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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Department: College of Education
 Degree Discipline: Educational Research
An Investigation of the Effect of Violating the Assumption of Homogeneity of Regression Slopes in the Analysis of Covariance Model upon the F-Statistic

An Investigation of the Effect of Violating the Assumption of Homogeneity of Regression Slopes in the Analysis of Covariance Model upon the F-Statistic

Date: August 1972
Creator: McClaran, Virgil Rutledge
Description: The study seeks to determine the effect upon the F-statistic of violating the assumption of homogeneity of regression slopes in the one-way, fixed-effects analysis of covariance model. The study employs a Monte Carlo simulation technique to vary the degree of heterogeneity of regression slopes with varied sample sizes within experiments to determine the effect of such conditions. One hundred and eighty-three simulations were used.
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A Comparison of IRT and Rasch Procedures in a Mixed-Item Format Test

A Comparison of IRT and Rasch Procedures in a Mixed-Item Format Test

Date: August 2003
Creator: Kinsey, Tari L.
Description: This study investigated the effects of test length (10, 20 and 30 items), scoring schema (proportion of dichotomous ad polytomous scoring) and item analysis model (IRT and Rasch) on the ability estimates, test information levels and optimization criteria of mixed item format tests. Polytomous item responses to 30 items for 1000 examinees were simulated using the generalized partial-credit model and SAS software. Portions of the data were re-coded dichotomously over 11 structured proportions to create 33 sets of test responses including mixed item format tests. MULTILOG software was used to calculate the examinee ability estimates, standard errors, item and test information, reliability and fit indices. A comparison of IRT and Rasch item analysis procedures was made using SPSS software across ability estimates and standard errors of ability estimates using a 3 x 11 x 2 fixed factorial ANOVA. Effect sizes and power were reported for each procedure. Scheffe post hoc procedures were conducted on significant factos. Test information was analyzed and compared across the range of ability levels for all 66-design combinations. The results indicated that both test length and the proportion of items scored polytomously had a significant impact on the amount of test information produced by mixed item ...
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Bias and Precision of the Squared Canonical Correlation Coefficient under Nonnormal Data Conditions

Bias and Precision of the Squared Canonical Correlation Coefficient under Nonnormal Data Conditions

Date: August 2006
Creator: Leach, Lesley Ann Freeny
Description: This dissertation: (a) investigated the degree to which the squared canonical correlation coefficient is biased in multivariate nonnormal distributions and (b) identified formulae that adjust the squared canonical correlation coefficient (Rc2) such that it most closely approximates the true population effect under normal and nonnormal data conditions. Five conditions were manipulated in a fully-crossed design to determine the degree of bias associated with Rc2: distribution shape, variable sets, sample size to variable ratios, and within- and between-set correlations. Very few of the condition combinations produced acceptable amounts of bias in Rc2, but those that did were all found with first function results. The sample size to variable ratio (n:v)was determined to have the greatest impact on the bias associated with the Rc2 for the first, second, and third functions. The variable set condition also affected the accuracy of Rc2, but for the second and third functions only. The kurtosis levels of the marginal distributions (b2), and the between- and within-set correlations demonstrated little or no impact on the bias associated with Rc2. Therefore, it is recommended that researchers use n:v ratios of at least 10:1 in canonical analyses, although greater n:v ratios have the potential to produce even less bias. ...
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Comparisons of Improvement-Over-Chance Effect Sizes for Two Groups Under Variance Heterogeneity and Prior Probabilities

Comparisons of Improvement-Over-Chance Effect Sizes for Two Groups Under Variance Heterogeneity and Prior Probabilities

Date: May 2003
Creator: Alexander, Erika D.
Description: The distributional properties of improvement-over-chance, I, effect sizes derived from linear and quadratic predictive discriminant analysis (PDA) and from logistic regression analysis (LRA) for the two-group univariate classification were examined. Data were generated under varying levels of four data conditions: population separation, variance pattern, sample size, and prior probabilities. None of the indices provided acceptable estimates of effect for all the conditions examined. There were only a small number of conditions under which both accuracy and precision were acceptable. The results indicate that the decision of which method to choose is primarily determined by variance pattern and prior probabilities. Under variance homogeneity, any of the methods may be recommended. However, LRA is recommended when priors are equal or extreme and linear PDA is recommended when priors are moderate. Under variance heterogeneity, selecting a recommended method is more complex. In many cases, more than one method could be used appropriately.
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The Effectiveness of a Mediating Structure for Writing Analysis Level Test Items From Text Based Instruction

The Effectiveness of a Mediating Structure for Writing Analysis Level Test Items From Text Based Instruction

Date: August 1989
Creator: Brasel, Michael D. (Michael David)
Description: This study is concerned with the effect of placing text into a mediated structure form upon the generation of test items for analysis level domain referenced test construction. The item writing methodology used is the linguistic (operationally defined) item writing technology developed by Bormuth, Finn, Roid, Haladyna and others. This item writing methodology is compared to 1) the intuitive method based on Bloom's definition of analysis level test questions and 2) the intuitive with keywords identified method of item writing. A mediated structure was developed by coordinating or subordinating sentences in an essay by following five simple grammatical rules. Three test writers each composed a ten-item test using each of the three methodologies based on a common essay. Tests were administered to 102 Composition 1 community college students. Students were asked to read the essay and complete one test form. Test forms by writer and method were randomly delivered. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences among either methods or writers. Item analysis showed no method of item writing resulting in items of consistent difficulty among test item writers. While the results of this study show no significant difference from the intuitive, traditional methods of item writing, analysis level test ...
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A Comparison of Some Continuity Corrections for the Chi-Squared Test in 3 x 3, 3 x 4, and 3 x 5 Tables

