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 Degree Discipline: Counseling Psychology
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Athletic Trainers and Psychological Disorders Among Athletes: An Examination of Their Abilities to Recognize, Diagnose and Intervene.

Athletic Trainers and Psychological Disorders Among Athletes: An Examination of Their Abilities to Recognize, Diagnose and Intervene.

Date: December 2006
Creator: Albinson, Courtney Brooks
Description: Utilizing an analogue research design conducted via the Internet, this study assessed athletic trainers' abilities to recognize, diagnose, and intervene with a hypothetical athlete experiencing depression, and examined the impact of their gender, athlete gender, and athlete's presenting problem on their decisions. Athletic trainers' perceived competency in using psychosocial interventions with athletes, history of referring athletes to psychology professionals, and training backgrounds in psychology also were examined. Participants (270 male and 370 female certified athletic trainers) were randomly assigned to one of six conditions (Athlete Gender X Presenting Problem). After reading the appropriate vignette, they completed questions related to the athlete's psychological symptoms and diagnosis, referral recommendations, and use of psychosocial interventions if working with the athlete. The vignettes were identical except for the athlete's gender and problem. Overall, athletic trainers accurately identified the athlete's depressive symptoms/diagnosis and need for psychological referral. They rated the athlete significantly higher in Depressive Symptoms than in Anger/Agitation Symptoms and Compulsive Behavioral Symptoms, and as more likely to be experiencing a depressive disorder compared to an adjustment disorder, anxiety disorder, sleep disorder, or substance abuse disorder. Female athletic trainers provided significantly higher ratings of Depressive Symptoms than males and the injured athlete was rated ...
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Attachment Processes, Stress Processes, and Sociocultural Standards in the Development of Eating Disturbances in College Women

Attachment Processes, Stress Processes, and Sociocultural Standards in the Development of Eating Disturbances in College Women

Date: December 2006
Creator: Bradford, Jennifer Wolf
Description: Minimal empirical research using longitudinal data to explore integrative models of eating disorder development exists. The purpose of this study was to further explore multidimensional models incorporating parental attachment, history of stress, appraisal/coping processes, internalization of the thin-ideal, negative affect, body image, and eating disordered behavior using prospective, longitudinal data. The models were evaluated using 238 participants who completed an initial series of self-report questionnaires during their first semester in college and completed follow-up questionnaires 6 months and 18 months later. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships among the factors. Analyses confirmed that college freshman with insecure parental attachment relationships and those with a history of previous stressful experiences appraised the adjustment to college as more stressful and reported feeling less able to cope with the transition; these conditions predicted increased negative affect and increased eating disturbances. Women who reported experiencing negative affect and those that endorsed internalization of the thin-ideal also reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction; these women engaged in more disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. A second model investigating negative affect as mediating the relationship between the appraisal/coping process and eating disturbances also revealed that experiencing difficulties with the transition to college predicted later ...
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Family Influences on Young Adult Career Development and Aspirations

Family Influences on Young Adult Career Development and Aspirations

Date: December 2006
Creator: Bergen, Rebecca June-Schapeler
Description: The purpose of this study was to examine family influences on career development and aspirations of young adults. Theories and research have examined the influence parents have on children's career development, but because of the multiple factors that influence career choices, understanding the family's influence is complex. The current study utilized ideas from self-determination, attachment, and career development theories to develop a framework for understanding how families influence young adult career development and aspirations. Rather than directly influencing career decisions, the family was proposed to influence processes within individuals that directly influence successful career development. This study used hierarchical regression analyses to test whether different aspects of family relationships and the family environment affect processes within young people, which in turn influence career development. A sample of 99 female and 34 male undergraduate students between 18 and 20 (mean age 18.67) completed questionnaires. Results support the idea that different aspects of the family influence diverse factors of career development and future aspirations. The achievement orientation of the family was predictive of career salience and extrinsic aspirations. Conflict with mothers was predictive of career salience, yet support and depth in the relationship with mothers and low amounts of conflict in the ...
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Marital satisfaction among newly married couples: Associations with religiosity and romantic attachment style.

Marital satisfaction among newly married couples: Associations with religiosity and romantic attachment style.

