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The Use of the Clarinet in Selected Viennese Operas, 1786-1791, With Three Recitals of Selected Works by Brahms, Muczynski, Benjamin, Widor, Hindemith, and Others
In an appendix section, three notable arias have been transcribed for two clarinets, voice, and piano. A further evaluation of Classical period opera orchestration will aid modern performers and musicologists in their understanding of what clarinets and clarinetists were able and expected to do.
A Performance Guide to Bernd Alois Zimmermann's Trumpet Concerto, "Nobody Knows De Trouble I See"
Bernd Zimmermann's Trumpet Concerto, "Nobody Knows de Trouble I See" is an important twentieth-century work for trumpet. Despite the stature of the composition, it has rarely been performed due to its considerable musical and technical demands. Integrating these diverse demands into a coherent performance requires careful consideration of the various performance practice consequences. The study begins by exploring the historical and musical context in which the work was written. It then considers the individual musical elements of the concerto. Finally, the study examines the performance practice implications of the work. The performance guide serves as a framework for making intelligent musical and technical decisions through context, analysis, and practical considerations.
A Survey of Four Original Works for Clarinet and Guitar and Their Effect on Compositional Output for the Repertoire
In the last three decades there has been a surge in original compositions for clarinet and guitar resulting in the repertoire virtually doubling in size. However, documentation and research of original works in published sources remains limited and is quickly becoming outdated. This document reviews the current resources and reviews the newer published materials. Early chamber music works for guitar and clarinet typically required the guitar to supply harmonic support to the clarinet's upper voice, which carried the themes. An examination of the earliest works, which date from the early nineteenth century, suggests, in other words, that the two parts were not treated equally, in contrast to modern-day chamber music, in which melodic elements are proportionally balanced between the two instruments. A critical survey and comparison of four significant works from the repertoire reveals a development toward motivic balance, a progression towards melodic equality that continued in subsequent compositions. The four works surveyed are: Heinrich Neumann's Serenata Svizzera Op.29, Ferdinand Rebay's Sonata for Clarinet and Guitar No.2 in A minor, Libby Larsen's Blue Third Piece, and Gernot Wolfgang's Four Miniatures. An extensive compilation of over 300 original published and unpublished works for clarinet and guitar, bass clarinet and guitar, and more than one clarinet and/or guitar is included.
Piano-related Musculoskeletal Disorders: Posture and Pain
A healthy posture protects the body-supporting functions and prevents injuries by maintaining balance. Literature in performing arts medicine suggests that posture is an important component to prevent piano-playing related injuries. However, no known research studies have quantified, characterized, and compared pianists' sitting postures. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between playing postures and perceived pain among pianists. This study applied innovative approach using qualitative and quantitative methods, combined with three-dimensional motion captured technology. To examine risk factors related pianists' postures, three-dimensional motion-capture cameras recorded approximate 40 pianists' postures in various situations; data recordings were combined with a statistical method to investigate pain-posture correlations. Results reveal that the degrees of head-neck or body tilt angles are the tendency of risk factors for piano-playing related pain. Results from this study may have multiple practical implications among which are: (1) a risk factor pain, injury index, or indicator (2) a performance habits profile and (3) practice guide to prevention of piano-playing related musculoskeletal disorders.
Transcription of Baroque Works for Classical Guitar: J S Bach's Sonata in D Minor (Bwv 964) As Model
Continuing the common practice of composers of the Baroque period to transcribe their own or other composers' works for a different instrument, this dissertation contributes to studies of J. S. Bach's repertory as the source of program material for the classical guitar. It is from differences revealed through a comparative analysis of Bach's Violin Sonata No. 2 (BWV 1003) and his harpsichord arrangement thereof – Sonata in D minor (BWV 964) – that principles of transcription are derived and organized according to descriptive categories. Emulating the composer-transcriber with knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of the instruments involved, the arrangement procedures are applied to the classical guitar. In so doing, this study addresses the emerging challenges and complexities in creating an idiomatic arrangement.
An Analysis of Pitch Organization in Villa-lobos's Rudepoêma
Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959) stands central to the music history of the Brazilian twentieth century. His music represents a synthesis of the European art influences he absorbed and his quest to find a true Brazilian identity, which was not rooted in the deliberate imitation of Brazilian folk elements, but rather in the natural assimilation of them in his compositional style. His early compositions embody strong post-romantic, impressionistic tendencies, especially in regard to their harmonies and use of tone color, whereas the works from the 1920's and onwards show Villa-Lobos increasingly asserting his unusual and strong voice. Villa-Lobos's large-scale composition for piano, Rudepoêma, was composed between 1921 and 1926, and stands as one of the most significant contributions to the Latin-American piano literature. Despite of its importance in Villa-Lobos's oeuvre, it has largely eluded analytical attention. Discourse on Villa-Lobos is often marked by a somewhat one-dimensional approach that identifies the folk and rhythmic elements as the most important characteristics of his compositional style, and displays a certain reticence with regard to in-depth analysis of other parameters of his works. This study redresses the imbalance in the general approach to analytical assessment of Villa-Lobos's oeuvre by illustrating that pitch organization plays an indispensable role in establishing formal unity between the multiple sections of this complex work.
Dario Castello's Music for Sackbut: the Sonate Concertate in Stil Moderno (1629)
Dario Castello's Sonate concertate in stil moderno is a collection of 29 trio sonatas in two volumes, with 10 of them employing the sackbut. These works represent a significant repertoire for the sackbut in an era where specific instrumentation was only starting to become a convention. While these pieces are often studied, performed and recorded in Europe, most American trombonists are not aware of their existence. This study seeks to acquaint the American trombonist with the sonatas of Castello and to provide performance suggestions for those less familiar with this genre. Chapter 1 presents a survey of the current literature on Castello. Chapter 2 provides an historical background for music in Venice in the early 17th century, while Chpater 3 focuses on the composer and his music for sackbut. Chapter 4 investigages the sonata in early 17th century Venice. Chapter 5 provides an insight into early baroque performance practice by discussing principles such as affect, tempo, ornamentation, diminution and articulation. Examples from the ten sonatas are used to illustrate these principles, providing the modern trombonist with a framework in which to study Castello's music. The final chapter discusses the implications of this study on the American trombone curriculum.
Jules Massenet's Musical Prosody Focusing on His Eight Song Cycles And A Collection, Expressions Lyriques: A Lecture Recital, Together with Recitals of Selected Works of W. A. Mozart, F. Schubert, C. Debussy, R. Strauss, D. Argento, V. Bellini, J. Marx, W. Walton, C. Gounod, A. Scarlatti, G. Fauré, J. Rodrigo, H. Wolf, and Others
Jules Massenet's mélodies feature a distinct vocal treatment regarding musical prosody through his eight song cycles, including Poëme d'Avril, Poëme Pastoral, Poëme du Souvenir, Poëme d'Amour, Poëme d'Hiver, Poëme d'un Soir, and Quelques Chansons Mauves, and a collection, Expressions Lyriques. These mélodies show the influence of the trend of salon music and the high-level poetry from the poetic movements of romanticism, Parnassianism, and symbolism. This study deals with Massenet's mélodies relating to the prosody idea, which is conspicuous in his vocal treatment. His melodic styles feature four distinct aspects of vocal treatment including lyrical, recitative or parlando, melodramatic, and déclamation rhythmée, and represent the idea of musical prosody of phonetic, syntactic, and semantic aspects. Massenet's other musical idioms such as harmony, form, and piano treatment, are also closely related to the prosody matter as a semantic aspect, reinforcing the poetic mood and content. In this study, each melodic style related to French versification is examined in detail. The musical analysis regarding the other musical idioms on selected examples presents the semantic feature of prosody idea. The brief review of French versification and opinions regarding the performance are included. Massenet's contribution to the genre of mélodie, with the prose melody and treatment of piano as an equal partner of voice line, is clearly demonstrated. With this contribution, Massenet should be recognized as the most influential composer to the climatic time of French mélodie led by Fauré, and Debussy, and Duparc.
