Concerto, and events leading to the piano reduction of the concerto. The America Concerto is a modern work that incorporates synthetic scales, unusual notation, and the organization of melodic material through motives. The third chapter includes an analysis that identifies the form and tonal centers as well as the primary motives used in the concerto. The fourth chapter includes pedagogy considerations for performance. Issues relating to tessitura, articulation, flexibility, endurance factors, fingerings, and technical features of the piano reduction accompaniment are evaluated. Detailed suggestions are provided to aid in preparing the piece for performance, including a study of stylistic concerns. The American Concerto is quite diverse stylistically as Zwilich explores the symphonic and jazz genres. The dual nature of the trumpet is examined as the piece combines classical and jazz styles in a virtuosic setting.
An examination of the influence of selected works of Franz Schmidt on the Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra and the Sonata for Trumpet and Piano by Karl Pilss.
The Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra and the Sonata for Trumpet and Piano by Karl Pilss were written in 1934 and 1935, respectively. They are examples for solo trumpet of the late German Romantic style of melody, harmony, form and structure. Musicians and audience often overlook composer Karl Pilss outside his native Vienna. His ties to the Trompeterchor der Stadt Wien and the National Socialist Party during the years preceding the Second World War have limited widespread acceptance of this composer. Pilss' output includes concertos for trumpet, horn, bass trombone, and piano, sonatas for trumpet, violin, and oboe, wind quintets and octets, piano pieces, choral works, and numerous large and small brass works. Pilss' teacher Franz Schmidt is more widely known. His four symphonies provide examples of post-Romanticism at the beginning of the twentieth century. His characteristic use of melody, harmony, form and structure is in the mold of Richard Strauss. Schmidt did not write any works for solo trumpet. However, his Symphony No. 4 begins and ends with extended passages for solo trumpet. Pilss inherited and adopted many of Schmidt's melodic, harmonic and formal traits. These can be clearly heard in his Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra and the Sonata for Trumpet and Piano. This work discusses in detail the musical and compositional connection between Karl Pilss and his teacher, Franz Schmidt. Musical elements of melody, harmony, form and structure are used to illustrate the close connection between pupil and mentor. The use of the characteristic "Schmidt chord" in Pilss' works cements the link between the two composers. The Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra and the Sonata for Trumpet and Piano deserve wider acceptance on the basis of their musical merit and as unique examples of the late German Romantic style for solo trumpet.
An Investigation of the Nonverbal Communication Behaviors and Role Perceptions of Pre-Service Band Teachers who Participated in Theatre Seminars
This qualitative study used a multiple case study methodology to explore the nonverbal communication behaviors and role perceptions of pre-service band teachers, and the extent to which these individuals found meaning and value in theatre seminars with respect to those factors. The informants participated in three theatre seminars taught by theatre faculty at the researcher's university. The researcher collected data in the form of videotaped theatre seminar observations, videotaped classroom teaching observations, videotaped informant reflections of teaching episodes, online peer discussions and journaling, and informant interviews. Data were analyzed, coded, and summarized to form case summaries. A cross-case analysis was performed to identify emergent themes. The broad themes identified were past experience, adaptation, realization, and being aware. The informants found that the theatre seminars increased their awareness of nonverbal communication behaviors in the classroom, and had the potential to be meaningful and valuable with respect to their perceptions of their roles as teachers.
History and Current State of Performance of the Literature for Solo Trombone and Organ
More than 200 compositions have been written for solo trombone and organ since the nineteenth century, including contributions from notable composers such as Franz Liszt, Gustav Holst, Gardner Read, Petr Eben, and Jan Koetsier. This repertoire represents a significant part of the solo literature for the trombone, but it is largely unknown to both trombonists and organists. The purpose of this document is to provide a historical perspective of this literature from the nineteenth century to the present, to compile a complete bibliography of compositions for trombone and organ, and to determine the current state of performance of this repertoire. This current state of performance has been determined through an internet survey, a study of recital programs printed in the ITA Journal, a study of recordings of this literature, and interviews and correspondence with well-known performers of these compositions. It is the intention of this author that this document will serve to make the repertoire for trombone and organ more accessible and more widely known to both trombonists and organists.
