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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Degree Discipline: Psychology
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Masculine Role Conflict in Gay Men: Mediation of Psychological Well-Being and Help-Seeking Behaviors
Gender role issues have been an integral part of psychology since the 1970s. More recently, theories and research have surfaced concerning the issues of maleness in our society. Most of these theories focus on masculine gender role and how it affects men in various ways, e.g., their psychological well-being, substance use, relational abilities, and help-seeking behaviors. One area of maleness that has consistently been left out of the Masculine Role Conflict (MRC) debate is that of homosexuality. As a gay man develops, he finds himself at odds with society over something that he experiences biologically as normal and appropriate. It is the contention of this paper that MRC is an issue related to psychological distress among gay men and not psychological weakness in gay men, per se.
Training Condom Use Skills for Sexually Active College Students
Eighty-nine single, sexually active, heterosexual college students (ages 17-24) participated in one of two intervention conditions. Experimental groups were taught skills specific to condom use and sexual communication via a multimedia presentation. Control groups viewed a video on an unrelated topic. Individuals in the experimental conditions were expected to show higher levels of self-efficacy, greater knowledge concerning diseases, and improved attitudes about condoms immediately following the intervention. They were also expected to report safer sexual practices at the one month follow-up. Findings reveal that improved attitude and knowledge scores did not translate into behavioral changes.
Susceptibility of College Students to Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Related Problems: the Impact of Family Environmental Factors
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of parental divorce, level of family conflict, and family history of alcoholism on the alcohol use patterns of college students. Gender differences were also explored. Multivariate Analysis of Variance revealed mixed results. Parental marital status was found to have no significant effect on college students' alcohol behavior. High family conflict had a significant impact on both level of current alcohol use and level of alcohol related problems. A positive family history of alcoholism was found to have effects on the level of alcohol related problems encountered by students. Gender played a significant role, with males reporting higher levels of alcohol-related problems. No significant interactions were found. Results, contributions and limitations of the study are discussed.
A Construct Validation Study of the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY) Using an Incarcerated Juvenile Population
The Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY) is a recently developed, multiscale assessment instrument designed specifically for adolescents between the ages of nine and 18. The purpose of this archival study was to establish clinical correlates for the PIY scales. PIY profiles were collected from 100 juvenile files at the Gainesville State School and examined in conjunction with the Child Assessment Scale (CAS) and the Personal Attitude Scale (PAS) to provide evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. Results indicate modest to moderate convergent validity according to Campbell and Fiske's criteria for construct validity; however, discriminant results indicate considerable overlap among traits which are not expected to be highly correlated.
An Investigation of Psychopathy in a Female Jail Sample: a Study of Convergent and Discriminant Validity
The present study was designed to assess both the construct of psychopathy in a female jail sample as well as the quality of the measures that have been employed to assess this personality style. Utilizing the multitrait-multimethod matrix proposed by Campbell and Fiske (1959), the construct of psychopathy was measured via three instruments: (a) the Antisocial Scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory, (b) the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised, and (c) the Antisocial Scale of the Personality Disorder Examination. In addition, the predictive validity of each of these measures of psychopathy was evaluated to determine their ability to predict institutional violence and non-compliance. The results revealed significant convergence and divergence across the three instruments supporting the construct of psychopathy in a female jail sample. In addition, the measures of psychopathy demonstrated moderate predictive validity.
An exploration of parental sensitivity and child cognitive and behavioral development.
The current study attempted to show the relationship of paternal sensitivity and maternal sensitivity and their possible influences on child cognitive and behavioral development. This study used data collected as part of the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care, which is a longitudinal, multi-site study. Correlation and regression analyses were computed to examine relationships between the variables at child age 6 and 36 months. Results indicated paternal sensitivity was a significant positive predictor of child cognitive abilities and a negative predictor of both fathers' reports of children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Maternal sensitivity was a significant negative predictor of mothers' reports of children's externalizing behaviors. Interpretations of these results and directions for future research are discussed.
