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 Department: Department of Criminal Justice
Civil Asset Forfeiture in the Fight Against Drugs (Policy Analysis)

Civil Asset Forfeiture in the Fight Against Drugs (Policy Analysis)

Date: August 2002
Creator: Tuncer, Hakki
Description: Even if the main criminals of an organization are incarcerated, they will be replaced by others who would continue illegal activities, unless their financial assets are removed. Thus, civil forfeiture intends to dismantle the economic infrastructure of drug trafficking networks. Civil forfeiture considers the property as guilty, rather than the owner, and it may exist even if there is not a criminal action. Therefore, it is claimed that police agencies have chosen easy targets, such as wealthy drug users rather than major drug traffickers. Consequently, it has been particularly challenged on the basis of the Excessive Fines, Double Jeopardy, and Due Process Clauses. The use of criminal forfeiture instead of civil forfeiture and the elimination of the equitable sharing provision are considered to be the primary solutions.
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Political Misuse of Domestic Intelligence: A Case Study on the FBI

Political Misuse of Domestic Intelligence: A Case Study on the FBI

Date: August 2002
Creator: Pacci, Mehme
Description: Domestic intelligence is very important in preventing disorder while ensuring unity and security during a time of national crisis. However, if uncontrolled, domestic intelligence can be subject to political misuse, which causes serious damage both to individuals and to democratic institutions. There are various theoretical explanations for political misuse of domestic intelligence. The political use of domestic intelligence is best explained by the sociological theory of unfulfilled needs. On the other hand, political counterintelligence can be best explained by Threat Theory. In order for a domestic intelligence organization to be effective, its organizational discretion must be limited by establishing clear legislation that is not secret, on the focus, limits, and techniques of domestic intelligence. This system must be supported by a multi-level control mechanism.
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Serial Killing Myths Versus    Reality:  A Content Analysis Of Serial Killer Flicks Made   Between 1980 and 2001

Serial Killing Myths Versus Reality: A Content Analysis Of Serial Killer Flicks Made Between 1980 and 2001

Date: August 2002
Creator: McCready, Sarah Scott
Description: Public perceptions about serial homicide are more mythical than fact. Myths about serial homicide are perpetuated through several sources, especially the entertainment media which is a dominant and influential mythmaker. The number of films depicting serial killers and serial killing themes has increased dramatically in recent years. However, the reality of these films is debatable. This research examines the reality, or lack thereof, of the most recent films involving a serial killing theme. Hickey provides a wealth of statistical information on a number of serial killers and serial killings. A content analysis of the fifty top grossing serial killer movies made between 1980 and 2001 was conducted using variables from Hickey research. Research shows similarities and differences between variables, however, results concludes the entertainment media does not accurately portray serial homicide.
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Job Satisfaction of Juvenile Facility Directors: Results from a National Survey

Job Satisfaction of Juvenile Facility Directors: Results from a National Survey

Date: August 2001
Creator: Flanigan, Amy Renee
Description: This study utilizes a national survey to measure the job satisfaction of juvenile facility directors. The prior literature has focused on the experiences of line personnel within the adult correctional system, and this research serves to provide new information regarding this specific population. The current study will address the predictors and correlates of a director's job satisfaction. It is hypothesized that specific characteristics within the organization will predict job satisfaction. Issues regarding staff within an institution and their effect on a director's job satisfaction are the focus. Results indicate that staff issues significantly contribute to the job satisfaction of a director. Specifically, this research can be used to understand facility director retention, staff and juvenile related issues, and the effect of job satisfaction on criminal justice policy issues.
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New Organized Crime: Problems and Issues for Information Analysis

New Organized Crime: Problems and Issues for Information Analysis

Date: August 2001
Creator: Demirci, Suleyman
Description: This study illustrates the changing nature of organized crime at both national and international levels. Organized crime groups have changed in that they have entered the realm of high technology. In response this change, the use of new or modified analytical tools is suggested to enhance law enforcement efforts. This study highlights the problems of, and offers particular solutions for information analysis in its use in the fight against organized crime. Ultimately, it is argued that combined crime and intelligence analysis can be an effective and efficient method for the detection and prevention of modern organized crime.
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A Descriptive Study of the Intelligence Community in the United States of America

A Descriptive Study of the Intelligence Community in the United States of America

