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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Department: College of Education
The Effect of Self Concept and Various Conceptual and Physical Practice Methods Upon the Performance of a Selected Basketball Motor Skill
The problem investigated was the effect of various methods of conceptual, physical, and conceptual-physical practice procedures upon performance of the basketball motor skill of foul shooting. The sub-problem under investigation was the effect of self-concept upon the performance of foul shooting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279047/
A Comparison of the Desirability and Feasibility of Accountability Measures as Perceived by Public School Administrators and Teachers
This study had three main purposes. The first was to determine the perceptions of public school administrators toward desirability and toward feasibility of accountability items. The second was to determine the perceptions of public school teachers toward desirability and toward feasibility of accountability items. The third was to compare the perceptions of administrators with those of teachers and to indicate areas where they seemed to be in agreement or disagreement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279032/
The Relationship of Fifth-Grade Students' Self-Concepts and Attitudes toward Mathematics to Academic Achievement in Arithmetical Computation, Concepts, and Application
The purpose of this study was to determine the interrelationship of self-concept and attitude toward mathematics to academic achievement in the areas of arithmetical computation, concepts, and application. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278963/
The Predictive Validities, as Measured by Multiple Correlation, of Certain Mathematics Grades and a Test Battery Using Academic Achievement as Criteria
The problem of this study was to determine the predictive validities, as measured by multiple correlation, of certain mathematics course grades and the American College Test (ACT) battery when various achievement criteria were used. This study had a two-fold purpose: (1) to determine measures which could be used effectively to predict academic achievement in college mathematics, and (2) to determine whether the multiple correlation between selected predictors and each criterion were significant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278109/
Computer supported collaboration: Is the transfer of cognitive structures mediated by mode of communication?
The objective of this study was to observe evidence of structural transfer among subjects in a group problem-solving activity and determine whether mode of collaborative technology or use of a priming agent affected the nature of transferred structures. Evidence for structural transfer is found in three theoretical perspectives: organizational ditransitive (linguistic) verb structures, adaptive structuration theory, and mental model transfer theory. Dependent variables included various grammatical structures and coefficients derived from pretest and posttest scores on David Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory, modified for the experiment. The combination of changes in grammatical frequencies and learning style may suggest that one or more media or the priming agent may affect structural transfer. Results indicate that groups using the GroupSystems™ collaborative technology produced less overall linguistic content than did subjects using a generic chat system, but employed more complex language as indicated by frequency of the organizational ditransitive verb structure. Also, subjects supplied with an organization chart (priming agent) during the group problem-solving session experienced greater change on the learning styles inventory than did those participating in the session without the chart. These findings suggest that mode of communication and use of priming agents may contribute positively or negatively to the transfer of structures among group members. Researchers, collaborative system designers, organizational leaders, trainers & educators, and frequent collaborative technology system end-users should be aware of these potential affects. Suggestions for future research are provided. Relationship of theoretical foundations of structural transfer to constructivism is discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3162/
Mentoring the first-year superintendent in Texas public schools.