Date: December 2006
Creator: Haseley, Jamie L.
Description: The marriage and family literature has identified a host of factors that contribute to a satisfactory marital union. For example, research on religious congruency has indicated that the more similar partners are in their religious beliefs the higher their reported marital satisfaction. Another construct studied in conjunction with marital satisfaction is adult attachment style. The attachment literature has consistently shown that secure couples tend to report higher marital satisfaction than couples with at least one insecure partner. The purpose of this study was to examine the combined role of religious commitment and attachment in marital satisfaction. Heterosexual couples (N = 184; 92 husbands, 92 wives) without children and married 1-5 years were administered a background information questionnaire, the Religious Commitment Inventory-10, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory. Results indicated that couples with congruent religious commitment reported higher marital satisfaction than couples with large discrepancies in religious commitment. Religious commitment did not mediate the relationship between attachment and marital satisfaction, but instead was found to moderate this relationship. Results of this study will benefit clinicians working in the field to help newly married couples negotiate the marital relationship.
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Caregiving Style in Diverse Samples of Caregivers.

Caregiving Style in Diverse Samples of Caregivers.

Date: August 2006
Creator: King, Jennifer Kay
Description: With three homogenous caregiver groups (i.e., Alzheimer's caregivers, grandparents raising grandchildren, parents), caregiving styles were explored to determine their reliability and validity, their unique role in predicting caregiver outcomes, and their differences between groups of caregivers. A conceptual framework was adapted to determine the impact of contextual variables, caregiving styles, caregiver appraisal, and mediating variables on caregiving outcomes. A more concise version of the Caregiving Style Scale (CSS) was developed with 49 items yielding an internal consistency coefficient of .74. As expected, three caregiving styles emerged and were positively related to the parallel parenting styles. Across the caregiver samples, there were positive relationships among caregiving style dimensions within the same caregiving style, while those from opposing caregiving styles tended to have negative relationships indicating good convergent and discriminant validity. Authoritative caregiving style dimensions were generally associated with healthier functioning, while authoritarian and permissive caregiving style dimensions were correlated with less healthy functioning. Caregiving style dimensions were among the predictors of several outcome measures, highlighting the importance of their placement in the conceptual framework for caregiver stress and coping. Generally, an unexpected finding was that authoritative caregiving style dimensions tended to predict less adaptive caregiving outcomes, particularly for parents and grandparents, ...
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Effects of Partner Violence and Psychological Abuse on Women's Mental Health Over Time.

Effects of Partner Violence and Psychological Abuse on Women's Mental Health Over Time.

Date: August 2006
Creator: Temple, Jeff R.
Description: This study examined the distinct effects of partner violence and psychological abuse on women's mental health over time. Latent growth modeling was used to examine stability and change over time, evaluating the course and consequences of each form of abuse. The size of women's social support network was examined as a mediator. The sample consisted of 835 African American, Euro-American, and Mexican American low-income women. Participants who completed Waves 1, 2, 3, and 5 were included in the study (n = 585). In general, partner violence decreased over time for all groups, while psychological abuse decreased over time for only Euro-American women. Whereas initial and prolonged exposure to psychological abuse was related to and directly impacted women's mental health, partner violence was only related to initial levels of mental health. Surprisingly, social support was only related to initial violence and distress and had no impact on the rate of change over time. These results have important implications for researchers and health care professionals. First, differences in the pattern of results were found for each ethnic group, reaffirming the notion that counselors and researchers must be sensitive to multicultural concerns in both assessment and intervention. For example, psychological abuse had a ...
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Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Brain Function as Measured by Quantitative EEG, Neuropsychological, and Psychological Tests

Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Brain Function as Measured by Quantitative EEG, Neuropsychological, and Psychological Tests