Masturbation and Relationship Satisfaction
Relationship satisfaction often declines after marriage or cohabitation and between 40-50% of marriages end in divorce. Furthermore, many couples who stay together report feeling unsatisfied in their relationships. Thus, it is important to examine factors that contribute to enduring and satisfying relationships. One factor that has been closely linked to relationship satisfaction is the sexual relationship of the couple. One aspect of the sexual relationship that has received little attention is masturbation. Although most psychologists hold positive views about masturbation, and recommend masturbation in many instances, the empirical data examining the association between masturbation and relationship satisfaction has mixed findings, with the majority of studies reporting a small negative relationship between these variables. The purpose of the present study was to further explore the association between masturbation and relationship satisfaction, focusing on possible moderators and mediators of this relationship including: masturbation guilt, openness with an individual's partner about masturbation, gender, object of arousal during masturbation, and reason for masturbating. Overall, masturbation frequency did not have a significant association with relationship satisfaction. However, the object of arousal during masturbation and openness about masturbation moderated the association between masturbation frequency and relationship satisfaction. Specifically, individuals who (a) used objects of arousal other than the partner when masturbating and (b) were less open about the masturbation reported a more negative association between masturbation frequency and relationship satisfaction.
The Influence of Extraversion, Religiosity, and Spirituality on Health Behaviors
Religion and spirituality are thought to be of great importance for the meaning and quality of life for many individuals, and research suggests that there may be important health benefits associated with religion and spirituality. Religion and spirituality should be related to health behaviors for a number of reasons. Health behaviors are important contributors to an individual's overall health, illness and mortality. Major negative health behaviors related to health outcomes are smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, obesity, risky driving, and high risk sexual behaviors. Health behaviors may also be linked to personality traits. The key trait examined for this study was extraversion. It includes adjectives such as being active, assertive, energetic, outgoing, and talkative. In this thesis, I take several hypotheses and explore the influence of extraversion, religiosity, and spirituality on health behaviors.
Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory and Proposed Personality Traits for the Dsm-v: Association with Mood Disorder Symptoms
The current work assesses the relationship between reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) and Personality Traits for the DSM-5 (PID-5), to explore the degree to which they are associated with mood disorder symptoms. Participants (N = 138) from a large public university in the South were administered a semi-structured interview to assess for current mood disorder and anxiety symptoms. They were also administered self-report inventories, including the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioral Approach System (BAS) scales and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Results indicate that both the BIS/BAS scales and the PID-5 scales were strongly associated with current mood symptoms. However, the maladaptive personality traits demonstrated significantly greater associations with symptoms compared to the BIS/BAS scales. Results also indicated support for using a 2-factor model of BIS as opposed to a single factor model. Personality models (such as the five factor model) are strongly associated with mood symptoms. Results from this study add to the literature by demonstrating credibility of an alternative five-factor model of personality focused on maladaptive traits. Knowledge of individual maladaptive personality profiles can be easily obtained and used to influence case conceptualizations and create treatment plans in clinical settings.
Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors of Women of Mexican Descent : A Grounded Theory Approach
A culturally-based theoretical model about how cultural beliefs about cancer and breast cancer screening techniques influence the screening behaviors of women of Mexican descent was developed using grounded theory. Across levels of acculturation and socioeconomic status, 34 women (49 to 81 years old) were interviewed through focus groups. Women who hold more traditional health beliefs about causes, nature, and responsibility with regard to breast cancer are more likely to "feel healthy" and not engage in breast cancer screening. Women who hold more traditional beliefs about propriety of female and health care provider behavior are more likely to "feel indecent" and also not engage in screening. The cultural health belief model is integrated within a sociocultural and a socioeconomic context.
Adolescent Psychopathy in an Adjudicated Male Population: The Role of Sensation Seeking, Impulsivity, and Externalizing Disorders
Psychopathy, as conceptualized by Cleckley (1941), describes a constellation of psychological and behavioral correlates including superficial charm, untruthfulness, lack of remorse or shame, poor judgment, and failure to learn from experience. Based on Cleckley's initial work, Hare (1991) developed a two-factor model of psychopathy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles that sensation seeking, impulsivity, ADHD, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder have on adolescents classified as psychopaths. The participants consisted of 79 adjudicated male adolescents in a maximum-security facility. As hypothesized, adolescent male psychopaths had higher levels of sensation seeking, impulsivity, conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. A discriminant function analysis found that sensation seeking, impulsivity, ADHD, Conduct Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder was moderately useful in classifying adolescent psychopathy. The results suggest that behavioral dysregulation is an important aspect of adolescent psychopathy. The relationship of these data to theories of adolescent psychopathy is discussed.
Ethnically mixed individuals: Cultural homelessness or multicultural integration?