This study determined what mentoring experiences first-year superintendents have had and what they need from a mentoring relationship. Structured interviews and field notes were used in this qualitative study focused on Texas first-year superintendents' perceived needs from mentors. Three patterns of mentoring relationships were found: 1) no mentor in the first year, 2) mentor-protégé relationship - those who developed mentoring relationships early in a career with a more senior person in the same school system, and 3) mentoring relationships of convenience - young relationships which developed outside the same system. Skills and knowledge areas novice superintendents identified as critical for mentor assistance were school finance, development of effective relationships with groups that have expectations of the superintendent while also improving student achievement, and working within the politics of the position. Mentor characteristics novice superintendents considered necessary for a positive effect on job success include: trustworthiness, confidentiality, empathy, encouraging, active listening, and integrity. An attitude in which the mentor problem solved with the protégé, and did not give an immediate solution was displayed. Mentors actively and frequently initiated contact. Ideas were freely exchanged, giving the protégé undivided attention while not making the protégé feel inferior. The effects that previous mentoring experiences had on novice superintendents influenced whether they chose to mentor another person. Most reported seeking or engaged in a new mentoring relationship. Differences in areas where help was needed among first-year superintendents associated with district size were reported. Assistance in finance was needed regardless of district size, gender, or ethnicity. Superintendents in small districts reported needing assistance in specific skill and knowledge areas. Those in larger districts reported mentor assistance in problem-solving processes to accomplish a task. Differences in needs of first-year superintendents based on gender or ethnicity were identified but generalizations could not be made due to small numbers. Recommendations for university administrative preparation programs and designing formal mentoring programs were made. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc3127/
A History of Public Education in the Town of Islip, New York
The purposes of this study were, 1. To develop a documented history of the founding of the town of Islip. 2. To trace the development of public education within the town and to parallel this development with state-wide developments in the field. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164510/
A Study of Attitudes Held by Superintendents and Principals toward Career Education in Texas
The problem with which this investigation is concerned is to identify attitudes held by superintendents and principals in Texas public schools toward career education. Particular attention is given to the nature of career education and the development of career education from the management structure point of view. The emphasis of this study is determining what would be desirable in the planning and establishing of new directions and structures for career education in Texas public schools. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164545/
A Quantitative Description of Texas Public Junior College Boards of Trustees Meetings
The purposes of this study were (1) to describe through the technique of content analysis the board of trustees meeting in Texas public junior colleges, (2) to determine relationships which might exist between aspects of the board of trustees meeting and various characteristics of public junior colleges, and (3) to measure differences which might exist between board proceedings of junior colleges. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164547/
The Comparison of a Team/Group Dynamics Training Model with a Team/Traditional Training Model within Leadership Training Workshops
This study was conducted to compare two different approaches to leadership training workshops—a team/group dynamics training model with a team/traditional training model—with regard to the changes in tolerance, open-mindedness, flexibility, adaptability, and cooperativeness of the participants in the group dynamics model. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164507/
Levels of Questioning Used by Student Teachers and its Effect on Pupil Achievement and Critical Thinking Ability
The purposes of this study were: 1. To determine the effect of levels of questioning used on secondary public school students in social studies, as measured by (a) their achievement scores, and (b) their critical thinking ability; 2. To determine the effect of feedback to student teachers on their patterns of asking convergent and divergent questions, as measured by coding frequencies of each type on an Observation Schedule and Record form? 3. To draw conclusions from the findings--and develop implications concerning levels of questioning used by teachers and the use of feedback from college supervisors to student teachers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164567/
An Analysis of Economic Understanding and Values of High School Seniors in a Large Metropolitan School District
The problem of this study was to analyze the economic understanding and values of high school seniors in a large metropolitan school district. To attack the problem, three purposes were formulated. The first purpose was to determine if students enrolled in a one-semester, elective course in economics differed significantly in terms of economic understanding from students enrolled in a comparable non-economic social studies course. Another purpose was to determine if an already existing value orientation had some effect on a change in economic understanding. The final purpose was to see if a change in a particular value orientation was related to a change in economic understanding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164546/
The Development of a Theory of Sports Competitiveness
The purpose of this study was to construct a theory of sports competitiveness which would (1) contribute to a greater understanding of competitiveness as an aspect of human behavior affecting sports performance, and (2) serve as a source of hypotheses for experimental research and as a framework for interpretation of the results of experimental studies of competitiveness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164525/