Date: August 2005
Creator: Black, Lisa Myers
Description: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been the subject of much recent controversy as a result of Rind, Tromovitch and Bauserman's (1998) meta-analytic examination of CSA, which found a weak relationship between CSA and self-reported psychopathology in college samples. There have been few studies of CSA which look beyond self-report. The present study is an exploration of the relationships between CSA, quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG), neuropsychological, and psychological measurements in 24 high-functioning, unmedicated CSA adults who were matched for age, gender, and handedness with a group of adults without CSA (NCSA). The objectives of this study were to: 1) examine EEG abnormalities associated with CSA, 2) investigate QEEG cortical coherence in the groups using neuroelectric Eigen image (NEI) connectivity indices (Hudspeth, 1999), 3) integrate personality differences associated with CSA with EEG differences, and 4) better understand left versus right hemisphere functioning in CSA using intelligence testing. An examination of QEEG cortical coherence revealed moderate to large effect sizes indicating patterns of decreased connectivity between brain regions on the right frontally in the delta band, and frontally and centro-temporally on the right in the alpha band, and posteriorly in the alpha and beta bands, as well as in the cross-correlation; increased connectivity between ...
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Emotional Intelligence at Mid Life: A Cross Sectional Investigation of Structural Variance, Social Correlates, and Relationship to Established Personality and Ability Taxonomies

Emotional Intelligence at Mid Life: A Cross Sectional Investigation of Structural Variance, Social Correlates, and Relationship to Established Personality and Ability Taxonomies

Date: August 2005
Creator: Chapman, Benjamin P.
Description: Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been relatively unstudied after young adulthood. Yet there are a variety of reasons to expect that EI may be different at mid life than in young adulthood. Normative life experiences may lead to increases in EI, and as the array of different environments and experiences increases with age, one might expect greater individual differences in EI. Similarly, if EI is located somewhere at the intersection of personality and intelligence, as some have speculated, it may follow a course of structural differentiation similar to cognitive abilities. EI may be more closely linked to social variables such as loneliness and friendships at mid life, and its relation to established personality and ability factors such as the Big Five (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) and fluid and crystallized abilities may also vary with age. These hypotheses were investigated in samples of 292 young adults and 246 mid life adults, using the Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Inventory, the NEO-Five Factor Personality Inventory, markers of crystallized and fluid ability from Horn's Crystallized/Fluid Sampler, and a variety of other measures. Mid life adults scored higher on overall EI scores, but evidenced no greater range of individual differences than did young ...
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Identity development across the lifespan.

Identity development across the lifespan.

Date: August 2005
Creator: Louden, Linda L.
Description: In an extension of Louden's work, this study investigated identity development across the lifespan by applying Erickson's and Marcia's identity constructs to two developmental models, the selective optimization and compensation model and a holistic wellness model. Data was gathered from traditionally aged college freshmen and adults older than 60 years of age. Uncommitted identity statuses and work and leisure wellness domains were endorsed across both groups, suggesting that identity for these groups is in a state of fluctuation yet entailing participation as a productive member of society. Emerging adult findings imply that identity diffused and moratorium identity styles are more similar in terms of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional functioning than past literature suggests for this age group. Findings also indicate that identity development is not a process completed by older adulthood, but is an ongoing, lifelong process perhaps driven by contextual factors such as health changes, unpredictable life events, social support group changes, and others. Coping method utilization and overall wellness varied between the two age groups. Conceptually, the SOC model can be viewed as embedded within each of the wellness domains such that selection, optimization, and compensation activities may be carried out within each of the various domains and ...
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Religiosity and spirituality in younger and older adults.

Religiosity and spirituality in younger and older adults.

Date: August 2005
Creator: Clarke, Shailagh
Description: The present study examined the use of MacDonald's Expressions of Spirituality instrument with a younger and older adult sample. Specifically, MacDonald's proposed five factor model was assessed for fit with a sample of college age participants as well as a sample of adults over the age of 65. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the fit of this model with samples, and this was followed by an exploratory factor analysis, and the results were considered in light of measurement equivalence and the definitions of the constructs of religiosity and spirituality. Further analyses examined levels of religiousness as well as relationships between religiousness/spirituality and potential correlates, such as postformal thinking, life events including changes and losses, emotional and physical well-being, and family upbringing, comparing young and older adult samples. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis revealed a solution with a better fit than MacDonald's model for both younger and older adults. While the number of factors were the same for both samples, item loadings and cross-loadings differed between the younger and older adult samples. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a four factor solution, with religiousness and spirituality items loading onto one factor. With regard to measurement equivalence, findings appear to ...
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Age and Responses to the Events of September 11, 2001