Studies addressing racial/ethnic identity development have often overlooked the developmental cultural context. The impact of growing up with contradictory cultures has not been well explored. Immersion in multiple cultures may produce mixed patterns of strengths deficits. This study reviews the literature's currently inconsistent usage of the terms race, ethnicity, and culture; introduces the concept and theoretical framework of Cultural Homelessness; relates CH to multicultural integration; and develops two study-specific measures (included) to examine the construct validity of CH. The sample’s (N = 448, 67% women) racial, ethnic, and cultural mixture was coded back three generations using complex coding criteria. Empirical findings supported the CH-specific pattern of cognitive and social strengths with emotional difficulties: social adaptability and cross-cultural competence but also low self-esteem and shame regarding diff
Automaticity and Hemispheric Specialization in Emotional Expression Recognition: Examined using a modified Stroop Task
The main focus of this investigation was to examine the automaticity of facial expression recognition through valence judgments in a modified photo-word Stroop paradigm. Positive and negative words were superimposed across male and female faces expressing positive (happy) and negative (angry, sad) emotions. Subjects categorized the valence of each stimulus. Gender biases in judgments of expressions (better recognition for male angry and female sad expressions) and the valence hypothesis of hemispheric advantages for emotions (left hemisphere: positive; right hemisphere: negative) were also examined. Four major findings emerged. First, the valence of expressions was processed automatically (robust interference effects). Second, male faces interfered with processing the valence of words. Third, no posers' gender biases were indicated. Finally, the emotionality of facial expressions and words was processed similarly by both hemispheres.
The relationship of personality traits to depression in a geriatric population.
In later life, adverse life events, disability, health problems, inadequate social support, and personality traits hypothesized to be important risk factors for depression. Sample included 35 older (65-84) physical rehabilitation patients in a large metropolitan hospital. Statistical analysis included Pearson Product Moment correlations and multiple regression results. Perceived physical health, instrumental ADLs, life satisfaction, extraversion, and conscientiousness are inversely related to depressive symptom severity; neuroticism is positively related to depressive symptom severity. Regression models predicted depressive symptom severity, PANAS negative effect and PANAS positive affect. Neuroticism, insrumental ADLs, and age are significant predictors of depressive symptom severity; neuroticism and age are signficant predictors of PANAS negative affect, while extraversion is a significant predictor of PANAS positive affect. Personality factors, level of functioning, and age are important factors relating to mood. Limitations of this study include: small sample size with special characteristics (high level of SES); incomplete personal and family history of psychiatric problems; and lack of clinical comparison sample.
Efficacy of Juvenile Offender Assessments: Utilization of Recommendations, Measurement Constructs, and Risk Factors
The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of juvenile offender assessments. Data from 104 juvenile offender assessments were analyzed and followed up with placement, subsequent offending, and outcome data from the juvenile and adult systems. Constructs consistently assessed included intellectual functioning, academic achievement, and personality functioning; however, under-diagnosis of intellectual deficits, learning disabilities, and personality disorders was found. Results indicated the assessment of family functioning, substance use, and social functioning should be included in comprehensive assessments, as they may result in alternative placement and treatment options of benefit to the juvenile offender. A juvenile offender typology proposed by DiCataldo and Grisso (1995) was successfully utilized and proved predictive of recidivism, future harm to others, and outcome.
Pupil Classroom Sociability and Teacher Mode of Interpersonal Interaction
The present study was designed to provide data bearing directly on the question of the influence of the preschool experience, and specifically, teacher behavior, on pupil social behavior.
Test Anxiety, Low Self-esteem, and Conformity
The present study has a threefold purpose. First, it will attempt to investigate whether the presentation of the bogus group norm is effective to exert influence on an individual subject to modify his original response in the direction of the norm. Secondly, it will investigate relationships between the subject's level of test anxiety and his conformity behavior in the simple judgmental situation. Thirdly, it will further explore whether test anxiety, as measured by a questionnaire, and low self-esteem, as measured by feelings of personal inadequacy, are comparable constructs.
Identifying the Effects of Religious Participation on the Therapeutic Treatment of the Mentally Ill
This study is concerned with identifying the effects of religious participation in the therapeutic treatment of the mentally ill.
Facilitation of Social Behavior in Group Psychotherapy with Geriatric Patients
The purpose of the present study was to attempt to use the principles of behavior therapy and group psychotherapy to enhance social adjustment of the geriatric patients in an institutional environment. There are several factors positively related to satisfactory adjustment to old age such as educational level, marital status, employment history, religion, health, and membership in groups.