Group Counseling Experience for Elementary Education Majors: Effects on Selected Personality Characteristics and Interrelationships Between Selected Counselor and Client Variables
The problem with which this study was concerned was twofold; the effect of group counseling experiences on elementary education majors, and the relationship between certain counselor and client variables. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164534/
A Study of House Bill 235 and Its Impact upon the Role of the High School Principal in Texas as Perceived by Selected Groups of Educators
The problem of this study was the investigation of the development of H.B. 235 and its impact upon the role of the high school principal in Texas, as perceived by high school principals, superintendents, and selected professors of educational administration. The purpose of the study was twofold. First, it analyzed the development and provisions of H.B. 235, and second, it tried to determine the impact of its implementation upon the role of the high school principal in Texas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164595/
The Impact of the Texas Cooperative Student Teaching Program, 1970-72
The problem of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of the cooperative agreement section of Senate Bill 8 and its impact on the student teaching program in Texas. The purposes of the study are (1) to analyze the data available from the Texas Education Agency concerning the cooperatively developed in-service improvement program for supervising teachers, (2) to survey the public school personnel charged with the responsibility of developing and implementing section three of Senate Bill 8 in order to determine the effectiveness of this bill, and (3) to interview college personnel who are involved in developing and implementing section three of Senate Bill 8. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164570/
A Study of Industrial Education Graduates and Non-Graduates of Texas Southern University with Implications for Curriculum Revision
The problem was a study of the School of Technology graduates and non-graduates of Texas Southern University with implications for curriculum revision. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164560/
A Study of Title III, Higher Education Act of 1965, and an Evaluation of Its Impact at Selected Predominantly Black Colleges
The purpose of this study was to describe the passage of the Higher Education Act of 1965, and to evaluate faculty development programs at selected black institutions in light of the objectives and guidelines established for the use of Title III funds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164518/
An Investigation of the Effect of Violating the Assumption of Homogeneity of Regression Slopes in the Analysis of Covariance Model upon the F-Statistic
The study seeks to determine the effect upon the F-statistic of violating the assumption of homogeneity of regression slopes in the one-way, fixed-effects analysis of covariance model. The study employs a Monte Carlo simulation technique to vary the degree of heterogeneity of regression slopes with varied sample sizes within experiments to determine the effect of such conditions. One hundred and eighty-three simulations were used. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164582/
The Effect of Film-Mediated Models on the Verbal Behavior and Selected Attitudinal Variables of Participants in Group Counseling
The main objective was to determine the effect of film-mediated models on the frequency of a specific quality of verbal responses which have been found to be indicative of high- levels of therapeutic movement in group counseling. Secondly, this study examined the effect of models on selected attitudes of group counseling participants toward interpersonal interactions reflective of the intense interaction involved in therapeutic movement in group counseling. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164516/
The Result of Differential Seating Arrangements upon Students' Anxiety Level, Acquaintance Volume, and Perceived Social Distance
The study was conducted to investigate the result of three differential seating arrangements in college classrooms on anxiety level, acquaintance volume, and perceived social distance among students. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164589/
Incidental and Intentional Learning of Economic Information in Beginning Typewriting
The problem in this study was to determine whether students enrolled in beginning typewriting who typed between fifteen and fifty-five words a minute would learn economic facts incidentally and intentionally through the typing of timed writings on the topic of economics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164596/
The Campus Ombudsman as Perceived by College and University Presidents, Vice-Presidents of Student Affairs, Study Body Presidents and Functioning Campus Ombudsmen
The purposes of this study are (1) to ascertain whether the implementation of a campus ombudsman is viewed differently by college and university presidents, vice-presidents of student affairs, and student body presidents, and (2) to determine whether the ombudsman concept itself is perceived differently by college and university presidents, vice-presidents of student affairs, student body presidents, and functioning campus ombudsmen. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164574/
An Analysis of Current Teacher Orientation Programs and Practices in Selected Texas Secondary Schools with Implications for Program Planning and Assessment
The problem with which this study deals is that of describing and analyzing current new teacher orientation programs and practices in selected Texas secondary schools. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164586/
A Study of the Generalization of the Effects of Group Systematic Desensitization of Test Anxiety on Co-Existent Anxiety in College Students
The problem of this study was to measure the generalization of the effects of group systematic desensitization of test anxiety on certain coexistent anxieties in college students. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164523/