The Stabat Mater of Herbert Howells: The Agony and the Ecstasy
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Herbert Howells composed three large works for chorus and orchestra: a requiem (Hymnus Paradisi), Latin mass (Missa Sabrinensis) and finally a Stabat Mater. Writings, performances and recordings of the Stabat Mater, however, have been few. As the Stabat Mater is believed to be the culmination of his musical prowess, it is important to bring this major work to light. Chapter 1 begins with a brief introduction to Herbert Howells, then continues as a brief biographical sketch. Howells's life is discussed from birth, as organ scholar, student at the Royal College of Music, his teaching professorship at the same institution, and important compositions by decade until his death. Chapter 2 is an overview of the Hymnus Paradisi and Missa Sabrinensis. The chapter gives historical information on each work, including reasons for commission, dates of composition and performance, orchestration and choral composition, type of soloists, conductor and recordings. Chapter 3 is an in depth study of the Stabat Mater. The chapter includes reasons for the genesis of the work, current and past events that affected the composition, musical influences, and the death of his son Michael Kendrick Howells. A second section to this chapter addresses the text of the Stabat Mater, including the history of the poem, liturgical use from the 11th century to the present, the rhythmic scheme of the poem, and variant stanzas used in the Howells's setting. Chapter 4 is a thorough musical analysis of the Stabat Mater. After a short introduction explaining the architecture of the work as a whole, each of seven movements is examined, including the introduction, main themes, musical elements and use of Latin text. A concluding final chapter restates the importance of Herbert Howells as a composer in the British musical renaissance of the 20th century, in addition to a supposition that this final large orchestral/choral work be considered the culmination of his life's work.
Peter Lieberson's First Piano Concerto: A Buddhist-inspired poetic vision realized through twelve-tone language, other contemporary compositional techniques, together with three recitals of works by Bach, Chopin, Mozart, Albéniz, Grieg, Ginastera and Paderecki
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The main objective of this document is to explore the life and spiritual convictions of composer Peter Lieberson, and the creation of his Piano Concerto. Lieberson is a sought after composer who has won many awards and commissions. His works have been premiered and performed by some of the best musical artists of the late twentieth- and early twenty-first-century, such as Peter Serkin, Emmanuel Ax, Yo-Yo Ma, and Pierre Boulez. This study is divided into six chapters. After the Introduction, a biographical summary of Peter Lieberson's life, his spiritual beliefs and compositional style is presented. Chapter II contains background information on the Piano Concerto, along with biographical sketches of Peter Serkin, for whom the work was written, and Seiji Ozawa, music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra and conductor of both the premier performance and Serkin's recording of the piece. Chapter III is a selective survey of the compositional techniques used in Lieberson's Concerto, in terms of the application of twelve-tone theory and the resulting octatonic, pentatonic, and whole-tone scales. Chapter IV introduces a general overview of the influence of Buddhism as a source of inspiration in the Piano Concerto. Chapter V examines aspects of performance practice issues. Chapter VI provides conclusions. The aim of this study is to further establish Peter Lieberson's stature as an important modern American composer. It is hoped that this study will encourage further research and interest in his works.
Paul Hindemith's Septet (1948): A Look Back to Neue Sachlichkeit
In the early 1920s, Gustav Friedrich Hartlaub created a fine arts movement that began in Weimar, Germany, which questioned artistic Expressionism. In 1923, he formed an art exhibition to display new art works of simplicity that were of his anti-Expressionist goal. This exhibition was termed Neue Sachlichkeit, or New Objectivity, and quickly became associated with all fine arts. Music of Neue Sachlichkeit ideals during the 1920s and 1930s began to exhibit anti-Expressionist concepts of form, neoclassicism and limited instrumentation. Paul Hindemith was among the leading figures of Neue Sachlichkeit music. Although Paul Hindemith's Septet (1948) was composed during his later career, it shows many Neue Sachlichkeit traits found previously in the 1920s and 1930s. Characteristics of limited/mixed instrumentation, neoclassic instrumentation and form, and Baroque counterpoint are found in the Septet. These traits can also be head in earlier Neue Sachlichkeit pieces by Hindemith such as Hin und zuruck, op. 45a (1927), Das Marienleben (1922/23, rev. 1948) and Neues vom Tage (1929). Chapter 2 examines the Neue Sachlichkeit movement within the fine arts. Chapter 3 gives a brief biography of Paul Hindemith with a concentration on his influence of Neue Sachlichkeit music of the 1920s and 1930s. This chapter also relates this period of Hindemith's earlier career with his techniques used in later works, such as the Septet. Chapter 4 discusses how the Septet directly relates to the Neue Sachlichkeit fine arts movement. Chapter 5 gives a general analysis of the Septet. This analysis provides the reader with an understanding of the forms and tonal relationships used in the Septet. This summarizes the neoclassicism of the Septet and shows traits of Neue Sachlichkeit. Chapter 6 concludes with an examination of the mixed instrumentation of the Septet.
A Performance Guide for Pearls I and Pearls II by Roland Szentpali
This dissertation is a performance guide for the euphonium solos Pearls I and Pearls II, written by Roland Szentpali. This performance guide allows performers to better understand the jazz styles within each movement and provides them with a resource for performing these particular pieces as well as other jazz influenced pieces. This performance guide is specific to euphonium repertoire and written for euphonium performers and educators. This is also a resource for a solo work in the repertoire that is performed regularly as well as a new work that will soon be published. A brief history of the development of euphonium repertoire and the influence of jazz is provided. The performance guide analyzes each movement and provides insight to extended techniques, common performance problems, errata, and jazz styles that each movement is based on. The guide also provides several suggestions for interpretation and for performance preparation. Illustrations from the scores have been provided for each example.