The Unpublished Works for Clarinet by Alexander Grechaninov: Preparing a Performance Edition of the Sonata No. 1 for Clarinet and Piano, Op. 161
Alexander Grechaninov was one of the most important composers of the late Russian Romantic School. By the second half of the twentieth century he remained one of the few living composers who continued the traditions of the great Russian Romantic masters, such as Tchaikovsky and Rimsky-Korsakov. He is primarily known for his liturgical works, which are truly masterpieces of this genre. Because many of his instrumental works remain unpublished, particularly the chamber works, they continue to be undeservedly ignored in the concert hall. Grechaninov's unpublished works for clarinet include Septet for Clarinet, Bassoon and String Quintet, Op. 172a, Serenade for Clarinet and String Orchestra (without opus number), and Sonata No. 1 for Clarinet and Piano, Op. 161. This project not only brings to light Grechaninov's unpublished clarinet works, but also emphasizes the importance of his published clarinet pieces which have to date been forgotten, especially in the United States. The writer prepares a performance edition of the Sonata No. 1, Op.161 from Grechaninov's original autograph manuscript which is held in the New York Public Library's Toscanini Archives. After a brief introduction, the document describes Grechaninov's biography, including his historical and societal background, compositional growth throughout his career, and outside influences to which he would have been exposed (Chapter 2). Chapter 3 discusses in details Grechaninov's compositional output and distinct features of his style. Chapters 4 and 5 discuss the published and unpublished works for clarinet by Grechaninov. Chapter 6 provides a detailed structural and tonal analysis of the Sonata No. 1, Op. 161 and discusses the process of editing. Included in the appendices are: performance edition of the Sonata No. 1 for Clarinet and Piano, Op. 161 (score and clarinet part); photocopy of the original autograph manuscript of the Sonata No. 1 for Clarinet and Piano, Op. 161 (score and viola part); photocopy of the original autograph manuscript of the Septet for Clarinet, Bassoon and String Quintet, Op. 172a; and photocopy of the original autograph manuscript of the Serenade for Clarinet and String Orchestra, without opus number.
Clestrinye [El Carnaval del Perdón]: Traditional rituals in intermedia composition.
In Part I of this thesis, I examine the use of Latin American rituals, ceremonies, and traditional folklore as conceptual and compositional material; studying and re-contextualizing concepts, cultures, and ideologies, and introducing them to foreign audiences. I explore issues such as laptop improvisation, interaction with other performance forces, and the utilization of the social elements of non-western celebrations, as explored in Clestrinye, a work for live and fixed electronics, mixed ensemble, dancers, and painters.
Carl Orff's Carmina Burana: A comparative study of the original for orchestra and choruses with the Juan Vicente Mas Quiles wind band and chorus arrangement.
The 1994 publication of a new version of Carl Orff's Carmina Burana, arranged for winds, percussion and choruses by Juan Vicente Mas Quiles, created new possibilities for the performance of Orff's monumental work. This dissertation serves as a guide to the study and performance of the Mas Quiles arrangement of Carmina Burana. Chapter One presents a brief discussion of Carl Orff and his Carmina Burana, followed in Chapter two by a short discussion of Mas Quiles' and the other significant transcriptions and arrangements of Carmina Burana, Chapter three contains a review of the literature pertinent to the study Carmina Burana. In Chapter Four a detailed examination and comparison of the original Orff score with the Mas Quiles arrangement provides a framework with which the conductor may study and compare the two scores in preparation for a performance of the Mas Quiles arrangement. The scoring of the Mas Quiles arrangement is masterful in that the arrangement so closely maintains the textural, musical and aesthetic integrity of the work. The Mas Quiles version includes all of the movements, and all of the original elements: choruses, soloists and orchestral parts are preserved intact. The only substantive change is the judicious use of winds in place of the orchestral string parts. By comparison and analysis of Mas Quiles scoring techniques with the Orff original, the author concludes that the Mas Quiles arrangement is a viable and unique alternative to the Orff original and highly worthy of study and performance by conductors of advanced level ensembles.
Scenen aus Goethes Faust: A performer's analysis.
Robert Schumann's dramatic music remains, for the most part, undiscovered and therefore performed infrequently. Genoveva, Das Paradies und die Peri, Manfred, and Scenen aus Goethes Faust are comprised of some of Schumann's most beautiful music from his last stylistic period. Schumann envisioned a national German opera that had a complete union of text and music and a plot based upon the supernatural and mythical German legends. His lofty aspiration was to raise the dramatic music of his time to the high standards of the literary culture. Composing dramatic music for Goethe's Faust was a challenging endeavor for Schumann. Scenen aus Goethes Faust was a project that he struggled with from 1844-1853 because of both the text and the grand scale of the piece. One purpose of an analysis of the structure and content of Schumann's Scenen aus Goethes Faust and Goethe's poetry is to facilitate the solo vocal performer's interpretation. Utilizing selected scenes from Scenen aus Goethes Faust; "Scene im Garten" from Part I, "Sonnenaufgang," and "Mitternacht" from Part II and "Hier ist die Aussicht frei" from Part III, this research paper will define important recurring musical motives, assess Schumann's usage of contrasting vocal genres and their relationship to the unfolding drama, explore important vocal performance issues for the baritone and soprano soloists and investigate the manner in which Schumann uses the orchestra to depict and communicate the meaning of Goethe's text. Schumann's method of setting Goethe's text will also be examined, as the ability to comprehend the poetic text was of primary importance.