A Survey of the Impact of Senate Bill 408 on a Selected Group of Texas Schools
The purposes of this study were (1) to review the development of SB 408, and (2) to analyze the impact of this action upon a selected group of public schools. The study involved a survey of the influence that provisions of SB 408 have had on the school program in terms of the following: (a) policy, (b) economy, (c) instructional program, and (d) management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164577/
The Impact of the Regional Education Service Centers on the Public School Superintendency in Texas
The problem of this study was to determine the impact of the Regional Education Service Centers on the public school superintendency in Texas and the desired future development of the centers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164563/
The Relative Effectiveness of Two Methodologies in the Development of Composition Skills in College Freshman English
The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of determining the relative effectiveness of the Christensen Rhetoric Program and of a traditional write-revise approach in freshman English composition classes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164572/
The Relationship of Selected Abilities to Gross Motor Performance of Educable Mentally Retarded Students
The problem of this study.was the relationship of selected abilities to gross motor performance of educable mentally retarded students at different chronological age levels. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164535/
A Differential Study of Reasons Why Students Drop Out of School as Related to Actual Dropout-preventive Practices of a Metropolitan School District
The problem of this study was the differentiation of high schools in a metropolitan school district from the standpoint of the measures taken to prevent student dropouts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164564/
A Comparison of Two Approaches Designed to Improve the Computational Skills of Pupils in Grades Five and Seven
The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the effect upon the arithmetic computation, concepts, and application skills of pupils when the regular instructional program in arithmetic at the fifth- and seventh-grade levels was supplemented with the Cyclo-Teacher (2) programmed materials; 2) to determine the effect upon the arithmetic computation, concepts, and application skills of pupils when the regular instructional program in arithmetic at the fifth- and seventh-grade levels was supplemented with the Mental Computation (6) materials. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164593/
The Role of the Principal in Open Plan Elementary Schools in Texas as Perceived by the Principals of theses Schools
The problem of this study was to analyze the role of the principal in open plan elementary schools in Texas. The analysis was limited to the principals' perception of their role in these schools. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164562/
Group Implosive Therapy in the Treatment of Test Anxiety
The purposes of the study were to: 1. Determine the level of test anxiety present, as measured by the Test Anxiety Questionnaire (TAQ), prior to treatment. 2. Develop an implosive therapy procedure to reduce test anxiety. 3. Administer implosive therapy to subjects in the experimental treatment group. 4. Determine the post-treatment level of test anxiety in the implosive therapy group, placebo-attention control group, and the no-treatment control group. 5. Determine if there were any significant differences in the test anxiety levels in the three groups on the post-treatment TAQ. 6. Investigate the results of a one month follow-up administration of the TAQ to determine the relative stability of test scores. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164542/
The Most Important Educational Problems Affecting the Growth of Elementary Schools of Texas, 1972
The problem with which this investigation is concerned is the identification of conditions, situations, and events that are important problems faced in the public elementary schools of Texas. Problems are categorized into sixteen areas: finance, desegregation and busing, school organization, school personnel, preschool and kindergarten, instructional improvement, reporting systems, pupil behavior, curriculum, in-service staff training, humanizing the schools, public relations, minority groups, migrant children, special education, and recent trends. The purpose of the study is to determine perceived importance of problems and to establish priorities of current issues from information obtained from education leaders of elementary schools. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164583/
The Image of Nursing and Job Satisfaction of United States Air Force Nurses
The problem of this investigation was concerned with ascertaining the image of nursing and job satisfaction of United States Air Force nurses as determined by the type of nursing education and the length of time in the service. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164598/
A National Survey to Analyze the Prevailing Approaches to Elementary School Guidance
The problem of this study was to analyze the prevailing approaches to elementary school guidance in the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164524/
A Program to Improve Choral Conducting Students' Ability to Detect Rhythmic Errors in Choral Rehearsal
The purposes of this study were (1) to develop and evaluate a self-instructional program designed to assist choral conducting students in improving their ability to detect rhythmic errors during rehearsal, (2) to analyze the data acquired from a pre-test, a mid-test, and a post-test given in connection with the evaluation of the program, and (3) to determine the relationship of initial error detection ability, and gains in error detection ability, and each of several variables representing prior conditions which might be expected to affect an individuals error detection ability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164533/
The effect of leadership training on manufacturing productivity of informal leaders