The Piano as an Orchestra: The Accompanist and the Twentieth-Century Orchestral Reduction
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The musical developments of the 20th century have expanded the role of the accompanist. As the compositional output of our time increases, and the opportunity to perform as soloist with an orchestra diminishes, piano reductions of an orchestral score are becoming the most frequent vehicle for concerto performances of twentieth and twenty-first century instrumental literature. While the current state of research provides solid support to many accompanists, it is in the area of instrumental accompanying, especially with regard to the challenges of playing a reduction of an orchestral score with an instrumental soloist, that the lack of discourse becomes strikingly evident. It is the goal of this study to provide the instrumental accompanist with concrete, practical approaches and considerations in order to perform an orchestral reduction in a manner consistent with the integrity of the score. Problems such as identifying the represented orchestral instruments, delineating importance of musical lines, and basic uses and misuses of pedal, articulation, and rubato are discussed. The pianist is led through ways of deciphering and negotiating specific passages, in order to guide the accompanist through the possible pitfalls and challenges unique to many orchestral reductions. By focusing on twentieth century reductions, providing examples of problems and discussing ways to solve them, the pianist will able to apply these to any reduction encountered, not just those specifically illustrated here. These basic principles of discerning common problems and appropriately reconciling them are then applied in a more advanced form to Robert Nelson's Concertino for Baritone Saxophone (1996). Through commentary from the composer, and a comparison of the orchestral score to the reduced piano score, the accompanist will explore detailed techniques of performing this work in a manner that upholds the original “orchestral” intent of the music.
The Works for Clarinet Commissioned by the Concours International d'Exécution Musicale de Genève: A Critical Survey and Performance Guide
Beginning in 1939, the Concours International d'Exécution Musicale de Genève (CIEM; Geneva International Music Competition) is unique among international music competitions in its multidisciplinary approach. To date, fifteen works have been commissioned for clarinet for the years in which the clarinet was involved. The most well-known of these works is the unaccompanied work by Heinrich Sutermeister, Capriccio for Solo Clarinet in A, written in 1946 for the 1947 competition. This work is a staple in the unaccompanied clarinet repertoire. However, the other fourteen works commissioned for the competition are little known and to date no document has been prepared that examines each of these works in the context of the competition and clarinet literature. While perhaps less notable, works were also commissioned for a sight reading portion of the competition for many of the years in which the clarinet was a discipline chosen for the competition, two of which were published. These works are examined as well. This survey provides a critical, analytical, historical, performance-related and biographical review of the published and unpublished works commissioned for the clarinet by CIEM. The composers, competitors and the significance of these works and winners in the clarinet literature and history are included. A chapter is dedicated to each piece which includes performance considerations, critical, analytical, and historical information as well as biographical information regarding the composer and the competitors where available.
"The Wider View": Engaging a New Generation of Singers through African-American Art Song
Through studying the poetry and its context, the lives of the poets and composers, and the musical choices which emerged from these combined influences, students of the "Millennial" generation may experience a deeper connection to art song and its role in defining and reflecting national character. Not yet a part of the traditional canon of American art song, the songs of African-American composers are of particular value in this regard, offering teachers, students, and recitalists less frequently-performed repertoire to explore. Representing a broad spectrum of literary and cultural influences, these songs are just as diverse, multi-faceted, and full of variety as any other body of art song repertoire and richly contribute to the past and present life of the genre. Going beyond the music and the words can only reinforce the study of technique and enrich the studio experience, while at the same time providing a multicultural learning environment which more accurately reflects the America in which these same students will become the singers and voice teachers of tomorrow.
The Solo Compositions for Trumpet of Fisher Aubrey Tull: An Analysis of Structural, Technical, and Stylistic Elements for Performance Preparation, with Three Recitals of Selected Works by Bozza, Fasch, Haydn, Tomasi, and Others
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The compositions of Fisher Aubrey Tull are widely performed and many have become standard repertoire. Tull's compositions encompass a multiplicity of performance media including works for orchestra, chorus, symphonic band, jazz band, brass choir, and solo and chamber works. Tull's compositional output for the trumpet is prolific and is acknowledged to be music of high quality. An examination of Trumpet and Brass Programs, compiled and published annually by the International Trumpet Guild, shows Tull's solo and ensemble works for trumpet to be frequently performed. Furthermore, his compositions for trumpet have been performed and recorded by internationally acclaimed artists including Vincent DiMartino, Terry Everson, Håkan Hardenberger, Anthony Plog, Carl "Doc" Severinsen and Allen Vizzutti.This study investigates Fisher Tull's eight solo works for trumpet, which include: Vignette for Trumpet and Piano (1954); Concerto No. 1 for Trumpet and Orchestra (1964); Concerto No. 2 for Trumpet and Band (1974); Three Bagatelles for Trumpet and Piano (1975); Eight Profiles for Solo Trumpet (1978); Rhapsody for Trumpet and Band (1980); Sonata for Trumpet and Piano (1986); and Chromutations for Solo Trumpet (1988). Histories of each composition are chronicled. An analysis of formal organization and significant style features examines musical structure, harmonic language, rhythmic character, instrumentation, and orchestration. A discussion of technical concerns specific to the trumpet that addresses range, tessitura, articulation, flexibility, endurance and the use of extended techniques is included. Performance suggestions, pertaining to technical and artistic issues, offer the reader specific recommendations as an aid in performance preparation. Finally, the significance of Fisher Tull's works for trumpet and his impact on the trumpet literature is assessed. Evidence suggests that his prolific compositional output, diversity of forms, and musical quality rank him as one of the most significant composers for the trumpet in the twentieth century.
"Ch'io t'abbandono" by Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy: A Dramatic Image of the Education and Aptitudes of the Composer
The unpublished concert aria, "Ch'io t'abbandono," by Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (1825), is representative of the adolescent composer's developing musical aesthetic. In this study, Mendelssohn's education, work ethic, and perfectionism are revealed, paradoxically, as both the catalysts for the piece's composition and also the reasons it was not published during Mendelssohn's lifetime. An exploration of the text, form, thematic usage, and performance demands of the aria yields specific examples of his uniquely balanced romantic-classicist style. A consideration of possible original performers of the piece, Franz Hauser and Eduard Devrient, leads to further discussion about the nature of the work as both a reflection of Mendelssohn's romantic self-expression and his appreciation for the Baroque melismatic style. The significance of the aria, both stylistic and biographical, is further delineated by a presentation of possible motivations for its composition. The musical setting of the text, as well as the text itself, indicates both Mendelssohn's awareness of himself as a maturing adolescent composer and his desire to be a composer of operatic works, a desire that was never fully realized.
Performing the Trumpet works of Donald Erb; A Guide to Preparation, Interpretation and Practices: A Lecture Recital, Together with Three Recitals of Selected Works by Purcell, Hindemith, Holmes, Friedman, Koetsier and Others
This study is a guide to the performer on practices associated with the trumpet music of Donald Erb. It examines the following solo and duo compositions for trumpet: the as yet unpublished Sonatina for Trumpet and Piano (1954); Four Duets for Trumpets (1960); Diversion for Two for trumpet & percussion (1966); Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra (1980); Remembrances for two trumpets (1994); and Dance, You Monster, To My Soft Song for solo trumpet (1998). A history of each composition and information concerning the performers who premiered them are documented. An examination of particular harmonic, melodic and rhythmic elements found frequently in these pieces follow. The pieces are further assessed for difficulty through an investigation of extended technical demands, range, endurance and articulation. Additional discussion focuses on the use of mutes, tempos and dynamics as well as suggestions for the preparation and performance of these works. The dissertation concludes with a review of Donald Erb's legacy as a composer and teacher. A comprehensive discography and complete list of Mr. Erb's compositions are included in appendices.