The Use of a Sentence Completion Survey as a Prognistic Indicator of Response to Marriage Counseling
The purpose of the present study was to explore the usefulness of an objectively scored self-rating sentence completion test in the development of objective prognostic statements regarding marital counseling.
Peer- and Self-Evaluations on Social Roles by Sociometrically Differentiated Groups
The problem of the present study was to determine the relationships between peer- and self-evaluations on a social roles measurement and the relationships between these evaluations and sociometric rankings.
Validity Studies on the "Draw-a-Group" Projective Technique for Measuring Interpersonal Responsiveness
As with all psychodiagnostic tests, before the "Draw-a-Group" can be considered a valuable instrument to the clinician, some basis for validity must be set. Although some research has been done on the "Draw-a-Group," sufficient validity has yet to be established. It is the purpose of this research to attempt to further establish the validity of the "Draw-a-Group." A related purpose is to attempt to further clarify which factors are related to interpersonal responsiveness.
The Effects of Degree of Structure of Paradigm and Reinforcement on Awareness and Verbal Operant Conditioning of Hospitalized Children
The present experiment is designed to test certain hypotheses made concerning the nature of conditioning in a verbal operant paradigm, and the relationship of such conditioning with awareness of contingencies.
The Relationship of Children's Perception of Parental Punitiveness toward Aggression and their Church Attendance
One of the main purposes of the present study was to use a parental punitiveness scale, that was developed on the assumption that parental punitiveness is a function of the situation in which aggression takes place. This in turn was used to determine what relationship a child's perception of parental discipline toward aggression has to varying degrees of church attendance of the child.
Effects of a Preschool Program on Psycholinguistic Abilities of Culturally Deprived Children
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psycholinguistic abilities which the disadvantaged child brings with him to the preschool setting, and the growth in language development made during his participation in the program.
Nondirective Group Play Therapy with Aggressive Boys
The study reported here attempts to demonstrate the utility of group play therapy as a method of reducing aggression in preadolescent aged boys. Previous research has attempted to demonstrate the value of play therapy as a method of dealing with a variety of emotional and behavioral problems.
Parent-Child Relations Correlates of a Cognitive Model for Social Expectations
The general purpose of this study was to consider the relationship between an individual's perception of his parent-child experiences and the adequacy of a naive cognitive model to describe his judgements of others.
The Relation between the Self-concept and Values of Parents with Their Children
In accordance with theories of Carmichael (19), Lecky (41), and Rogers (55), which suggest that adolescence is a time of redefining conceptions about one's self in relation to values, groups, and institutions in one's environment, the following hypotheses were proposed to be investigated in this study: 1. The difference between mothers' and fathers' self-concept scores is nonsignificant. 2. Parents have higher self-concepts than their children. 3. Parents of children with high self-concepts will differ significantly from parents of children with low self-concepts with respect to their values.
The Relationship between Incongruency, Dogmatism, and Social Desirability in College Students
The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between the concepts of incongruency, dogmatism, and social desirability. It was assumed that high scores of social desirability would be related to low incongruity scores while high dogmatism scores would be related to high incongruity scores. The relationship between social desirability scores and dogmatism scores was also investigated.
The Effects of Anxiety, Hostility, and Depression on Responses to the Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank
The present study is an attempt to determine the effect of anxiety, hostility, and depression on responses to the Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank when it is scored according to the manual instructions. Whether the score fluctuates or not will have implications on how psychologists should use this test as a diagnostic tool.
Proactive Inhibition in Short-Term Memory
Experimental evidence was needed to help answer the question of whether the decrease in retention from Trial 1 to Trial 2 was caused by PI from Trial 1 decreasing retention of Trial 2, or by a primacy effect increasing retention of Trial 1 over the natural retention baseline of a S. The present experiment was designed to help answer this question.
Prediction of Marital Status After Marriage Counseling Using the Polyfactor Test of Marital Difficulties
The purpose of this investigation is to determine if the Polyfactor test can be used to predict the success or failure of marriage. The Polyfactor test is an indirect scale assessing the present marital adjustment of each spouse and the overall marital adjustment of the couple.
The Relationship between Sex-role Identification and Personal Adjustment of College Males
The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between masculine traits in males and the characteristic patterns of emotional responses which affect social adjustment.
Interrelationships among Religious Orientation, Church Attendance, and Certain Personality Variables of Female Neuropsychiatric Patients
This study investigates the interrelationships among religious orientation, church attendance, and certain personality variable of female neuropsychiatric patients.