The purpose of this study was to determine if leadership training, given to informal leaders, had a positive effect on manufacturing productivity. The leadership attributes of informal leaders were assessed using the Leader Attributes Inventory (LAI). Furthermore, the performance of informal leaders was measured using the Leader Effectiveness Index (LEI). Non-management employees from various departments in a manufacturing facility were placed in one of four experimental groups. A Solomon four-group experimental design was employed. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used to control threats to internal validity. The one-way analysis of variance procedure (ANOVA) was used to determine if there were statistically significant increases in manufacturing productivity of informal leaders. Findings suggested that training increased the manufacturing productivity of informal leaders. The increased productivity indicated that leadership training could help manufacturing facilities increase their productivity without capital expenditures. Findings did not indicate a statistically significant difference in leadership attributes. Findings also suggested there were no significant differences in the manufacturing productivity between employees with high leader attributes and low leader attributes. Based on this study, leadership training, given to non-management employees, may yield gains in manufacturing productivity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc2715/
Level of Manifest Anxiety as a Predictor of Attitude Change Through Group Vocational Counseling
This study was conducted to compare changes in self-concept and dogmatism among high school subjects at three levels of manifest anxiety following group vocational counseling. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277628/
Student, Parent, and Teacher Perception of College Environments
The problem of this investigation was to compare the perceptions of college environments held by college-bound high school seniors, their teachers, and their parents, from a specified geographical area with the perceptions of students actually experiencing the environments represented by these campuses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278775/
Educators' technology level of use and methods for learning technology integrations.
The purpose of this study was to describe technology learning methods that teachers attend and perceive as effective. The goal was to provide district personnel data that may be utilized when planning for more effective technology staff development. This study examined (1) the methods of learning instructional technology that are being utilized by teachers and administrators and (2) why these methods are being utilized in two Texas school districts. Data was collected from educators via an online survey consisting of demographics, technology training methods, level of technology use (CBAM 1 item), stages of adoption and technology level of use (LoTi, 50-item). Educators with different technology levels of use (high, low) differed on their perceptions and utilization of technology training methods. Specifically, educators with different technology levels of use differed in their perceptions of independent online help, and learning through trial and error technology training methods. Results from the study showed that educators tended to use the technology training method that they perceived as most effective. Educators tended to utilize learning by trial and error, peer support, and technology personnel support the most frequently for learning technology integration Educators' in the study had varying technology levels of use based on their educator categories. Administrators tended to score much higher than both elementary and secondary teachers on their technology levels of use. Participants gave a variety of reasons for utilizing certain technology training methods most frequently. The most popular reason was that the method fit into their time schedule followed by the location of the training. The least given reason was that it was the best method for learning the technology skill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4325/
Impact of Absent Father-Figures on Male Subjects and the Correlation to Juvenile Delinquency: Findings and Implications
This study was predicated on the belief that a father brings something unique to the family, thus, making irreplaceable contributions to the life of a child. Fathers are unique in that they provide something different from mothers. They are irreplaceable because when they are absent, children are said to suffer emotionally, intellectually, socially, and behaviorally. The contributions of fathers to a child's well being cannot be fully replaced by better programming, ensuring child support programs, or even by well-intentioned mentoring programs. A review of literature relevant to delinquency and adolescent behavioral and academic success revealed that there may be a correlation between a male role-model and the teaching of self-control and socially appropriate behaviors. Indeed, much of what the large body of research pertaining to fatherhood reveals is that, compared to children raised in two-parent homes, children who grow up without their fathers have significantly worse outcomes, on average, on almost every measure of well being (Horn, 2002). In addition, an understanding of the factors that may influence delinquent behaviors, in particular within the family unit, can better equip parents and educators to support those who may be exhibiting the beginning signs of delinquent behavior. This study was designed to determine the influence of, or correlation between, juvenile delinquency and the presence or absence of a father-figure in a child's life. Responses made on the Delinquency Check List between two sample sets, delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents, were examined. The study attempted to determine if delinquent activity among adolescents was differentiated by the absence or presence of a father-figure in a child's life. This study also investigated the frequency and severity of delinquent activities between adolescents in the determined sample groups. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4332/
A Comparison of IRT and Rasch Procedures in a Mixed-Item Format Test