The Nineteenth Century Oboe Concertino: An Overview of its Structure with Two Performance Guides
Music written for oboe and orchestra in the nineteenth century falls into three categories: Classical Concerto, Opera Fantasy, and Concertino. The classical, or standard, three movement, sonata-ritornello format was only sparingly used. Instead, composers chose more the experimental forms of the Opera Fantasy and Concertino. The Opera Fantasy was used as a way for oboe players to play popular opera arias of the time, while showcasing their virtuosity and expression. It is in the Concertino where composers expanded the oboe repertoire to its highest form in the nineteenth century, experimenting with structure, and using the oboe to the height of its expressive powers. In addition to discussion on the Concertino in general, performance guides have been provided for two concertinos, Concertino for Oboe and Winds, by Carl Maria von Weber and Concertino for Oboe and Orchestra, Op. 18, by August Klughardt. Information is provided regarding composer biography, compositional/historical perspective, technical and stylistic considerations, and structure. By examining the two very different pieces, one from the beginning of the nineteenth century and one from the end, the evolution of the Concertino can be seen, as well as gaining an understanding of the wide variety of repertoire written for the oboe in the nineteenth century.
The Contributions of Armenian Composers to the Clarinet Repertoire: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works, A Lecture Recital, Together with Three Recitals of Selected Works by Khachaturian, Bax, Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Lutoslawski, Nielsen, Burgmüller, and Others
With the exception of the music of Aram Khachaturian, the output of Armenian composers has been largely overlooked. This small Middle-Eastern country with a population of almost four million and an intriguing history indeed has a rich musical heritage. From its roots in sacred music and folksong, Armenian music has evolved into a unique blend of national elements and Western art music. Although it remains largely undiscovered, there is an entire repertoire of works in this aesthetic. The Trio for clarinet, violin, and piano by Khachaturian has long been a standard in the clarinetist's repertoire. This project brings to light lesser-known works of other Armenian composers. After providing a brief history of Armenia and her music (Chapter 2), this document presents an annotated bibliography of works using the clarinet (Chapter 3). Because there are a significant number of Armenians living outside their homeland, composers considered for this bibliography include all those of Armenian descent: those born,schooled, and presently living in Armenia, as well as those born to one or both Armenian parents residing in other countries. The bibliography includes works for unaccompanied clarinet, clarinet and piano, clarinet and orchestra, and chamber music for up to seven players. Each annotation includes the composer's name, dates, title of the work and its movements, date of composition, instrumentation, publisher and date of publication (in the case of published works), source from which the score can be obtained (in the case of unpublished works and works that are no longer published), duration of the work, and any recordings that are commercially available. Specific information about each piece, such as its dedication, first performance, historical background, musical characteristics, and performance practice issues is provided when available.
A Performance Guide to Tomas Svoboda's Duo Concerto for Trumpet and Organ, Op. 152
The Duo Concerto Trumpet and Organ, Op.152 by Tomas Svoboda was written in memory of and commissioned by the friends of the late Richard Thornburg, second trumpet of the Oregon Symphony. Through the use of primary sources, Tomas Svoboda, composer and organist at the premiere, and Fred Sautter, principal trumpet of the Oregon Symphony and trumpeter at the premiere, the performance guide illuminates the piece with a discussion of five different topics. Chapter 2 of the guide reveals the circumstances of the commission and the initial compositional process. Chapter 3 discusses the performance history of the concerto, including the premiere. Chapter 4 provides analytical insights with programmatic titles accompanying the formal layout of the piece. Chapter 5 presents the piece from the standpoint of performance preparation. Chapter 6 concludes the guide with final thoughts of the composer, Tomas Svoboda. The guide provides the performer studying this piece the historical context of the concerto and highlights programmatic elements of the piece not apparent in its published form.
A Transcription of Op. 94 Morceau de Concert, by Camille Saint-Saëns For Solo Bass Trombone and Brass Ensemble
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The transcription is an addition to the repertoire for brass ensemble and bass trombone. Consideration is given to the nineteenth-century orchestration treatises of Berlioz and Strauss as well as the twentieth-century texts of Erik Leidzén, Walter Piston, and Samuel Adler. The transcription process is shaped by the principles of these writers. The score is contained in the appendix.
James Wintle's Northwest Miniatures for Flute, Trumpet and Piano (1998): a Performance Guide
James Wintle's, Northwest Miniatures for flute, trumpet and piano is a unique work in the chamber music repertoire. In addition, the use of auxiliary instruments makes this piece a rarity in the flute and trumpet chamber music repertoire. There are a limited number of resources presently available to performers regarding Northwest Miniatures.This dissertation provides a pedagogical performance guide addressing the inherent challenges for the flutist and this instrumentation and serves as a new resource for performers and scholars of this work. It provides a performance analysis of the piece along with pertinent pedagogical information and exercises to assist the flutist. Insight from the composer on how to address these challenges is also included. Because there are a limited number of scholarly resources available on the subject of flute and trumpet chamber music, this dissertation is a significant contribution to this genre of repertoire.
Derivation of the Thematic Material and Intervallic Gestures From the Main Theme in Fantasia Carioca By Sérgio Assad
The quantity of classical guitar literature reached a new peak late in the twentieth century with many famous guitarists publishing their own works for solo classical guitar. This increase in the published guitar literature resulted in a decline of the relative analytical discussions of contemporary guitar works. Sérgio Assad is a perfect example of an active guitarist/composer whose works are frequently performed in guitar recitals and yet very little discussion has been provided attempting to gain a deeper understanding of his compositional language. The purpose of this study is to two-fold: first, to show that Fantasia Carioca (1994) is a very carefully organized work and includes an intricate network of thematic material developed through a spectrum of intervallic gestures, of which all derive from the main theme of the piece; second, to provide a deeper insight into the compositional language of Sérgio Assad through a demonstration of different compositional procedures to which the composer resorts. This one-movement piece reveals a high level of organization present in Sérgio Assad's style. The entire thematic material is carefully derived from the main theme. Each thematic unit shows a set of predetermined characteristics that allow these units to react to particular textures and situations. The thematic organization is interwoven with important intervallic gestures and relationships, which lead the development of the thematic material. The insight into the applied techniques and structural elements provides a highly beneficial pool of information for anybody who decides to perform this piece. The offered arguments also serve as a good starting point for further analytical approaches and examinations of the growing oeuvre of Assad's classical guitar music.
An Analysis and Comparison of Four Rotations Pour Marimba, A Solo Marimba Suite, by Eric Sammut
Four Rotations Pour Marimba (1996) by Eric Sammut has become one of the most important marimba compositions in serious concert solo marimba literature. Four Rotations Pour Marimba is a suite of four short pieces; each of them demonstrates a different musical character while incorporating similar compositional components and techniques. The goal of this thesis project is to create a stylistic analysis for providing the concert marimbist with insight into the interpretation of these four pieces and also giving composers a more in-depth understanding of Sammut's compositional method. This thesis includes a formal analysis and comparisons of compositional elements used in Four Rotations. A brief biography of Sammut and historical significance of Four Rotations Pour Marimba are also included.