Age and Responses to the Events of September 11, 2001

Date: December 2004
Creator: Holmes, D. Nicole
Description: Following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, many turned to the field of psychology for greater understanding of the impact of such events and guidance in supporting our citizens. This study sought to gain greater understanding of the differential impact of the September 11th attack on individuals by investigating the influence of age, psychological hardiness, and repression versus sensitization as forms of coping behavior on psychological health. Both an initial cross-sectional sample (172 young adults & 231older adults) and a short-term longitudinal follow-up (39 young adults & 58 older adults) were included in the study. Older age, psychological hardiness and the use of a repressing coping style were found to each individually relate to greater resilience/less dysfunction at both time one and two. For young adults, high hardy repressors faired best, followed by high hardy sensitizers. Low hardy young adults demonstrated similar levels of dysfunction regardless of coping style (repressions/sensitization). For older adults, coping style impacted both high and low hardy individuals equally, with high hardy repressors demonstrating greater functioning. This study attempted to gain greater insight into explanations for these and previous findings of greater resilience among older adults. In explaining the greater resilience ...
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Examining parenting outcomes of childhood sexual abuse survivors utilizing observation and self-report methods.

Examining parenting outcomes of childhood sexual abuse survivors utilizing observation and self-report methods.

Date: August 2004
Creator: Kallstrom-Fuqua, Amanda C.
Description: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with negative outcomes in adulthood, including difficulty in relationships. Research has posited CSA may lead to insecure attachment in survivors, which may be the vehicle by which dysfunctional parent-child relationships develop. The purpose of the proposed study was to examine differences in parenting outcomes between CSA and non-CSA mothers utilizing both observational and self-report methods and to examine the unique impact of CSA on parenting attitudes. Abuse status was determined by scores on the Sexual Abuse subscale of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), with the CSA group comprised of mothers scoring in the moderate to severe range. Mothers self-reported parenting attitudes on the Parent-Parental Acceptance Rejection Questionnaire/Control (P-PARQ/Control) and the Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2 (AAPI-2), while parental depression was assessed with the revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-2). Parenting behaviors were observed by coding the Parent-Child Interaction Assessment (PCIA). Hypotheses were not supported until child gender was considered as a third variable. Results of MANCOVA analyses indicated CSA mothers, but not comparison mothers, exhibited significantly poorer limit-setting skills (h² = .21) with male children compared to female children, but did not self-report these differences. Although not statistically significant, small but potentially meaningful effect sizes were ...
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Gender Differences in Child, Parent, and Teacher Perception of Social Functioning Among Children With ADHD

Gender Differences in Child, Parent, and Teacher Perception of Social Functioning Among Children With ADHD

Date: August 2004
Creator: Tureau, Corinne C. S.
Description: Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) tend to experience social functioning problems, with girls more likely to encounter peer rejection than boys. The present study investigated gender differences in child, parent, and teacher perceptions of social functioning among ADHD and control children. Participants included 119 children (ages 6-11) and their parents. Sixty-one children were previously diagnosed with ADHD. Parents, teachers, and children completed measures assessing the child's social functioning. The results indicate that the relationship between ADHD status and social functioning differs as a function of rater. Teachers and parents reported that ADHD children had lower social functioning than controls, while ADHD and control children reported similar levels of social functioning. Gender differences were found on the child self-report, with girls reporting lower social functioning than boys. In ADHD children the relationship between social functioning and comorbid depression differed as a function of rater. Specifically, among ADHD children with depression, parents rated children as having lower social functioning than did children or teachers. In ADHD children without comorbid depression, however, there were no rater differences. Additionally, no rater differences in social functioning were found between ADHD children with and without a comorbid psychiatric condition. Overall, the results of the ...
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The Impact of Downsizing on Survivors' Career Development: A Test of Super's Theory

The Impact of Downsizing on Survivors' Career Development: A Test of Super's Theory