An Examination of Laude: Four Character Sketches for Solo Trumpet in B-flat or C by Stanley Friedman, together with Three Recitals of Selected Works by Joseph Haydn, George Fredrick Handel, Eric Ewazen, and Others
Stanley Friedman is a composer of many works, primarily for brass instruments, that have become part of the standard repertoire. Solus, for Trumpet Unaccompanied, for example, appears on many audition and competition lists, as do others of his works. On the other hand, Laude: Four Character Sketches for Solo Trumpet, commissioned by the International Trumpet Guild in 1980, is unfortunately not widely known among trumpet performers and educators. The intent of this study is to demonstrate, through discussion and analysis, the qualities and potential appeal of this lesser-known work and to renew interest in its performance. Among the six chapters is an overview of Laude, including an explanation of Friedman's peculiar titles for each movement: Nocturne for St. Thomas, Phantasie für Der Wiz, Berceuse for John Julius, and Rondo for Professor Nabob. Other chapters discuss the procedure for analysis of the work and probable sources for melodic material. The motivic development and form of each movement of the work are also explored. The final chapter includes recommendations for the performance of Laude and is followed by a summary and conclusion.
Toward a Unified Whole: Allan Pettersson's Symphony No. 5.
The earlier symphonies of the 1950s embody a gradual realization of Pettersson’s own unique symphonic style, containing large-scale development, repetition, and reiteration. Symphony no. 5 takes these ideas to the extreme and represents the codification of techniques that are further developed in later symphonies. The present study examines the structure of the symphony from a voice-leading perspective. Included in this study is an analysis of the construction of the piece focusing on the development and expansion of motives that operate as structural determinants and the use of chromatic saturation to create intensity and direction. The use of linear analysis in a post-tonal context makes necessary a section devoted to explicating the graphic notation shown in the analysis and the analytical process of determining linear progressions.
Interpreting Richard Strauss's Der Krämerspiegel from the perspectives of the performers and the audience.
The purpose of this document is to examine Richard Strauss's 1918 song cycle Der Krämerspiegel in order to discern compositional intent and to address problems performers may face in communicating the work to a contemporary audience. Examining the existing literature, it is never clearly stated why Strauss composed such an anomalous song cycle that defied aesthetic and generic norms of the day. The premise taken in this study is that Strauss, who was litigiously forced to write the work in order to fulfill a contract with the publisher Bote & Bock, composed certain difficulties into the cycle to make it less marketable and thus less profitable for the firm. Furthermore, he commissioned a text that lampooned the publishing industry in general and certain firms and individuals in particular. Following a brief history of Strauss's involvement with the publishing industry, general considerations for interpretation are examined. The individual songs are then explored, keeping in mind the text's word play and parody, Strauss's use of self-quotation, and the challenges performers and audiences face when confronting Krämerspiegel. Finally, the individual songs are explored, and suggestions for preparation and performance of Krämerspiegel are given suggesting a more operatic understanding of the piece, especially given the cycle's relationship to Strauss's opera Der Rosenkavalier.
Structural Octatonicism in Cindy McTee's Symphony No.1: Ballet for Orchestra
Cindy McTee's Symphony No. 1: Ballet for Orchestra is composed primarily of pitch materials from the octatonic collections that contain both diatonic and non-diatonic relationships in the themes, harmonic content, and larger structure of the symphony. Because the octatonic collections contain the potential for both diatonic and non-diatonic relationships, the piece is argued to have octatonic structure, as the octatonic collection is capable of producing both relationships. The second chapter contains a review of the literature, focusing particularly on the work of Arthur Berger, Pieter C. van den Toorn, Richard Taruskin, and Allen Forte. Next, the octatonic structure of the symphony is shown in the thematic material. Finally, the harmonic support and large-scale structure of the piece are shown to contain octatonic relationships as well.
Snow Spell: An Interactive Composition for Erhu, Flute, Piano, Cello, and Max/MSP
Snow Spell is an interactive composition for erhu, flute, cello, piano, and Max/MSP interactive computer music system. This one-movement piece, Snow Spell, is intended to depict the beauty of a snow scene by presenting four different impressions of snow envisioned by the composer through music. The definition, history, and significance of interactive music are explored. Various modes of interactivity to control signal processing modules, and technical considerations for signal routing and level control in the interactive computer music system are also explored. Chinese music elements in Snow Spell including pentatonic scales, glissandi, and quotations from the Chinese folk tune River of Sorrow are investigated.