Epidemiological Evaluation of Pain Among String Instrumentalists
Pain and performance anxiety (PA) are common problems among string players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess and compare PA and prevalence rates and locations of pain in violinists, violists, cellists, and bassists. Subjects completed a questionnaire that included sections on demographics, musical background, practice habits, musculoskeletal problems, non-musculoskeletal problems, and PA. Anthropometric data were gathered on all 115 subjects. Results show that there are differences in both pain and PA across instrument groups. Violinists reported the highest number of pain sites, followed by violists, bassists, and cellists. The left shoulder was the most-often reported pain site, followed by the neck and right shoulder. Aching was the most cited term selected to describe pain. Several anthropometric indices were significantly correlated with pain, notably right thumb to index finger span in both cellists and bassists. In all instrument groups, at least one pain site was significantly correlated with one of four PA questions. Results warrant the development of intervention strategies and further study of the relationship between pain and performance anxiety.
A Comparative Study of Two Single-Subject Keyboard Ricercare by Johann Jacob Froberger: Projections of Sixteenth-Century Practice Combined with Features that Forecast Baroque Practice
This study is focused on an analysis of two single-subject ricercare in the keyboard music of Johann Jacob Froberger and examines possible pathways to the development of the Baroque fugue. This dissertation is divided into three parts. Chapter I contains the purpose, significance of this study and composer, as well as characteristics of the seventeenth-century single-subject ricercar. Chapter II details and examines Froberger's two ricercare. Finally, a conclusion of this study is presented in Chapter III. Two appendixes are included in this dissertation: a list of the single-subject ricercare of Andrea Gabrieli, Giovanni Gabrieli, and Johann Jacob Froberger; and an analysis of the two single-subject ricercare, FbWV 407 and FbWV 409, by Johann Jacob Froberger.
Alfredo Casella's Serenata, op. 46, A Performance Guide for the Ensemble and Trumpet Part
Alfredo Casella's Serenata, op. 46 for clarinet, bassoon, trumpet, violin and cello is a composition that received great acclaim at the time of its conception, it is all but unknown to modern audiences and performers. The Serenata has several historical influences from the French and Italian Baroque and Classical periods. At present, there is limited scholarship regarding the Serenata op. 46. The first section of this study presents a survey of historical information, current literature and methods of examination. The second section compares movements of the Serenata op. 46 to other historical forms of similar design. The third section provides a performance guide for the trumpeter and ensemble. Implications and suggestions for performance of the composition are provided for the trumpeter. This performance guide provides the trumpeter and ensemble with performance information to help facilitate an informed performance.
A Practical Approach to Donald Martino's Twelve-Tone Song Cycles: Three Songs and Two Rilke Songs, for Performance
The performance of vocal works using the twelve-tone technique requires thorough study of complex rhythms, non-tonal melodies, non-traditional notations, and specific musical terms. They generally also require advanced and varied vocal techniques. Twelve-tone vocal works often contain unusual features vital to the composer's intention. One of the premiere twelve-tone composers in the United States, Donald Martino (1931-2005) composed only two solo vocal works using the twelve-tone technique: Three Songs (1955) and Two Rilke Songs (1961). He has explored innovative and progressive uses of the twelve-tone technique, and composed music with particular methods of his own, later used by other composers. Three Songs, his first twelve-tone work, and Two Rilke Songs, the only twelve-tone song cycle in his mature style, present comparable features in his use of the twelve-tone technique, text setting, and notations. The variety of ways in which Martino uses these features in the song cycles is discussed in the performance guide. The intention of the present study is to help performers, especially singers, understand Donald Martino's two twelve-tone song cycles, and to aid in the preparation of an excellent performance. The study includes a study of historical context, the poems, and Martino's compositional and aesthetic approaches to setting them. It also offers practical and systemized ways of analyzing and preparing Martino's songs for performance. It is hoped that the methods suggested herein will reduce a singer's difficulties and rehearsal time with the pianist. The present study will offer a valuable addition to the literature on the performance practice of twelve-tone vocal music, and provide insight and advice on how to practice and perform other non-tonal music. This method of study may be applied to other contemporary music. Doing so can in turn help develop a singer's skill in handling tonal and rhythmic difficulties of all kinds, including non-traditional notations.
The Influence of Renaissance Music in Ernst Krenek's Lamentatio Jeremiae Prophetae
Lamentatio Jeremiae Prophetae, Opus 68, composed by Ernst Krenek in 1941, is a musical work that is difficult to analyze and classify due to its fusion of contrasting musical styles. The pervasive dissonance of the work shows its modern twelve-tone organization, yet other aspects more closely resemble the sacred music of the early Renaissance. Analysis of Lamentatio solely in terms of the atonal twelve-tone system belies the work's full complexity and range of expression. While the twelve-tone system is the basis for the organization of the work, Krenek radically modifies the system to allow for more possible combinations of tones through an innovative technique he calls "rotation." The primary objective of this study is to consider the influence of early Renaissance sacred music, particularly that of Johannes Ockeghem, on certain aspects of Lamentatio, including the text, pitch organization, form and structure, rhythm and meter, and expressive markings. The study reveals that though the pitch organization is based on the twelve-tone system, Krenek uses the increased flexibility granted by his rotation technique to create implications of the modal system of the Renaissance. In the other aspects considered, the music of Lamentatio also bears clear Renaissance influences. A thorough understanding of these earlier influences in Lamentatio will influence both future performances and written characterizations of this enigmatic work.
Twelve Jazz Standards and Improvisations Transcribed and Adapted for Horn
The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a representative collection of jazz standards with improvised solos fashioned after the types of resources available for traditional jazz instruments, yet transcribed and adapted specifically for horn, hence, expressly designed to assist horn players in achieving greater success in jazz performance. By providing transcriptions and adaptations of significant performances from jazz history, horn players will have a resource with which they can better understand jazz performance practice. Featured artists include Miles Davis, Curtis Fuller, Ella Fitzgerald, Tommy Turk, Charlie Parker, Sonny Rollins, John Coltrane, Miles Davis, Wes Montgomery, J. J. Johnson, Stan Getz, and Milt Jackson. Song titles and albums are as follows: "Autumn Leaves," Somethin' Else (1958), "Blue Train," Blue Train (1957), "How High the Moon," Ella in Berlin (1960), "Lester Leaps In," Jazz at the Philharmonic (1949), "Lover Man," The Magnificent Charlie Parker (1951), "Moritat," Saxophone Colossus (1956), "Naima," Giant Steps (1959), "On Green Dolphin Street," Kind of Blue (1959), "Polka Dots and Moonbeams," Jazz Guitar of Wes Montgomery (1960), "Satin Doll," The Trombone Master (1957), "Stella by Starlight," Stan Getz Plays (1952), "Straight, No Chaser," Genius of Modern Music 2 (1951).
A Performance Guide to the Trumpet Repertoire of Jacques Castérède Focusing on Brêves Rencontres and Concertino for Trumpet and Trombone
Jacques Castérède's works for brass are monumental and demand extreme agility from the performers. Many brass players are familiar with the Sonata for Trombone, but Castérède's trumpet repertoire has not been as thoroughly considered. Due to the lack of scholarly works and recordings of Jacques Castérède trumpet repertoire, a study is necessary to aid its performance. The study is based on performance analysis and interviews with the composer. The first chapter provides information on the composer's life. The second and third chapters are performance analysis of Brêves Rencontres and Concertino for Trumpet and Trombone. These two chapters also discuss rehearsal technique and sound concept. The performance guide takes place in chapter 4. This chapter gives specific indications on articulation, range and mute choice.