This study investigated the effects of test length (10, 20 and 30 items), scoring schema (proportion of dichotomous ad polytomous scoring) and item analysis model (IRT and Rasch) on the ability estimates, test information levels and optimization criteria of mixed item format tests. Polytomous item responses to 30 items for 1000 examinees were simulated using the generalized partial-credit model and SAS software. Portions of the data were re-coded dichotomously over 11 structured proportions to create 33 sets of test responses including mixed item format tests. MULTILOG software was used to calculate the examinee ability estimates, standard errors, item and test information, reliability and fit indices. A comparison of IRT and Rasch item analysis procedures was made using SPSS software across ability estimates and standard errors of ability estimates using a 3 x 11 x 2 fixed factorial ANOVA. Effect sizes and power were reported for each procedure. Scheffe post hoc procedures were conducted on significant factos. Test information was analyzed and compared across the range of ability levels for all 66-design combinations. The results indicated that both test length and the proportion of items scored polytomously had a significant impact on the amount of test information produced by mixed item format tests. Generally, tests with 100% of the items scored polytomously produced the highest overall information. This seemed to be especially true for examinees with lower ability estimates. Optimality comparisons were made between IRT and Rasch procedures based on standard error rates for the ability estimates, marginal reliabilities and fit indices (-2LL). The only significant differences reported involved the standard error rates for both the IRT and Rasch procedures. This result must be viewed in light of the fact that the effect size reported was negligible. Optimality was found to be highest when longer tests and higher proportions of polytomous scoring were applied. Some indications were given that IRT procedures may produce slightly improved results in gathering available test information. Overall, significant differences were not found between the IRT and Rasch procedures when analyzing the mixed item format tests. Further research should be conducted in the areas of test difficulty, examinee test scores, and automated partial-credit scoring along with a comparison to other traditional psychometric measures and how they address challenges related to the mixed item format tests. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4316/
Presidents' Leadership Behaviors Associated with Followers' Job Satisfaction, Motivation Toward Extra Effort, and Presidential Effecitveness at Evangelical Colleges and Universities
Transformational leaders have tendencies that include: 1) projecting confidence and optimism about goals and followers' ability, 2) providing a clear vision, 3) encouraging creativity through empowerment and rewarding experimentation, 4) setting high expectations and creating a supportive environment, and 5) establishing personal relationships with followers. Transactional leadership as a process in which leaders and followers decide on goals and how to achieve them through a mutual exchange. The leader provides followers with resources, rewards, and punishment in order to achieve motivation, productivity, and effective task accomplishment. Laissez-faire leadership is the process of letting followers work without direction or guidance from the leader. The laissez-faire leader avoids providing direction and support, shows a lack of active involvement in follower activity, and abdicates responsibilities by maintaining a line of separation between the leader and the followers. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the assumption that a combination of transformational and transactional leadership factors is more predictive of greater followers' job satisfaction, motivation toward extra effort, and perceived presidential effectiveness than either leadership style alone. The study investigated perceptions of the degree to which transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and laissez-faire leadership were practiced by presidents of member colleges and universities in the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU). In addition, the study considered whether some combination of transformational and transactional behaviors is more predictive of job satisfaction, motivation toward extra effort, and perceived presidential effectiveness than either transformational or transactional leadership alone. The independent variables in the study included the transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership behaviors of the college and university presidents and the dependent variables were job satisfaction, motivation toward extra effort, and perceived presidential effectiveness. This study points to specific behaviors that are predictive of job satisfaction, motivation toward extra effort, and perceived presidential effectiveness. By combining the behaviors identified as transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership behaviors, this study determines specifically which behaviors are predictive of the three dependent variables. By combining the transformational leadership behaviors of Attributed Charisma and Individual Consideration with the transactional leadership behavior of Contingent Reward, leaders may develop leadership styles that are more satisfying, motivating, and effective for followers than solely using the transformational model of leadership. Followers indicate that they are more satisfied and motivated by leaders who possess great energy, high levels of self-confidence, strong beliefs and ideals, are assertive, have the ability to make followers feel more confident, who create greater personal confidence within their followers, and who use positive reward systems to affirm desired behavior. This information provides empirical data to support the concept that a combination of charisma, personal consideration, and a reward system may increase follower's job satisfaction, motivation toward extra effort, and perceptions of leaders' effectiveness better than transformational leadership behaviors alone. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4377/
Analysis of special education compliance and special education funding in four Texas open-enrollment charter schools.