Taiwan music teacher attitudes toward the arts and humanities curriculum.
The purpose of the study was to investigate teacher attitudes toward following the Taiwanese arts and humanities curriculum and the relationship of teacher attitudes to four selected curriculum integration factors. These include (1) The quantity of content areas taught in music class, (2) Teachers' satisfaction of their students' learning outcomes, (3) Teachers' confidence in planning lessons, and (4) The number of years spent in curriculum integration. Questionnaires were distributed to 85 stratified random selected junior high schools throughout Taiwan. The school responses rate was 74%. Content validity was checked. The internal consistency reliability ranged from 0.74 to 0.92. Recorder playing, group singing, and music appreciation were found to be the most frequently taught musical skills, the most satisfied students' learning outcomes, the most confident lesson planning areas, and the most important to be included in the music instruction. Writing-by-ear and playing-by-ear were found to be the least frequently taught musical skills, the least satisfied students' learning outcome, the least confident lesson planning area, and the least importance. The two most frequently encountered barriers were insufficient administrative leadership and shallow student learning. The results of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient showed a low positive significant relationship between teachers' overall attitudes and the quantity of musical content areas taught (n = 83, r = 0.29, p = 0.007*, r2 = 0.09). Based on prior research, if attitudes that are formed from personal histories are difficult to change, and in order to change attitudes, multiple strategies must be used. The majority of teachers did not strongly support or reject this new curriculum, and strong support would be needed for the curriculum to be successfully implemented. One of the most important things that the Taiwan MOE could do is to provide music teachers with on-going in-service teacher development programs and monitoring mentor systems, in addition to the exploration and development of additional strategies that might possibly impact teachers' neutral beliefs about this new curriculum.
An historical and stylistic examination of Charles Chaynes' Concerto Pour Trompette and Deuxième Concerto Pour Trompette, with an interview of the composer.
Research has been conducted on prominent mid-twentieth century French trumpet concertos and their composers. Jolivet, Bozza, and Tomasi have all been the subject of research. Charles Chaynes' music is equally valuable to modern trumpet repertoire as that of Jolivet, Bozza, and Tomasi. Chaynes' exclusion from research leaves a void in resources available to future trumpet students. A study of Charles Chaynes and his trumpet concertos is essential to preserving the history of the valve trumpet's young modern repertoire. Lack of understanding of Chaynes' trumpet concertos can only lead to misconceptions when interpreting these pieces. The thirty-nine year gap between Chaynes' Trumpet Concerto No. 1 and Trumpet Concerto No. 2 is a remarkable time span between major compositions, and examining the works gives insight to the evolution of the trumpet concerto throughout the twentieth century. This project highlights Charles Chaynes' contribution to the trumpet repertoire from both the beginning and end of his compositional career, and fills the research gap concerning his concertos. It includes correspondence with Charles Chaynes and others, in order to gain information not found in common source materials. It highlights examples from each concerto that are representative of the composer's compositional style.
A pedagogical study and practice guide for significant original euphonium solo compositions for the undergraduate level student.
Euphonium concertos and similar masterworks for euphonium have been recorded, written about, analyzed, and discussed at length numerous times in recent years. Unfortunately, the most frequently studied and performed euphonium solos have been almost completely ignored in this regard. These works are useful for performance by the undergraduate-level euphonium player. Solos in this category are played by strong high school players and undergraduate euphonium students all over the world. These solos receive countless performances and play a crucial role in the development of young euphonium players, yet have never received attention in the form of a published pedagogical guide. The pieces of greater difficulty and substantial length have received more attention for obvious reasons, but solo pieces most useful for the developing euphoniumist need to be analyzed and discussed on a pedagogical level. This paper is a pedagogical guide to commonly played euphonium solos by the undergraduate level student. The three pieces used in this study are Sonatina by Warner Hutchison, Sonata for Unaccompanied Euphonium by Fred Clinard, and Lyric Suite by Donald White. Pertinent background information about each piece is presented in order for the reader to understand the historical context in which it was written. A list of relevant information and minimum performance skills (instrumentation, length, range, articulation skills, etc.) are included for each selection. An analysis of particular sections of each piece are presented for the reader to adequately grasp concepts and practice ideas that are explained, although the bulk of analysis is of a pedagogical nature. The main body of the paper focuses on assisting the reader with ways to approach this solo literature in daily practice as well as effective performance ideas. Particularly troublesome areas of each piece are identified and strategies to overcome common pitfalls and performance errors are noted.