Cyclic Patterns in John Coltrane's Melodic Vocabulary as Influenced by Nicolas Slonimsky's Thesaurus of Scales and Melodic Patterns: An Analysis of Selected Improvisations
This study documents and analyzes cyclic patterns used as melodic vocabulary in John Coltrane's improvisations from compositions of 1965 to 1967. The analysis is categorized in two distinct sections. The first section analyzes melodic vocabulary that is derived from the cycle of descending major thirds progressions found in the compositions of 1959 to 1960. The second section analyzes melodic vocabulary that is derived from Nicolas Slonimsky's Thesaurus of Scales and Melodic Patterns using the theoretical terminology incorporated in the treatise. Musical examples consist of patterns from the Thesaurus and excerpts from selected improvisations of John Coltrane as transcribed by Andrew White. Important scholarly contributions relevant to the subject by Carl Woideck, Lewis Porter, David Demsey, and Walt Weiskopf are included. Every effort has been made to cite interviews with musicians and commentaries by writers contemporary to that period of time with special emphasis on the important influence of Thelonious Monk, Miles Davis, and Ornette Coleman. Chapter headings include: Literature Review and Methodology; Thelonious Monk, Miles Davis, and Ornette Coleman: Converging Influences; Analysis: Coltrane's Major Thirds Harmonic Cycles Used as Melodic Vocabulary; Interval Cycles in Coltrane's Melodic Vocabulary Based on Patterns from Slonimsky's Thesaurus; Summary and Conclusion.
Rediscovering Giuseppe Verdi's Messa da Requiem
Several interpretations in performances, recordings, and publications of Giuseppe Verdi's Messa da Requiem raise issues concerning the relationship between these readings and the composer's intention. Understanding Verdi's tempo and phrasing in the Requiem is of crucial importance in rediscovering his intention. Knowing that Verdi's metronome markings were not merely performance suggestions but that they actually reflected his final decision is equally important. Unlike his operas, fast tempos are not introduced suddenly in the Requiem; rather, where tempo changes occur gradually from one section to the next, thereby maintaining the music's overall character. Verdi's phrasing is very subtle, and unconventional, because one sign may have multiple meanings. Compounding this complication are the many editorial errors in the published editions. David Rosen, in his critical edition, corrected many of these errors, and made additional editorial suggestions, but there are still numerous places where determining correct phrasing, as well as tempo fluctuations, knowledge of Verdi's use of signs and symbols is difficult.
The Role of Analysis and Comparison in the Performance of Selected Single-Movement Compositions for Trumpet and Piano by Joseph Turrin with an Interview of the Composer, a Lecture Recital, Together with Three Recitals of Selected Works by Handel, Honegger, Tomasi, and Others
Joseph Turrin (b.1947) is a composer, orchestrator, conductor, pianist, and teacher whose wide-ranging activities have contributed greatly to many aspects of contemporary American musical life. His numerous ASCAP awards (1981-20050, as well as his many other awards, document his professional success. His many commissions by various orchestras around the world, bands, brass ensembles, soloists, theatre groups and film scores show his popularity. He is also in high demand as a pianist for orchestras, in theatre productions, in commercials and studio recordings as well as serving as personal accompanist for Jerome Hines, Phil Smith, Joseph Alessi and others. Mr. Turrin's compositions for trumpet and piano have been particularly popular among college and professional players as seen by their frequent performance in those venues as evidenced by the International Trumpet Guild's Trumpet and Brass Programs for the years 1995-2002. The three works selected for the present study include: Elegy for Trumpet and String Orchestra (1971, rev. 1993, piano reduction, 1993), Caprice for Trumpet and Piano (1972), and Intrada for Trumpet and Piano (1988). In this in-depth study, special attention is given to those characteristics which create unity of form, and those traits that seem to be idiomatic of Mr. Turrin's style of writing. A comparison of the three pieces allows for the extrapolation of common style traits, which include certain traditional fanfare-style motifs as well as jazz-style elements. Conclusions are drawn with detailed explanation of what I consider the appropriate application of the knowledge from the analyses to quality performances of the pieces studied. Careful instruction is given concerning the various aspects of performance style which are supported by the study done on each piece. Finally, an interview by internet with the composer answers some of the questions created by the analyses. Several of the composer's comments justify many of the conclusions drawn by this study.
A Performer's Guide to John Musto's Penelope: A Cycle of Seven Songs for Soprano and Piano
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Award-winning composer John Musto stands at the forefront of modern American art-song composition. Many of his songs, such as "Litany" from Shadow of the Blues, have already achieved a place in the standard contemporary repertory for singers. His compositional technique weaves influences of jazz, blues, ragtime, and popular music with classical technique to make music that is decidedly modern but accessible and well liked both by critics and audiences. Unfortunately, though he is still actively composing, very little has been written about Musto and there is a lack of information available about his more recent compositions. This performance guide addresses one of Musto's acclaimed song cycles, Penelope, (a cycle of seven songs for soprano and piano) commissioned and premiered in 2000. The story of the cycle is an updated version of the character Penelope from Homer's The Odyssey and was a collaboration between Musto and poet Denise Lanctot. Including interviews with Musto, and his wife, soprano Amy Burton, who premiered the cycle and for whom it was written, the document provides background information on how the cycle was conceived and gives in-depth performance information on each of the seven songs of Penelope. In addition to musical examples and poetry from the songs, this study also contains a catalogue of Musto's compositions listing premiere dates, performers, and information about the commission of each work.
Gradus ad Parnassum of Modern Flute Technique: An Explication of Musical Intention and Design in 30 Capricen für Flöte allein, Opus 107 by Sigfrid Karg-Elert, with Three Recitals of Selected Works by Schulhoff, Telemann, Berio, Bach, Rodrigo, Gieseking, Reinecke, and Others
Gradus ad Parnassum of Modern Flute Technique: An Explication of Musical Intention and Design in 30 Capricen für Flöte allein, Opus 107 by Sigfrid Karg-Elert, with Three Recitals of Selected Works by Schulhoff, Telemann, Berio, Bach, Rodrigo, Gieseking, Reinecke, and Others
An Analysis of Joe Lovano's Tenor Saxophone Improvisation on "Misterioso" by Thelonius Monk: An Exercise in Multi-Dimensional Thematicism
The dissertation focuses on Joe Lovano's utilization of thematic material in relation to "Misterioso" by Thelonius Monk. Thematicism is defined more broadly in this study to include reference to the form, phrase structure, and harmony of "Misterioso". Methodological models provided by Gary Potter, Henry Martin, and Paul Hindemith serve as points of departure for this study which focuses on four areas: 1) phrasing, 2) step progression, 3) motives and formulas, and 4) harmonic implications. Thematic relationships are discovered through the analysis of the transcription of Lovano's improvisation; the four levels of the analysis work together and also independent of one another to produce a kind of thematic counterpoint. This study also examines how Lovano creates an effective solo. The study will be of benefit to students, professional musicians, pedagogues, theorists, musicologists, and jazz aficionados.