Date: August 2004
Creator: Lahner, Jessica M.
Description: The present study compared the career development concerns and other vocationally relevant variables of employees of organizations who have and have not engaged in downsizing within a one year timeframe. The sample consisted of 162 participants, 72 layoff survivors (those who remained in an organization after its downsizing) and 92 non-survivors (employees in organizations who have not downsized within 12 months). Significant results were found that differentiated the career related experiences of participants in the survivors group, survivors from non-survivors, and participants in general regardless of survivorship status. In general, results indicated that non-survivors reported greater job satisfaction and job security than layoff survivors, that being married with children may increase job satisfaction, and social support may buffer the grief reactions that survivors have to the loss of their co-worker friends. Furthermore, Super's age-associated stages within the Life-Span, Life-Space Theory were moderately upheld in the sample, especially for the Exploration stage. However, younger workers demonstrated more Maintenance concerns that would be predicted by the theory. A discussion of the relevant literature is included as well as possible explanations of the results, small sample size, and implications for future research.
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Internet Use Among African American College Students: Psychosocial Correlates of the Digital Divide

Internet Use Among African American College Students: Psychosocial Correlates of the Digital Divide

Date: August 2004
Creator: Harvey, Pejcharat Jane
Description: An exploratory study was conducted examining Internet usage among African-American college students. The study examined both psychosocial correlates, including technological anxiety and racial identity as well as socioeconomic measures, as they impacted Internet usage. Additionally, three distinct measures of Internet usage, thin access, thick access and the Internet Connectedness Index (ICI), were used as criterion variables in three separate multiple regression analysis (MRA) models. The results of the study found differences in predictive validity based on the criterion variable used, with the ICI accounting for the greatest amount of variance (54%). Racial identity, in terms of internal beliefs and feelings about being African American and internalization of Afrocentric values in a political context were found to be predictive of Internet usage as measured by the ICI.
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Social Support, Depression, and Cardiovascular Disease in Married, Middle-Aged/Older Adults

Social Support, Depression, and Cardiovascular Disease in Married, Middle-Aged/Older Adults

Date: August 2004
Creator: Hargett Thompson, Candace L.
Description: This study examined the relationship between physical health, social support, and depression in a married, middle-aged/older adult sample in which at least one partner has heart disease. The data was obtained from a national longitudinal study the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) and is composed of selected respondents and their spouses. The HRS Wave 1 data that was used for these analyses was collected in 1992 and 1993. This study tested a stress buffer model predicting the relationship between physical health, social support, and depression. For study inclusion, participants must have been diagnosed with cardiovascular disease and received treatment in the last year. A heart disease construct was developed by calculating the level of disease by the number of conditions and medical treatments received within the last year. A second health category for other chronic health conditions included diabetes, arthritis, cancer, and chronic pain. These constructs were combined into a total disease construct, which provided a broad measure of health problems typical of an older adult population. Social support was determined by respondents' satisfaction with friends, neighbors, family, their marriage, and enjoyable time spent with their spouse. Social support was subdivided into two constructs separating spousal support from social support ...
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Client's Perception of Seeking Counseling as a Function of Counselor Ethnicity, Counselor Acculturation, Counselor Gender, and Client Gender

Client's Perception of Seeking Counseling as a Function of Counselor Ethnicity, Counselor Acculturation, Counselor Gender, and Client Gender

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Date: August 2003
Creator: Liu, Huan-Chung Scott
Description: Due to demographic shifts and efforts to recruit culturally diverse professionals, it is plausible that more Caucasians will encounter ethnic minority counselors in the future. Yet, the majority of multicultural literature has only emphasized Caucasian counselors' multicultural counseling competence. Research has rarely discussed how ethic minority counselors influence the perceptions of Caucasian clients. The research purpose was to explore how acculturation and gender of Asian and Caucasian counselors influence Caucasians' perceptions of the counselors and counseling services. With an analog research design, 562 Caucasian college students read 1 of 8 randomly assigned counselor descriptions, which were varied by counselor characteristics, and reported their perceptions on dependent measures: Counselor Rating Form - Short Version (CRF-S), Working Alliance Inventory - Short (WAI-S) and 4 Willingness items. With the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help - Shortened Form as a covariate, 15 hypotheses were expected that Caucasians would prefer high-acculturated, same sex, and same ethnic counselors tested by simple contrast, while an exploratory question, investigating main and interaction effects among independent variables (counselor ethnicity, acculturation and gender, and participant gender) on dependent measures, was examined by MANCOVA and ANCOVA. Although only 2 of 15 hypotheses showed significance, the exploratory investigation revealed: Caucasian participants ...
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College Student Identity and Attitudes Toward Gays and Lesbians