The Fundamental Unity in Brahm's Horn Trio, Op. 40
Different sections or movements of a piece are associated with each other and contain the composer essential thought. A vague affinity of mood and a resembling theme or form testifies to the relationship. However, the evidence is insufficient to reveal the unification of the different sections or movements since these are under restraint of external music proofs. In order to figure out the relationship, thus, identical musical substance should be discovered. In the study the substantial evidence, which can be called unity or unification, is mainly discussed. The unity is illustrated with Brahms's Horn Trio, Op.40 that is one of the Brahms's significant works. The unity found in the Horn Trio is based on the internal structure and structural voice-leading notes. The unity in the Horn Trio is the fundamental structural unity that is divided into initial ascent and voice exchange, and fundamental voice-leading motive. The fundamental unity seriously affects the master piece and penetrates the movements as a whole. Further, it reveals the hidden connections to the historical background of the Horn Trio and the philosophy of Brahms for the music. Even though a piece consists of several sections or movements, the entire piece presents homogeneity. The identity of the composer's underlying philosophical thought suffices to discern the musical unity in a piece. Thus, the investigation of unity is one of the critical ways to understand not merely a piece but also the philosophy of a composer. The study will help to enhance the audience's interpretation of music.
Combining of Korean Traditional Performance and Recent German Techniques in Isang Yun's Kontraste: Zwei Stücke für Violine Solo (1987)
Isang Yun (1917-1995) embraced a masterful combination of two elements derived from his life: his Korean cultural upbringing and Western musical traditions. This dissertation explores Yun's distinctive style through an analysis of his Kontraste: Zwei Stücke für Violine Solo. Following the introduction (Chapter 1), Chapter 2 contains a brief biography of Isang Yun, and explores the compositions of his Korean period (1917-1955) and his European period (1956-1995). It also discusses how Yun's musical styles changed during these two periods as a result of important life events and due to cultural and political influences. Chapter 3 examines Korean instruments such as Kayakem, Hae-Kem, and Pak; discusses Nonghyun (traditional string techniques of ornamentation in Korean music); and introduces Korean performance techniques. This chapter also provides explanations of these concepts, illustrated through various examples. A subsequent discussion illuminates Yin-Yang theory and Jeong-Jung-Dong, both elements of Taoist philosophy that influenced Yun's compositional style. This is followed by explanations of Hauptton and Umspielung, two compositional techniques that Yun developed and employed in Kontraste. Yun created the idea of Hauptton to reflect the Korean traditional concept of a single note. He used the term Umspielung ("playing around" in German) to describe his interpretation of the four traditional techniques of Nonghyun within a Western notational framework. In Chapter 5, analysis of Kontraste reveals how the piece's contrasting elements represent the concepts of Yin-Yang and Jeong-Jung-Dong, and shows how the violin imitates the sounds of Korean traditional instruments and instrumental technique. Yun's adaption of Korean traditional performance techniques to the violin in Kontraste is aimed at combining East and West and producing a new aesthetic.
Alberto Ginastera and the Guitar Chord: An Analytical Study
The guitar chord (a sonority based on the open strings of the guitar) is one of Alberto Ginastera's compositional trademarks. The use of the guitar chord expands throughout forty years, creating a common link between different compositional stages and techniques. Chapters I and II provide the historical and technical background on Ginastera's life, oeuvre and scholar research. Chapter IV explores the origins of the guitar chord and compares it to similar specific sonorities used by different composers to express extra-musical ideas. Chapter V discusses Ginastera's initial uses and modifications of the guitar chord. Chapter VI explores the use of the guitar chord as a referential sonority based on Variaciones Concertantes, Op. 23: I-II, examining vertical (subsets) and horizontal (derivation of motives) aspects. Chapter VII explores uses of trichords and hexachords derived from the guitar chord in the Sonata for Guitar Op. 47.
An Examination of the Clarinet Music of Luigi Bassi
This dissertation focuses on the clarinet music of Luigi Bassi (1833-1871), an Italian clarinetist and composer. Biographical information and performance history for Luigi Bassi are included. Bassi wrote 27 works for clarinet, including 15 opera fantasies or transcriptions. Most of his works are housed in the Milan Conservatory library. This document provides analysis of all but two of Bassi's 27 works. For Bassi's pieces with ties to opera, I identified his source material and discussed the ways in which he manipulated the material. A brief synopsis of each opera is included. This study serves as a performance guide for those seeking to perform Bassi's clarinet works.