The purpose of this study was to conduct an in-depth examination of special education services in open-enrollment charter schools in north Texas and to examine relationships between special education compliance and funding. Six questions guided the research: How have the charter schools designed special education services, and do these services meet individual needs of students with disabilities? Have federal education and disability laws affected charter schools' admissions, operations, or student performance ratings? What were the levels of special education funding and compliance with federal and state regulations? Is there a relationship between special education funding and special education compliance with rules and regulations? Studies at the national and state levels have frequently been conducted in the form of surveys, and provide only preliminary information about the status of special education in charter schools. There is a paucity of case specific information about the management and delivery of special education services in open-enrollment charter schools. A within-case study research design was used for this investigation utilizing qualitative methods of structured open-ended interviews, observations at the schools, and document analysis. Administrators at four open-enrollment charter schools were interviewed to gather data for this multi-case study. The data supported the hypotheses related to special education services in open-enrollment charter schools. The schools in this study provided special education services with an inclusion model for the first two years. In their first years of operation, charter schools face challenges of small budgets, few if any special education students, and difficulty finding special education teachers and other staff. In the third year and beyond, the schools were able to add special education services and staff and were more stable in terms of budget and operations. For the time period analyzed, special education costs exceeded special education funding. Compliance with special education regulations was relatively high as services were provided to students with mild disabilities with a high commitment to individualized instruction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4394/
The impact of alternative school intervention on subsequent student performance in the mainstream school environment.
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The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of alternative school intervention on subsequent student performance. The literature review examined the history and development of alternative schools, the legislation pertaining to alternative schools, and related studies. The population consisted of students placed in the discipline alternative education program (DAEP) of an alternative school located in a large suburban school district in north Texas. Students placed in DAEP in the spring semester of 2001 in grades 7, 8, 9, and 10 were included in the sample. Data on student success was gathered for the one semester prior to placement (pre-intervention) and for the two semesters after placement (post-intervention). Student success was measured in terms of course grade averages and attendance. The student sample was divided into the following subgroups: grade level, sex, ethnicity, and qualification for the school meal program. The students' grade averages were compared within the subgroups utilizing a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Tukey's post hoc comparison was utilized on the groups when ANOVA was found to be significant. The students' attendance was analyzed by comparing the proportion of days attended in each of the three semesters included in the study. A normal test of two independent means was conducted on the attendance proportions. The results of the study indicated the following significant findings (p <. 05): the eighth-grade students' grade averages were significantly lower in the second post-treatment semester, the 7th-grade students had lower attendance in the first post-treatment semester, the 8th-grade students had lower attendance in the second post-treatment semester, and the 10th-grade students had higher attendance in the first post-intervention semester. The female students' attendance was higher in both post-intervention semesters and significantly higher in the second. A discussion of the dropout rate for this group and recidivism to DAEP was included. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4367/
The impact of computer assisted instruction on sensory cognitive factors in literacy learning.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of computer assisted instruction on the development of literacy skills. The effect of instructional methodologies designed to stimulate sensory processing (auditory, visual, and somatic sensory) through information processing activities was analyzed. A software program was designed to present instruction to stimulate learning in one sensory modality, visual processing. Also, the effect of delivery mechanisms on the acquisition of literacy skills was investigated. Three treatment groups and a control group were established to analyze differences: cognitive processing methodologies presented via computer technology, conventional methodologies presented via computer technology, cognitive processing methodologies presented through traditional classroom tools, and a control group. A portable keyboard computer with word processing capabilities was selected to deliver technology-enhanced instruction. Results from this study suggest that activities designed to specifically promote processing in one sensory modality, do not promote acquisition of skills in other regions. There was no change in scores when visual methodologies were applied to auditory and somatic sensory cognitive processing goals. When spelling tests that utilized all sensory modalities were analyzed, visual processing instruction had no effect on achievement. This result was duplicated when tests requiring auditory processing skills were examined. However, when visual processing skills were applied to words requiring sight word memorization techniques, the methodologies improved achievement scores. Therefore, it can be concluded that methodologies increase achievement only if activities are designed to stimulate the sensory cognitive modality that the skill requires. Results of analysis concerning the effect of delivery mechanisms on spelling achievement revealed that technology is a useful tool when used to promote information processing related to the learning goal. Visual cognitive processing activities delivered via computer technology were effective only when practice activities matched instructional objectives. When conventional methods of learning spelling skills were presented utilizing technology, student scores did not increase. It can be concluded that spelling achievement can be improved through the introduction of intelligent software applications if the instructional program is designed to stimulate appropriate cognitive processes and to meet targeted learning objectives. A theory for designing instructional software to meet these criteria, The Integrated Processes Method, was presented. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4380/
Candidates' perception of training and self-efficacy in traditional and alternative teacher preparation programs.