Date: May 2003
Creator: Ucak, Hursit
Description: This treatise represents a descriptive study of the intelligence community in the United States. It explores the ramifications of terrorism on the intelligence function, post September 11, 2001. In-depth discussions concerning the structure of the U.S. intelligence community are presented as well as a focus on the defined steps of the intelligence process: planning and directions, collection, analysis, production, and dissemination. The final aspect of this study poses questions and issues relating to the restructuring of the U.S. intelligence community in light of the Homeland Security Act of 2002.
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Recidivism Outcomes among a Cohort of Violent Institutionalized Juvenile Offenders

Recidivism Outcomes among a Cohort of Violent Institutionalized Juvenile Offenders

Date: August 2008
Creator: Haerle, Darin R.
Description: Serious and violent juvenile offenders cause a disproportionate amount of harm to society, yet this population receives very little attention within the realm of empirical research. This research study examined the recidivism outcomes of 296 serious and violent offenders previously exposed to rehabilitative treatment in the Capital and Serious Violent Offender Program provided by the Texas Youth Commission. This group of juveniles was followed for three years following their release from institutionalization. This analysis revealed that 52% of those released were rearrested at least once during the follow-up period for any offense, while 48% of those released desisted from crime altogether. Of those 296 released, 34% were rearrested for at least one new felony offense. The analyses indicate that those involved in various forms of institutional misconduct during institutionalization were significantly more likely to recidivate. African-American race and institutional misconduct in the form of rule infractions emerged as the most consistent predictors of recidivism for this sample. This study concludes with a discussion of policy implications and risk assessment related to the decisions that are made to release this population of violent juvenile offenders.
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Life without Parole for Juvenile Offenders: Questions of Legality and Adolescent Culpability

Life without Parole for Juvenile Offenders: Questions of Legality and Adolescent Culpability

Date: August 2010
Creator: Corrington, David L.
Description: Life without parole for juvenile offenders is a controversial issue across the globe. Recently, the United States stands alone as the only country in the world that allows juvenile offenders to be sentenced to life time confinement without the possibility of parole. Furthermore, the U.S. has seen an increase in juvenile waivers and blended sentences, which has resulted in harsher penalties for juvenile offenders who have committed serious and violent crimes. This analysis examines scientific evidence that shows juveniles are different from adults in terms of brain development, rational decision making abilities, and maturity levels. These findings have questioned the reasoning behind imposing adult punishment on adolescent behavior. This analysis also presents the legal arguments suggesting that juvenile life without parole is unconstitutional and violates the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments. Arguments for and against life sentences were also presented. This study concludes with a discussion of policy implications, whether the U.S. Supreme Court should abolish juvenile life without parole sentencing practices and explores the possible future direction of juvenile sentencing in the United States.
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An unholy alliance: Case studies in narco-terrorism

An unholy alliance: Case studies in narco-terrorism

Date: August 2002
Creator: Cakir, Reha
Description: This study is designed both as a case study and a literature-based policy analysis to assist interested parties in gaining a better understanding of controversial “narco-terrorism” phenomenon. The objectives of this study are to show the existing connection between some terrorist organizations and drug trafficking to provide academic information about and explanations for terrorism and drug trafficking, to critically analyze the biases of many current narco-terrorism doctrines and to offer a comprehensive and neutral typology that elucidates all types of narco-terrorism. This thesis is presented in four parts. The first part includes an introduction to narco-terrorism and provides a historical background of drug dilemma and terrorism. A number of definitional and conceptual arguments constituting the backbone of the study are laid out in the second part of the study. Third part consists of case studies of three different insurgent groups. An analysis of the information uncovered and presented in previous chapters and a typology of narco-terrorism are provided in the last part. Thesis is concluded with recommendations in an attempt to inspire useful policies for individuals or institutions operating on the field.
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Community Policing Training Programs and Their Roles in Implementation of Community Policing

Community Policing Training Programs and Their Roles in Implementation of Community Policing

Date: August 2002
Creator: Demir, Cuneyt
Description: The main goal of this study is to indicate the importance of community policing training programs for implementation of community policing. Community policing requires a transition from traditional policing methods to proactive and problem-oriented policing which is constructed upon police-citizen partnership. For the successful implementation of community policing, the change process needs to be fully realized throughout the organization. Suitably appropriate methods of training will help both officers and citizens to fully understand the goals of community policing. This study focuses on the types of existing community training methods as well as the obstacles that complicate training efforts. Consequently, this study provides some recommendations on community policing training programs to make them more helpful for police departments.
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An Analysis of Adler's Theory and the Female Criminal