Live Sampling in Improvised Musical Performance: Three Approaches and a Discussion of Aesthetics
Three original software programs utilizing improvisation and live sampling are presented here, along with a discussion of aesthetic issues raised by each. They are entitled Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Musiker, Motet, and Gamepad Sampler. These programs vary in the degree of required interaction and in the kind of user control. They are each studies in imitative counterpoint through live sampling, with an approach seeking elegance before solutions. Because of the improvisational nature of these works, there is no standard musical score. Instead the complete Max/MSP source code and a sound recording of performances making use of these programs in varied situations are included. A discussion of issues raised by these works includes aesthetics, ontology, performance, and the role of the composer. Non-interactive indeterminate compositions are ontologically thin, because some composerly agency is required of the performer. An interactive work can be ontologically substantial if it makes distinct and significant contributions to performance, even though it may not make sound on its own. Although reproducibility reduces ontology and eliminates aura, live sampling within a performance can deepen the ontology of the performance by recontextualizing previous events, reframing the original event as the first reference to an abstract musical idea that lies outside the musical performance. Reproducibility also diminishes the aura or stage presence in live performance with computers. Complex feedback systems can be used to create computation instruments: musical instruments whose unique structure resonates in ways not explicit in their programs. As the human condition and the situation of the composer change, definitions of the composer and performer must be revised. Composition is shifting away from the creation of static artifacts toward the design of dynamic systems.
From Outward Appearance to Inner Reality: A Reading of Aaron Copland's Inscape
About 8.3% of individuals diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) are diagnosed with comorbid depression, a higher rate than the general adult population. This project examined the differences of depression symptoms experienced between diabetic and matched non-diabetic individuals and the relationship of daily activity and nutrition behaviors with depression between these groups. The 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was utilized to assess: depression symptoms, diabetic glycemic control as measured by glycoginated hemoglobin (HbA1c), amount of physical activity, percentage of macronutrients, daily frequencies of foods consumed, and the use of nutritional food labels to make food choices. A sample of diabetic (n = 451) and non-diabetic individuals (n = 451) were matched to on age, gender, ethnicity, and education. The diabetic individuals experienced greater depression on both continuous and ordinal diagnostic variables. Counter to expectation, there was no relationship observed between depression and HbA1c in diabetic individuals, r = .04, p > .05.
The Influence Of Jazz On Timbre In Selected Compositions For Solo Trombone
A significant body of solo literature for the trombone has been written in the last fifty years that draws as much from the jazz tradition as from that of European classical music. While much attention has been paid to these works' use of characteristic jazz rhythms, harmonies and melodic inflections, there has been little focus on timbre, the musical element that perhaps most readily distinguishes jazz from other styles of Western music. This paper focuses on the important role jazz timbres should play in a performer's interpretation of those works that are significantly influenced by jazz. It includes explorations of the significant differences in concepts of timbre between European classical music and jazz, some of the ways in which these timbral differences are produced, and methods by which performers can develop the skills necessary to produce these varied timbres. Particular attention is paid to the importance of timbre to idiomatically appropriate performances of two significant works from the solo trombone repertoire, Robert Suderburg's Night Set (Chamber Music III) and Richard Peaslee's Arrows of Time.
Gewesener Magdeburgische Musicus: An Examination into the Stylistic Characteristics of Heinrich Grimm's Eight-Voice Motet, Unser Leben Wehret Siebenzig Jahr'
Although Magdeburg cantor Heinrich Grimm was frequently listed among prominent musical figures of the early seventeenth century such as Heinrich Schütz, Johann Hermann Schein, and Michael Praetorius in music lexica through the nineteenth century, he has almost disappeared from modern scholarship. However, a resurgence in Grimm studies has begun in recent years, especially in the areas of biographical study and compositional output. In this study, I examine the yet unexplored music-analytic perspective by investigating the stylistic characteristics of Grimm's 1631 motet, Unser Leben wehret siebenzig Jahr'. Furthermore, I compare his compositional technique to that of his contemporaries and predecessors with the goal of examining the work from both Renaissance and Baroque perspectives.
Music student teaching in Texas: A Delphi study of issues in the new millennium.