This research was encouraged by the tremendous demand for teachers. Two million new teachers will be needed in the United States over the next decade. The teacher shortage has school administration, school boards, education agencies, and institutions of higher education investigating how to train and retain more teachers. Alternative certification programs have been developed to address the teacher shortage. This study examined the effectiveness of traditionally and alternatively certified teachers in two separate programs with regard to their self-efficacy, perception of their training, and their ExCET scores. Traditional candidates (10) and alternative candidates (74) were examined using survey research. According to this data on self-efficacy, perception of training, and ExCET passing rates, there is no significant difference between those teachers who receive traditional training and those who are trained in alternative certification programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4173/
Student preferences in screen design factors for Internet delivered college courses.
Colleges and universities throughout the world are offering many of their courses via the Internet. Some institutions offer entire degrees online. This has ushered in a renewed interest in the debate on the effectiveness of non-traditional course delivery method. Numerous educational research studies have been conducted in an attempt to quantify that effectiveness. In any form of experimental research, control of variables is paramount. The rich multimedia capabilities of the World Wide Web give educators a wide variety of delivery media. However, with the exception of advice from artisans on design factors of the media, little research has been conducted with regard to the aesthetics of Web page design as viewed by the student. This study was conducted in an effort to establish student preferences with regard to two factors of Web page design as they might be used on those Web pages, background color and typeface used for text. In addition, it contains an analysis of whether or not there is an interaction between the two factors. Use of the results of this study should prove beneficial to both educators and educational researchers in their future endeavors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4190/
Megatrends in Higher Education
Utilizing the theory of John Naisbitt's 1982 Megatrends, this study identifies eight trends for the future of higher education using content analysis of generalized print media reports for three bell-wether states. For the period of 2001-2005, generalized reporting for three newspapers, the Los Angeles Times from Los Angeles, CA, the Miami Herald from Miami, FL, and the Denver Post from Denver, CO, included over four thousand articles and covered 21 primary topics and over 200 secondary topics. Eight trends emerge from the content analysis. Trend 1, from the ivory tower to the public domain, identifies increasingly critical public scrutiny of higher education standards and curricula. Fight or flight, Trend 2, reveals more consistent no-tolerance policies for student behavior. Trend 3, scholar to celebrity, reveals an increasingly public role for university presidents. Academic freedom to academic flexibility, Trend 4, identifies a tightening of academic freedom policies for university staff and faculty. Trend 5, pay now, learn later, focuses on increased popularity of pre-paid and tax free plans for saving college tuition. Fraternity party to fraternity accountability, Trend 6, identifies increased scrutiny of Greek organizations and Greek life within the university environment. Trend 7, tenure to temporary, reflects the growing trend of hiring more part-time faculty rather than hiring faculty for tenure track positions or full-time instructor jobs. Lastly, campus to cyberspace, Trend 8, identifies the continued success of online instruction at the university level. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9028/
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