An Analysis of Adler's Theory and the Female Criminal

Date: August 2004
Creator: Armentrout, Elizabeth G.
Description: This research paper addressed the following question: Do select case studies conform to Dr. Freda Adler's theory regarding socio-economic influences on female criminal behavior or dispute her theory? My research involved three female criminals: Karla Faye Tucker, Andrea Yates, and Susan Smith. I addressed Adler's theory in detail, other theories, the makeup of the female criminal and various female crimes. This study provided evidence that all three case studies conform to Adler's theory. nIn accordance with Adler's theory, each of these three females committed crimes of accessibility. None of the three individuals sought to commit a premeditated act or to murder unknown victims. They were motivated by emotions arising at a point in time when access/opportunity presented itself.
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Taking Steps toward Recidivism Prevention: Examining the Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Juvenile Delinquency

Taking Steps toward Recidivism Prevention: Examining the Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Juvenile Delinquency

Date: May 2008
Creator: Cain, Stefanie A.
Description: Researchers within the criminal justice field have examined recidivism to discover effective methods to deter criminals from re-offending. Typically, incarceration provided specific deterrence for offenders but recidivism after release proved problematic. Using secondary data analysis, the present study evaluates a cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT] program, Reasoning and Rehabilitation, which the state of Colorado implemented in 1995 among juveniles on intensive probation. The original research team collected the data through pre- and post-questionnaires and interviews with probation officers. The pre- and post-test data are utilized to specifically analyze certain variables including self-control, empathy and problemsolving abilities. The focus of the present study is to determine the level of change in these particular variables as an outcome of completing the CBT program. This analysis also explores the value of CBT programs and examines how the programs alter an offender's level of selfcontrol, empathy and problem-solving abilities thus reducing recidivism after completion.
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A Matter of Due Process: An Examination of How State Mandated Accreditation has Impacted Texas Crime Laboratories

A Matter of Due Process: An Examination of How State Mandated Accreditation has Impacted Texas Crime Laboratories

Date: May 2008
Creator: DeLillo, Sandy Dawn
Description: Mandated accreditation of crime laboratories is a fairly new phenomenon. The state of Texas was the first to require that crime laboratories be accredited in order to be able to present evidence in a criminal proceeding. The laws that govern this are Texas House Bill 2703 and Texas House Bill 1068. The goal of this study is see how the enactment of these laws impacted crime laboratories. There are 42 crime laboratories that are accredited in the state of Texas. This study was conducted by the use of telephone survey interviews. Results indicated that mandated accreditation is a step in the right direction to ensure that objectivity is maintained during the processing and evaluation of physical evidence.
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Killing the one you love: Examining cases of intimate partner homicide occurring in Dallas, Texas between the years 1990-1997.

Killing the one you love: Examining cases of intimate partner homicide occurring in Dallas, Texas between the years 1990-1997.

Date: May 2009
Creator: Foster, Rebecca
Description: Research has consistently shown that intimate partner homicide (IPH) rates have been on a steady downward decline over the past two decades. A relatively recent movement in IPH research, however, has emphasized the need for further dissecting the aggregate trends by factors such as gender, race, and victim-offender relationship. In response to these issues, this study looks at the relationship between IPHs and factors such as gender, race, and age. The present study explores officially reported IPH cases in Dallas, Texas between the years 1990-1997. Specific attention will be paid to the victim's and suspect's age, race, and gender. The findings of the study will assist in identifying significant characteristics of these IPH incidents which may lead to a greater understanding of the types of relationships in which IPH is more likely to occur. Studying the relationship between IPHs and these factors, as this research aims to do, is important to understanding what IPH incident characteristics need more attention to help prevent future incidents from occurring. As a result of this research, a better understanding of whether IPH may occur in certain types of relationships will be reached and then can be further utilized to educate.
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Police Officer Burnout: An Examination of Officer Stress, the Policing Subculture and the Advantages of Family Counseling

Police Officer Burnout: An Examination of Officer Stress, the Policing Subculture and the Advantages of Family Counseling