The preparation of prospective music educators is a very complex undertaking that culminates with the student teaching practicum. However, the music student teaching experience may have less predictable expectations and results than the curriculum that precedes the event. The two-fold purpose of this study was (a) to investigate the music student teaching practicum in the State of Texas in an effort to establish current levels of success as perceived by the music educators involved in the process and (b) to identify any potentially problematic areas which might be in need of attention or revision. Thirty-six music educators (12 university supervisors, 12 cooperating teachers and 12 student teachers) who were recently involved in the music student teaching practicum in Texas were chosen as the sample in this two-round Delphi study. The first round Delphi survey, based on related literature, achieved consensus on 79% of the 108 item responses, and 15 of the 22 unresolved items reached consensus in round two of the Delphi process. The 34 sample members who completed the study ranked a final item in the second Delphi round concerning suggestions for the improvement of student teaching. The respondents showed a very high opinion of the music student teaching practicum. However, the cooperating teachers' responses were often lower, hence the recommendation that collaborative efforts between universities and public schools be strengthened. Recommendations for improvement were also made advocating: (a) adequate rehearsal time to be afforded the student teacher, (b) expectations to be clearly defined and articulated, (c) classroom management, measurement and media, and content area reading classes to be taught by music faculty, (d) videotaping to be used in the teacher-training and student teaching process, and (e) the length of the student teaching practicum to be extended. Five additional recommendations for improvement were made in areas deemed less urgent.
Germinal Ideas and Processes within plies (2002): A Chamber Work for Eleven Players
The piece is a twenty minute work discoursing the integration and eventual dissolution of two separate musical strands. The pitch material of each strand is determined from synthetic scales whose intervalic content duplicates at the following intervals: Perfect 12th, Diminished 12th, Minor 9th, Perfect 8ve, and Major 7th. A proportional means of temporal compression is generated through the use of the factor, 11/15 (e.g. Event 2 is 11/15 the duration of Event 1). Various elements of jazz music informed the construction of plies, including the instrumentation of the ensemble and the means by which the performers interact throughout the piece. Internal cueing and performer decisions are meant to eliminate the need of a conductor in favor of increased interpretive freedom by the performers.
Consonance, Tertian Structures and Tonal Coherence in Wladimir Vogel's Dodecaphonic World
Wladimir Vogel's (1896-1984) interest in twelve-tone composition began to develop in 1936 after hearing a series of lectures by Willi Reich, a music critic and supporter of the new music of the Second Viennese School. The transition for Vogel from a large-scale orchestral “classical” style, influenced by his study with Ferruccio Busoni in Berlin in the early 1920s, to a new technique involving dodecaphony is apparent in his instrumental writing, the third and fourth movements of the Konzert für Violine und Orchester (1937), as well as in his vocal writing, the Madrigaux for mixed a cappella choir (1938/39). Vogel's twelve-tone works exhibit tertian structures which are particularly emphasized by triads located as consecutive pitches within the rows. Emphasis on tertian structures are not limited to small-scale segmentation of the rows but can also be seen in the structural and tonal organization of complete movements and works. A primary example is the Konzert für Violoncello und Orchester (Cello Concerto) (1955) in which, on a smaller scale, the presentation of the row emphasizes both diminished and minor triads, and at the macro level, the structural triadic relationships unify passages within individual movements as well as the concerto as a whole. Since the work is composed using the twelve-tone method, consideration is given to the structure of the serial components. In addition, the concerto is analyzed in terms of its cognitive features-those elements that are demonstrably related to traditional practice- such as tertian melodic/harmonic outlines reinforced by rhythmic features that are common to eighteenth- and nineteenth-century practice. The compositional features evident from the serial structure of the work are addressed in conjunction with references to traditional practice made evident through the serial technique. The findings in the analysis of the Cello Concerto support the argument that the inclusion of consonant sonorities and tertian structures in Vogel's works results in a certain degree of tonal coherence while the large-scale compositional framework is dodecaphonic.
Hugo Wolf's Interpretation of Paul Heyse's Texts: An Examination of Selected Songs from the Italienisches Liederbuch
In a Romantic song cycle or songbook, songs tend to share many common ideas because they are used to set to the poems from one collection written or collected by one author. Many composers designed the same motivic or structural elements to a group of songs for unity, and sometimes they made chronological narratives for the series of poems. Music theorists have tried to find out a way of giving a sense of unity or narrative to the songs in a song cycle or songbook by analyzing its musical language and text setting. They have suggested plausible explanations for the relationships among the songs in a song cycle or songbook, and some theorists have traced the tonal movements and provided a visual explanation for them. Hugo Wolf's two volumes of the Italienisches Liederbuch (1890-91, 1896) were set to the forty-six poems from Paul Heyse's well-selected works. Wolf's way of selecting poems from Heyse's collection seems inconsistent, and his song ordering in the both volumes does not show evident rules. However, a closer study for relationships between the songs could widen our perspective to comprehend the whole songbook as a unified storyline. This study selected the first four songs from each volume of the Italienisches Liederbuch, and analyzed the eight songs in a traditional way, accounting for harmony, motivic feature, tonal movement, form, and text setting. The study finds that Wolf used the third relationships among the songs to convey a storyline in his order of the songs, and especially exploited the direction of thirds for his own narrative. While this may only be a pilot study with partial results, it can serve as a stimulus for a comprehensive study of factors that provide unity in the cycle as a whole.