A Comparison of Some Continuity Corrections for the Chi-Squared Test in 3 x 3, 3 x 4, and 3 x 5 Tables

Date: May 1987
Creator: Mullen, Jerry D. (Jerry Davis)
Description: This study was designed to determine whether chis-quared based tests for independence give reliable estimates (as compared to the exact values provided by Fisher's exact probabilities test) of the probability of a relationship between the variables in 3 X 3, 3 X 4 , and 3 X 5 contingency tables when the sample size is 10, 20, or 30. In addition to the classical (uncorrected) chi-squared test, four methods for continuity correction were compared to Fisher's exact probabilities test. The four methods were Yates' correction, two corrections attributed to Cochran, and Mantel's correction. The study was modeled after a similar comparison conducted on 2 X 2 contingency tables and published by Michael Haber.
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A comparison of the Effects of Different Sizes of Ceiling Rules on the Estimates of Reliability of a Mathematics Achievement Test

A comparison of the Effects of Different Sizes of Ceiling Rules on the Estimates of Reliability of a Mathematics Achievement Test

Date: May 1987
Creator: Somboon Suriyawongse
Description: This study compared the estimates of reliability made using one, two, three, four, five, and unlimited consecutive failures as ceiling rules in scoring a mathematics achievement test which is part of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skill (ITBS), Form 8. There were 700 students randomly selected from a population (N=2640) of students enrolled in the eight grades in a large urban school district in the southwestern United States. These 700 students were randomly divided into seven subgroups so that each subgroup had 100 students. The responses of all those students to three subtests of the mathematics achievement battery, which included mathematical concepts (44 items), problem solving (32 items), and computation (45 items), were analyzed to obtain the item difficulties and a total score for each student. The items in each subtest then were rearranged based on the item difficulties from the highest to the lowest value. In each subgroup, the method using one, two, three, four, five, and unlimited consecutive failures as the ceiling rules were applied to score the individual responses. The total score for each individual was the sum of the correct responses prior to the point described by the ceiling rule. The correct responses after the ceiling ...
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Effect of Rater Training and Scale Type on Leniency and Halo Error in Student Ratings of Faculty

Effect of Rater Training and Scale Type on Leniency and Halo Error in Student Ratings of Faculty

Date: May 1987
Creator: Cook, Stuart S. (Stuart Sheldon)
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine if leniency and halo error in student ratings could be reduced by training the student raters and by using a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) rather than a Likert scale. Two hypotheses were proposed. First, the ratings collected from the trained raters would contain less halo and leniency error than those collected from the untrained raters. Second, within the group of trained raters the BARS would contain less halo and leniency error than the Likert instrument.
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A Monte Carlo Analysis of Experimentwise and Comparisonwise Type I Error Rate of Six Specified Multiple Comparison Procedures When Applied to Small k's and Equal and Unequal Sample Sizes

A Monte Carlo Analysis of Experimentwise and Comparisonwise Type I Error Rate of Six Specified Multiple Comparison Procedures When Applied to Small k's and Equal and Unequal Sample Sizes

Date: December 1985
Creator: Yount, William R.
Description: The problem of this study was to determine the differences in experimentwise and comparisonwise Type I error rate among six multiple comparison procedures when applied to twenty-eight combinations of normally distributed data. These were the Least Significant Difference, the Fisher-protected Least Significant Difference, the Student Newman-Keuls Test, the Duncan Multiple Range Test, the Tukey Honestly Significant Difference, and the Scheffe Significant Difference. The Spjøtvoll-Stoline and Tukey—Kramer HSD modifications were used for unequal n conditions. A Monte Carlo simulation was used for twenty-eight combinations of k and n. The scores were normally distributed (µ=100; σ=10). Specified multiple comparison procedures were applied under two conditions: (a) all experiments and (b) experiments in which the F-ratio was significant (0.05). Error counts were maintained over 1000 repetitions. The FLSD held experimentwise Type I error rate to nominal alpha for the complete null hypothesis. The FLSD was more sensitive to sample mean differences than the HSD while protecting against experimentwise error. The unprotected LSD was the only procedure to yield comparisonwise Type I error rate at nominal alpha. The SNK and MRT error rates fell between the FLSD and HSD rates. The SSD error rate was the most conservative. Use of the harmonic mean of ...
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A State-Wide Survey on the Utilization of Instructional Technology by Public School Districts in Texas

A State-Wide Survey on the Utilization of Instructional Technology by Public School Districts in Texas

Date: May 1990
Creator: Hiett, Elmer D. (Elmer Donald)
Description: Effective utilization of instructional technology can provide a valuable method for the delivery of a school program, and enable a teacher to individualize according to student needs. Implementation of such a program is costly and requires careful planning and adequate staff development for school personnel. This study examined the degree of commitment by Texas school districts to the use of the latest technologies in their efforts to revolutionize education. Quantitative data were collected by using a survey that included five informational areas: (1) school district background, (2) funding for budget, (3) staff, (4) technology hardware, and (5) staff development. The study included 137 school districts representing the 5 University Interscholastic League (UIL) classifications (A through AAAAA). The survey was mailed to the school superintendents requesting that the persons most familiar with instructional technology be responsible for completing the questionnaires. Analysis of data examined the relationship between UIL classification and the amount of money expended on instructional technology. Correlation coefficients were determined between teachers receiving training in the use of technology and total personnel assigned to technology positions. Coefficients were calculated between a district providing a plan fortechnology and employment of a coordinator for instructional technology. Significance was established at the ...
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