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: December 2004
Creator: Yanez, Luiz
Description: The work of a police officer is stressful and could potentially lead to burnout. As a result, a variety of reactions may occur which include, cynicism, abuse of authority, and in extreme cases suicide. One method which has been proven to be effective in treating officer stress is counseling; however, because of the policing subculture the opportunity to seek counseling has been ignored. In order to successfully manage officer stress, the subculture must be dealt with. Additionally, the officers' family must also be acknowledged as being affected by officer burnout. Counseling services must be made available to the officer's family and through training they can become a source of support instead of an added source of stress to the officer.
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Responding to Child Sexual Abuse: Exploring the Case Files of Children Under the Age of 6 Admitted to a Children’s Advocacy Center for Evaluation

Responding to Child Sexual Abuse: Exploring the Case Files of Children Under the Age of 6 Admitted to a Children’s Advocacy Center for Evaluation

Date: August 2011
Creator: Glassner, Steven
Description: Research suggests that roughly 25% of women and 10% of men within the United States were sexually abused at some point during childhood. With such high rates of victimization affecting society, the current study explores a population of children under the age of 6 who were suspected of being sexually victimized and thus admitted to a children’s advocacy center (CAC) for evaluation. This investigation contributes to the literature concerning child sexual abuse (CSA) by exploring the characteristics of these alleged victims, the characteristics of their suspected offenders, the alleged victim’s familial demographics characteristics, and by looking at the data pertaining to the incarceration rates of the suspected offenders identified within the sample.
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"It's Technical": Exploring the Determinents to Technical Probation Revocations Among Felony Probationers

"It's Technical": Exploring the Determinents to Technical Probation Revocations Among Felony Probationers

Date: May 2011
Creator: Dixon, Ashford Leon
Description: Within the United States, probation has customarily been used as a way to divert offenders away from prison. Over the past two decades the number of offenders who are sentenced to probation has increased tremendously. While there have been more offenders sentenced to probation, there has also been an increase in the number of probationers having that sentence revoked. The most prevalent type of revocation is a technical revocation. Probationers receive technical violations culminating in a revocation when they fail to satisfy the conditions of their probation sentence such as attending rehabilitative programming. The present study adds to the literature on technical revocations by examining characteristics of felony probationers from a large Southern state who were revoked between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009. Findings revealed that female probationers, older probationers, white probationers, and those probationers who had not completed high school were significantly more likely to be revoked for a technical revocation. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research based on these findings are discussed.
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Foot and/or Bicycle Patrols in Major Texas Metropolitan Police Departments

Foot and/or Bicycle Patrols in Major Texas Metropolitan Police Departments

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Date: August 2006
Creator: Pavlik, Wayne Louis
Description: During the last 25 years in law enforcement in the United States, there has been a universal practice of foot and/or bicycle patrols used to accomplish the goal of police patrol enforcement and the philosophy of community policing in metropolitan areas. These tactics of patrol have also been used in police departments in and around the State of Texas. This report is a research project on six major metropolitan police departments in the State of Texas, analyzing their allocation of foot and/or bicycle patrol units within their urban cities. The study assesses their early history in using these two police tactics to address criminal activity and their progression from foot patrol to bicycle patrol. The findings of this research support the proposition that major Texas police departments have adopted the practices and philosophies of other major urban police departments around the US, by using foot and/or bicycle patrols in their cities. There is evidence that major Texas police departments were using foot patrol during the early 1980s in support of community policing and gradually phased out this practice in the early 1990s to adopt the new enforcement tactic of policing on a bicycle.
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Synthetic Cannabinoid Usage among College Students: The Example of K2 and Spice

Synthetic Cannabinoid Usage among College Students: The Example of K2 and Spice

Date: August 2011
Creator: Stephens, Jason L.
Description: The primary goal of this study was to investigate the awareness and prevalence of Spice and K2 usage among a population of college students, as well as the demographics of such users. The study also sought to determine whether or not students prefer these products over natural cannabis, in addition to examining the most popular methods of obtainment and the most commonly reported side effects of K2 and Spice usage. Participants consisted of 643 undergraduate students enrolled at the University of North Texas during the fall 2011 semester. Findings indicate that while students exhibit a relatively high awareness of K2 and Spice, usage of these products is not a prevalent occurrence. Implications of the findings are discussed.
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A Longitudinal Study of Juvenile Facility Directors' Job Satisfaction Levels in the United States