The Nightingale in Poetry and Music
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This thesis surveys a variety of songs and arias for high soprano which feature the nightingale; examines the musical elements that symbolize, refer to, or imitate the nightingale; and compares these musical elements with transcriptions of the nightingale's song. The first chapter reviews the symbolic development of the nightingale and its role in poetry and literature. The interior chapters address a selection of musical compositions that feature the nightingale and its song. The final chapter establishes a relationship between the sound of the actual sound of the nightingale and the musical gestures created by composers to imitate the nightingale.
Source-bonding as a Variable in Electroacoustic Composition: Faktura and Acoustics in Understatements
Understatements for two-channel fixed media is a four-movement study of the sonic potential of acoustic instruments within the practice of electroacoustic studio composition. The musical identity of the entire composition is achieved through consistent approaches to disparate instrumental materials and a focused investigation of the relationships between the various acoustic timbres and their electroacoustic treatments. The analytical section of this paper builds on contemporary research in electroacoustic arts. The analysis of the work is preceded by a summary of theoretical and aesthetic approaches within electroacoustic composition and the introduction of primary criteria of sonic faktura (material essence) used in the compositional process. The analyses address the idiosyncratic use of the concept of faktura to contextualize and guide the unfolding of the work. The reconciliation of the illusory electronic textures and the acoustic sources that parented them may be considered the ultimate goal of Understatements.
Manuel M. Ponce: A critical study of his Concierto Romántico for piano and orchestra.
The Concierto Romántico for Piano and Orchestra is one of Manuel M. Ponce's outstanding compositional accomplishments from his Romantic period, reflecting both the state of Mexican music at the turn of the 20th century, and his early nationalist tendencies. However, it remains the only concerto in Ponce's output in need of a more comprehensive analysis. This treatise focuses on a global investigative that examines descriptive and analytic references to the work, as well as a comparison and clarification of the existing score sources. An analytical and stylistic musical study using conventional theoretical techniques leads to a musicological interpretation of the work's extra-musical meaning, based on close assessments of Ponce's compositional practice and social principles.
A Historical and Analytical Examination of the Stravinsky Octet for Wind Instruments, with a Guide to Performance Preparation of the Two Trumpet Parts
The Octuor pour instruments a vents (or Octet), written in 1922-1923 by Igor Stravinsky, is a piece in three movements for a curious assortment of instruments: two trumpets, two trombones, flute, clarinet and two bassoons. It is one of four influential chamber works for winds by Stravinsky to include trumpet. Of these pieces, the Octet contains the fewest number of players but is no less complex and important in Stravinsky's oeuvre. The Octet helped mark the beginning of the neoclassical period in twentieth-century music. Chapter 2 examines the life and musical background of the composer. It also reveals the history surrounding the origin of the Octet and its role in neoclassicism. Chapter 3 discusses the role of the Octet in the wind ensemble and orchestral repertoire, and includes a representative performance history, including the premiere. Chapter 4 provides analytical insights into the construction and format of the piece. Chapter 5 provides suggestions regarding style in Stravinsky's music, including interviews with important figures in the trumpet world. Chapter 6 concludes the guide with specific suggestions regarding preparation and performance of the Octet.
Artistic Expression in Music and Poetry
This paper delineates meaningful relationships of passions, emotions, feelings, affections, nuances and aural perceptions of expressions and utterances, for understanding human artistic possibilities historically and contemporarily in the fraternal arts of music and poetry, with reference to sounds, silences, sequences, rhythms, rhymes, repetitions, retards, accelerations, tempos, harmonies, melodies, forms, etc., in four poetic and three musical compositions uniquely created by its author.
The Prayer of Daniel: for flute (with alto flute), clarinet (with bass clarinet), violin, cello, doumbek, percussion, piano, bass-baritone voice, and men's chorus
The Prayer of Daniel is a chamber piece in the style of an oratorio for vocal bass-baritone soloist, flute doubling on alto flute, B flat clarinet doubling on bass clarinet, violin, cello, piano, percussion on vibraphone and marimba, doumbek (a middle eastern drum), and men's chorus (TTBB). The approximate duration is thirty minutes. The text comes from the Old Testament book of Daniel, Chapter 9 verses 4 through 19. In these passages the prophet Daniel rends from his heart a prayer of repentance, mercy and forgiveness on the behalf of a fallen nation. The harmonic language of the composition combines both classical contemporary and jazz sonorities. The rhythmic language is drawn from the meter of the text, and is used to underscore the emotion of the prayer. These elements combine to form a rich music experience that conveys the penitent heart of the prophet Daniel.