The Saxophone Music of Frederick Fox: An Annotated Bibliography with an Analysis of S.A.X. for Solo Alto Saxophone and Saxophone Quartet
Frederick Fox's contributions to contemporary music are substantial, including eighty-three compositions written between 1966 and 1998. These include pieces for orchestra, wind ensemble, choir, solo instruments, and a variety of chamber ensembles. This study serves as a complete annotated bibliography of Frederick Fox's eight compositions which feature the saxophone in a prominent role, all of which were written between 1979 and 1998. They include a piece for unaccompanied solo alto saxophone, Hear Again in Memory (1991), two works for alto saxophone and piano, Annexus (1980), and When the Thunder Speaks (1998), a saxophone duet, Visitations (1982), two saxophone quartets, 3 Diversions (1987) and The Avenging Spirit (1989), a saxophone quartet with solo alto saxophone, S.A.X. (1979), and a chamber piece for soprano and alto saxophone accompanied by piano and two percussionists, Shaking the Pumpkin (1986). In addition, an analysis of Fox's first composition for saxophone, S.A.X. for Solo Alto Saxophone and Saxophone Quartet, offers an insight into the compositional style of the composer. A complete listing of all of Fox's compositions, formal schemata of selected saxophone compositions, and a discography of his recorded saxophone compositions are included as appendices.
Ernesto García de León: A Study of Sonata No. I, Op. 13, Las Campanas (The Bells)
The purpose of this document is to further the current research and encourage interest in the music of the Mexican composer Ernesto García de León. This paper will advance the current research with an in-depth analysis of the first movement of Sonata No. I, Op.13, Las Campanas (The Bells) for solo guitar. The analysis will focus on the pervasive presence of the melodic and harmonic intervals of perfect fourths, perfect fifths, and tritones as constructive devises throughout the sonata. This will provide interested performers a technical understanding of the composition. In addition to the compositional aspects, the analysis will be extended to consider the programmatic elements described by García de León. Select alternative fingerings will also be given to provide the interpreter options for difficult passages.
Aphorismen, Capriccio, and Heptameron for Piano Solo By Jürg Baur: a Performer's Guide
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The purpose of this dissertation is to give instruction regarding the performance of three important piano works by Jürg Baur (1918-2010). Aphorismen, Capriccio, and Heptameron stand out as his most significant piano works both because of their length and because of their pianistic complexity. Since Baur had a successful career as both teacher and composer during his lifetime, his acclaimed works received many honors in Germany. His works can be performed by intermediate to advanced students. Intermediate students can easily offer simpler pieces like Aphorismen in competitions, while pieces like Capriccio and Heptameron better are suited to a more advanced level. Although some of his compositions are difficult to perform compared with other modern German works, Baur's music is more accessible. In the article, "Auf der Spuren der alten Zeit" Baur is quoted to state that Paul Hindemith and Bela Bartok's music influenced his own compositional ideas. However, although Baur is a modern composer, he didn't write in a totally atonal style, but rather attempted to broaden tonality. While Heptameron is atonal, Aphorismen and Capriccio give the impression of tonality, thus they are more accessible to the audience. I was fortunate enough to study Aphorismen with Baur as well as receiving advice for performance of Capriccio and some movements of Heptameron. Therefore, I gained a primary source of instruction, particularly in regards to pedal markings, rhythmic indications, voice balancing, finger suggestions, articulation markings, and tone of musical expression. In this dissertation, I include my own instructions (accepted by the composer) along with the composer's intentions.
Octatonic pitch structure and motivic organization in George Walker's Canvas for wind ensemble, voices, and chorus.
Canvas was commissioned by the College Band Directors National Association (CBDNA) Consortium in fall 1999 for the CBDNA Biennium National Conference to be held at the University of North Texas in February 2001. This substantial and profound three-movement work is Pulitzer Prize winning composer George Walker's first work for wind ensemble and is a milestone in wind composition at the turn of the millennium. This analysis considers Walker's sophisticated use of octatonic collections and their subsets. Walker uses the three transpositions of the octatonic scale as a harmonic framework for the work. Within this framework, specific subsets of the collection are used in traditional harmonic ways. A hierarchy of pitch sets is created, lending a "tonic" function characteristic to prevalent and specifically placed sonorities. Onto this "canvas" of octatonic harmonies, Walker "paints" specific motivic gestures. These motivic gesture monopolize specific intervallic relationships that are initially presented in the beginning of the work. Certain motivic techniques are then employed in the ongoing development of the motivic content. These motivic techniques include melodic suspension, interval alternation, double stroke articulation, irregularly recurring patterns, chordal punctuations, interrupted sequences, and dramatic uses of silence. Formally, Walker uses short "cells" of similar motivic and harmonic content as a tool of organization.
Ignacy Jan Paderewski's Sonata in E-Flat Minor, Op. 21: Insights into his compositional technique and performance style.
The recordings of the legendary pianist Ignacy Jan Paderewski are a valuable documentation of his piano performance style. Knowledge of late-Romantic performance practices gleaned from Paderewski's recordings suggest ways of approaching the performance of his Sonata in E-Flat Minor, Op. 21. This Sonata, composed in 1903 near the end of his compositional career, is a work of the highest caliber, deserving a permanent place in the concert pianist's repertoire. The purpose of this paper is to provide performance suggestions based on Paderewski's performance style which will produce a performance closer to the spirit of the times in which it was written. This study provides an overview of the project in Chapter 1, and a background of Paderewski's life as pianist, composer, and statesman in Chapter 2. A time-line chart of his complete works is included for reference. Chapter 3 analyzes Sonata, Op. 21 in regards to form, sound, melody, harmony, and rhythm. Following the analysis, the Sonata is compared compositionally to sonatas that appear alongside Sonata, Op. 21 on Paderewski's programs, including those by Chopin, Beethoven, and Liszt. Graphs summarize the form and dynamic density of the Sonata, and examples illustrate Paderewski's craft at thematic transformation. Chapter 4 examines Paderewski's performance style documented in recordings of his own compositions and of works by Chopin, Schumann, Liszt, and Beethoven. Consideration is given to various aspects of interpretation, including counterpoint, asynchrony, tempo rubato, rhythmic variance, and pedaling. Each of these aspects of Paderewski's performance style is illustrated with transcriptions of excerpts from Paderewski's recordings. The author proposes examples of application of these aspects to Paderewski's Sonata, Op. 21. Chapter 5 provides a summary of the project. Appendix A contains an analysis of the rhythmic grouping that performers may find useful, and Appendix B contains the recital programs required for the degree program.
The Nightingale in Poetry and Music
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This thesis surveys a variety of songs and arias for high soprano which feature the nightingale; examines the musical elements that symbolize, refer to, or imitate the nightingale; and compares these musical elements with transcriptions of the nightingale's song. The first chapter reviews the symbolic development of the nightingale and its role in poetry and literature. The interior chapters address a selection of musical compositions that feature the nightingale and its song. The final chapter establishes a relationship between the sound of the actual sound of the nightingale and the musical gestures created by composers to imitate the nightingale.