A Longitudinal Study of Juvenile Facility Directors' Job Satisfaction Levels in the United States

Date: August 2006
Creator: Skertich, Jonathan David
Description: This national study, focusing on job satisfaction within juvenile facility directors, was conducted by the means of a survey. The study is longitudinal in nature; the survey was conducted in 1995 and 2000. Other past studies have focused on line level employees, guards, and the juveniles, but few have concentrated on juvenile facility directors. Literature on directors is currently lacking, this continuous study will give a better ongoing perspective of their attitudes and beliefs. Findings from this particular study will help to address current concerns inside of the system, starting at the apex. The survey's goal is to correlate factors that have a direct impact on their job satisfaction. Results indicate that staff issues have a dramatic impact on a director's job satisfaction.
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An Analysis of Terrorist Recruitment by Observing DHKP/C (Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front) Terrorist Organization in Turkey

An Analysis of Terrorist Recruitment by Observing DHKP/C (Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front) Terrorist Organization in Turkey

Date: August 2004
Creator: Teymur, Samih
Description: Terrorism has been claimed to be a major problem by hundreds of thousands of people in the international arena for years. Either it has been very difficult to determine and understand the reasons for terrorism, or those reasons have never been studied because of the immediate threat of terrorism. This research analyzed the recruitment process of terrorists by studying the DHKP/C terrorist organization and by answering the following questions. The first is "What factors are correlated with joining a terrorist organization?" And the second is "What is the recruitment process of the DHKP/C?" IN the course of this research, I used specific reports written by DHKP/C members and personal experience to come to better understanding of the motivation behind terrorism and the process by which people are recruited in the terrorist organizations.
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Getting sober while incarcerated: An exploratory analysis of correctional substance abuse treatment programs

Getting sober while incarcerated: An exploratory analysis of correctional substance abuse treatment programs

Date: December 2007
Creator: Kimball, Bree A.
Description: Substance abuse is an expensive problem facing the American public and the criminal justice field. Using secondary data analysis this study examined 1,921 participants across five substance abuse programs within California and New York jail systems. Specifically this study explored the impact of location, demographic characteristics, offense committed, and previous drug treatment on successful completion of the treatment program. Descriptive analyses were used to examine the demographic characteristics of the sample and the types of drugs used by participants in the thirty days prior to jail admission. Results from bivariate analyses indicated that location, demographic characteristics, and previous drug treatment were all significantly related to successful completion. Implications for current correctional treatment programs and future research on this topic are discussed
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Problem-oriented approach to criminal investigation: implementation issues and challenges

Problem-oriented approach to criminal investigation: implementation issues and challenges

Date: August 2001
Creator: Ozeren, Suleyman
Description: As a proactive, information-based policing approach, problem-oriented policing emphasizes the use of crime analysis techniques in the analysis of the underlying causes of the problems that police deal with. In particular, analysis applications can be powerful tools for criminal investigation, such as crime reconstruction, profiling, IAFIS, VICAP, and CODIS. The SARA Model represents a problem-solving strategy of problemoriented policing. It aims to address the underlying causes of the problems and create substantial solutions. However, implementing problem-oriented policing requires a significant change in both the philosophy and structure of police agencies. Not only American policing but also the Turkish National Police should consider problem-oriented policing as an alternative approach for solving criminal activities.
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Transnational Organized Crime and Destabilization in Democracies, Russian Organized Crime as Case Study

Transnational Organized Crime and Destabilization in Democracies, Russian Organized Crime as Case Study

Date: August 2001
Creator: Yasar, Muhammet Murat
Description: Transnational organized crime has been prevalent during the last century, but it recently has been recognized as a threat to the world order. Governments throughout the world, along with the intergovernmental organizations identified this phenomenon as a new threat to domestic and international security. This paper attempts to explain the impacts of transnational organized crime on the functioning of democratic societies by adopting the Russian Organized Crime as case study. The descriptive research with regard to definition, scope and organization of transnational organized crime, along with the objectives, limitations and methodology of this research will be included in the first chapter. Recent trends observed in organized crime`s character and the impact of organized crime on the political economies of democratic regimes will be contained in the following chapters. Pre-conditions for a broader response to transnational organized crime and conclusive remarks will be the context of the last chapter.
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