Male-female Perceptions of Male and Female High and Low Achievement Using the Semantic Differential
The purpose of the present study was to examine 1) the effect of achievement information on evaluations of males and females, 2) male and female expectations of discrepancies between their opposite sex and themselves in evaluating achievement.
The Effectiveness of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Ability to Discriminate Several Aspects of Paired-Associate Learning
This study is an exploratory attempt to evaluate the efficacy of the use of the ITPA in discriminating between the learning performance of "good" and "poor" auditory learners and between "good" and "poor" visual learners on a paired-associate task presented visually or auditorially.
Effects of Variation of Methadone Dispensing Frequencies on Retention in Treatment and Behavioral Adjustment in a Methadone Treatment Program
This study was concerned with determining the effects that varying the methadone-dispensing frequencies during mandatory clinic visits had on patients' retention in treatment and behavioral adjustment.
Changes in Peabody Picture Vocabulary Scores as a Function of Differential Familiarity and Social Class Membership
The present study was designed to investigate the discrepancy in test performance between the upper-middle-class and lower-class kindergarten-age child as a function of differential familiarity with test content.
Operant Procedures in Marital Treatment
The ability of marital partners to directly change a currently unhappy marriage to a happy one may be a function of each individual's conscious awareness of the topography, frequency, and other parameters of his own behaviors, as well as the effects or consequences these behaviors bring to bear on his spouse. This study was an attempt to combine the use of relevant behavioral awareness and a token economy to rehabilitate a marriage in crisis.
Relationships between Alienation and Feelings of Transcendence
An exploratory study was conducted to examine feelings of alienation in high school and college students.
A Behavioral Approach Toward Strengthening Self-concept in Mental Retardates
The objective of this study was to systematize a method of strengthening self-concept in mental retardates through the use of operant conditioning techniques. This objective was pursued by investigating the effect of rewarding positive responses about self.
Parental Roles and Behavior in Children
This investigation was concerned with the goals parents set for their children, the child-rearing methods parents use to instill their goals in the child, and the behavioral and personality characteristics of the child. To measure these dimensions, participation was solicited from parents who had children enrolled in the North Texas State University Laboratory School.
Memory Consolidation in Avoidance-Conditioned Goldfish: Changes in Brain Protein-Synthetic Patterns
Three groups of goldfish were prepared; naive, avoidance-conditioned and pseudo-conditioned animals. Five pseudo-conditioned fish were avoidance trained later and found to have no measurable acquisition of the avoidance conditioning paradigm. Several protein fractions were found to have significantly different rates of synthesis when compared across groups. The possible involvement of these proteins in the memory storage process was discussed.
A Behavioral Approach to Modifying Self-Concept in the Classroom
The problem with which this investigation was concerned was that of assessing the effects of token reinforcement on children's self-concept.
The Consequences of Labeling a Person as Mentally Ill in an Urban Black Community
This study has a twofold purpose. The first is to determine the consequences related to labeling deviant behaviors, especially as these effects are reflected in the person who labels and defines deviant behavior. The second is to evaluate the medical model of abnormality in relation to the labeling of deviant behavior.
The Effects of Degree of Learning, Stimulus Order, Emphasis, and Meaningfulness on Cue Selection in Paired-associate Learning
The present study sought to investigate the combined influences of degree of first-list learning, stimulus order, emphasis, and meaningfulness on the selection strategies of college subjects.
Multivariate Prediction of Executive Success
The principal purpose of this study was the assessment of the relationships of five personality traits, achievement motive, decisiveness, need for power, initiative, and selfassurance, to a criterion of executive success in business. A second purpose of the present study was the construction of a regression equation for the prediction of executive success.
An Exploratory Investigation of Marital Role Conflict and Its Relationship to Perceived Marital Adjustment
The purpose of this investigation was to explore the relationship between various indices of marital role conflict and measures of marital adjustment.
An Interaction Between Verbal and Nonverbal Behavior in Kindergarten Children
The present study was designed to provide data bearing on the question of the relationship between verbal and nonverbal behavior. And, in particular, to see if it is possible to control human nonverbal behavior through the manipulation of verbal behavior.
A Study of Anxiety and Guilt in Young Adults from a Divorced Home Background
Young adults from a divorced home background (N = 125) were compared with a control group matched by sex and age (N = 125) on the scores obtained from the IPAT Anxiety Scale and the Mosher Incomplete Sentences Test.