Combining of Korean Traditional Performance and Recent German Techniques in Isang Yun's Kontraste: Zwei Stücke für Violine Solo (1987)
Isang Yun (1917-1995) embraced a masterful combination of two elements derived from his life: his Korean cultural upbringing and Western musical traditions. This dissertation explores Yun's distinctive style through an analysis of his Kontraste: Zwei Stücke für Violine Solo. Following the introduction (Chapter 1), Chapter 2 contains a brief biography of Isang Yun, and explores the compositions of his Korean period (1917-1955) and his European period (1956-1995). It also discusses how Yun's musical styles changed during these two periods as a result of important life events and due to cultural and political influences. Chapter 3 examines Korean instruments such as Kayakem, Hae-Kem, and Pak; discusses Nonghyun (traditional string techniques of ornamentation in Korean music); and introduces Korean performance techniques. This chapter also provides explanations of these concepts, illustrated through various examples. A subsequent discussion illuminates Yin-Yang theory and Jeong-Jung-Dong, both elements of Taoist philosophy that influenced Yun's compositional style. This is followed by explanations of Hauptton and Umspielung, two compositional techniques that Yun developed and employed in Kontraste. Yun created the idea of Hauptton to reflect the Korean traditional concept of a single note. He used the term Umspielung ("playing around" in German) to describe his interpretation of the four traditional techniques of Nonghyun within a Western notational framework. In Chapter 5, analysis of Kontraste reveals how the piece's contrasting elements represent the concepts of Yin-Yang and Jeong-Jung-Dong, and shows how the violin imitates the sounds of Korean traditional instruments and instrumental technique. Yun's adaption of Korean traditional performance techniques to the violin in Kontraste is aimed at combining East and West and producing a new aesthetic.
Osvaldo Lacerda’s Sonata for Flute and Piano (1959): A Performance Guide with Historical Background of Brazilian Genres Embolada, Serestra, and Baião
Osvaldo da Costa Lacerda (March 23, 1927-July 18, 2011), one of the most significant Brazilian composers of the twentieth century, wrote more than 250 compositions. The purpose of this dissertation is to provide a history and analysis of the Brazilian genres characterized in Osvaldo Lacerda’s, Sonata for Flute and Piano. Written in 1959, the sonata represents traditional Brazilian rhythms within a classical structure and modern harmony. The work provides a basis for the exploration of the embolada, the serestas, and the baião, examples of Brazilian typical song forms and rhythms. Analysis of the historical roots of these nationalistic elements will provide appropriate performance practice considerations when playing Brazilian rhythms; and because this sonata only exists in manuscript form, the historical analysis and performance guide will be of service to disseminate this important Brazilian work. As a basis for a critical edition of the Sonata for Flute and Piano, this initial effort will provide performers with a context for Brazilian flute music. Chapters include the Lacerda’s biography, a background of the nationalistic movement in Brazil and the composers who have influenced Osvaldo Lacerda. Definitions of embolada, serestas, and baião is also provided.
A Performer's Guide to George Crumb's Makrokosmos IV (Celestial Mechanics)
George Crumb (b.1929)'s Makrokosmos is recognized as one of the masterpieces of twentieth century piano writing. Inexplicably, volume four of Makrokosmos, Crumb's only four-hand piano piece, is rarely studied by Crumb scholars. According to Crumb's program notes, his Makrokosmos is meant to be a hybrid of piano and orchestral sound. Crumb devised a list of signs and abbreviated letters to explain his specific instructions to the performers. The pianists who plan to perform Makrokosmos need to study Crumb's notations carefully in order to faithfully realize the composer's intentions. This dissertation examines the composer's treatment of four hands at the piano. In addition, a performer's analysis and practical "translation" of these techniques is provided, in the hopes of rendering this amazing piece more accessible to pianists in search of new and wonderful repertoire for piano four hands. It is also hoped that future composers will be inspired by Crumb's innovations and imaginative ideas.
An examination of the influence of selected works of Franz Schmidt on the Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra and the Sonata for Trumpet and Piano by Karl Pilss.
The Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra and the Sonata for Trumpet and Piano by Karl Pilss were written in 1934 and 1935, respectively. They are examples for solo trumpet of the late German Romantic style of melody, harmony, form and structure. Musicians and audience often overlook composer Karl Pilss outside his native Vienna. His ties to the Trompeterchor der Stadt Wien and the National Socialist Party during the years preceding the Second World War have limited widespread acceptance of this composer. Pilss' output includes concertos for trumpet, horn, bass trombone, and piano, sonatas for trumpet, violin, and oboe, wind quintets and octets, piano pieces, choral works, and numerous large and small brass works. Pilss' teacher Franz Schmidt is more widely known. His four symphonies provide examples of post-Romanticism at the beginning of the twentieth century. His characteristic use of melody, harmony, form and structure is in the mold of Richard Strauss. Schmidt did not write any works for solo trumpet. However, his Symphony No. 4 begins and ends with extended passages for solo trumpet. Pilss inherited and adopted many of Schmidt's melodic, harmonic and formal traits. These can be clearly heard in his Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra and the Sonata for Trumpet and Piano. This work discusses in detail the musical and compositional connection between Karl Pilss and his teacher, Franz Schmidt. Musical elements of melody, harmony, form and structure are used to illustrate the close connection between pupil and mentor. The use of the characteristic "Schmidt chord" in Pilss' works cements the link between the two composers. The Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra and the Sonata for Trumpet and Piano deserve wider acceptance on the basis of their musical merit and as unique examples of the late German Romantic style for solo trumpet.
A Structural Analysis and Selected Aspects of Performance of Gazebo Dances for Piano Four Hands by John Corigliano
The purpose of the study is to present a formal analysis of the musical style and performance issues of the original version, for four hands piano, of Gazebo Dances, composed by John Coriglaino (b. 1938), a major American contemporary composer. Corigliano and his compositions have been performed by many performers and scholars over the several years. Gazebo Dances for piano four hands was composed in 1972. Gazebo Dances consists of four movements and was dedicated to his close friends: a dancelike overture movement in a slightly rondo form which is dedicated to Rose Corigliano and Etta Feinberg, waltz movement in a combination of rondo and sonata-allegro form which is dedicated to John Ardoin, adagio movement in a miniature sonata form which is dedicated to Heida Hermanns, and a tarantella movement in a modified rondo form which is dedicated to Jack Romann and Christian Steiner.
A Stylistic and Analytical Study of The Key for Trumpet and Piano by James Wintle
James Wintle (b.1942) is one of America's most successful living composers. Wintle and his compositions have attracted the attention of many prominent performers and scholars over the last three decades. The Key for trumpet and piano was composed in 1988 for Chris Gekker, an outstanding trumpet player. The Key consists of four movements: a fast movement in free form, a slow lyrical movement in song form (ABA'), a dance-like movement influenced by ragtime, and a fourth movement with a slow introduction in rondo form (ABA'CA''). The purpose of the study is to introduce the composer, James Wintle, and to present an analysis of The Key for trumpet and piano, a work which receives frequent performance. Through research and analytical approaches, the study focuses on a theoretical analysis of The Key for trumpet and piano. In addition to using available materials and resources, the author was in direct contact with James Wintle for the study. Chapter 1 presents the purpose of the study, the state of research, and method. Chapter 2 is devoted to James Wintle's biography. Chapter 3 examines Wintle's compositional style, including influences and musical language. Chapter 4 offers a theoretical analysis of all four movements of The Key, as well as a discussion of extra-musical influences from the painting entitled The Key by Jackson Pollock. A summation and conclusion follow in chapter 5.