College Student Identity and Attitudes Toward Gays and Lesbians

Date: August 2003
Creator: Tureau, Zachary L.
Description: This study investigates the relationship between an individual's attitude toward gay men and lesbians and their identity development. The sample included 440 undergraduates from a university in the northeast Texas area. Many, if not all, of the factors that are associated with negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians (i.e., restrictive gender-role attitudes, high levels of authoritarianism, perceptions of negative attitudes toward homosexuals within their peer group, little or no contact with homosexuals, and conservative religious ideologies) have a logical relation to identity development. Furthermore, the various functions that attitudes toward gays and lesbians can serve (e.g., value-expression, group membership) were hypothesized to be especially attractive for persons in specific identity statuses. Thus, the case was made that identity development may be a valuable framework in which to understand attitudes toward gays and lesbians. In the current study, attitudes toward gays and lesbians were related to identity development, though the relationship is complex. When comparing persons who were higher and lower on absolutism, attitude toward gays and lesbians were most similar in achieved identity groups, while those who were foreclosed were the most disparate. In the interaction between identity, absolutism and gender role stereotyping, some groups utilized their attitude to express ...
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Creativity and Affective Traits Across the Life Span: Developmental Influences Among Adolescents and Older Adults

Creativity and Affective Traits Across the Life Span: Developmental Influences Among Adolescents and Older Adults

Date: August 2003
Creator: Wohl, Elizabeth C.
Description: In recent years, empirical research has consistently supported an association between susceptibility to affective illness and creativity at the level of eminent achievement and at the non-eminent, or "everyday creativity" level. Although this research has provided greater evidence for the existence of this link, it has simultaneously unearthed more questions about how and why such an association exists. The purpose of this research was twofold: first, to provide further analysis of the nature of the relationship between hypomanic traits and creativity by employing a longitudinal study to determine the extent to which inter-individual differences over time in creativity are predicted by hypomanic traits. Second, the purpose of the cross-sectional analysis in the present study was to further determine how developmental components such as age and expertise may help unravel the ways in which hypomanic traits contribute to creativity and to further describe inter-individual differences among these variables. The first hypothesis, which proposed that the direction of the relationship between hypomanic traits and creativity could be predicted, was not supported by these results. The second research hypothesis was partially supported: hypomanic traits predict creativity in the combined adolescent and older adult samples. However, upon further examination of the regression analyses, the ...
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Personality Correlates of Eating Disorder Symptomatology in a Nonclinical Sample of Female Undergraduates

Personality Correlates of Eating Disorder Symptomatology in a Nonclinical Sample of Female Undergraduates

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Baker, Kristine Genovese
Description: Research indicates the existence of an eating disorder continuum. The two-component model of disordered eating suggests that certain personality traits may increase an individual's vulnerability to develop more severe variants of disordered eating symptomatology. The present study investigates pre-clinical elevations on a measure of personality based on the Five-Factor Model (FFM) and pre-clinical elevations on a measure of eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of nonclinical undergraduates. The personality dimensions Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Agreeableness accounted for 7% of the variability in Body Dissatisfaction. Subcomponents comprising the personality dimensions of the FFM as determined by Saucier (1998) (see Appendix A) were analyzed. The Self-Reproach and Intellectual Interests subcomponents were the strongest predictors of Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction. The subcomponent Sociability was the strongest predictor of Bulimia. Findings present implications for prevention and treatment interventions. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the temporal directionality of personality and disturbed eating.
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Cohort Differences in Perceptions of Helpful Counselor Characteristics

Cohort Differences in Perceptions of Helpful Counselor Characteristics

Date: August 2002
Creator: Utermark, Tamisha L
Description: The present study examined age cohort differences in older and younger adults as they relate to perceptions of helpful counselor characteristics. The present study also assessed whether previous help-seeking behavior influences perceptions of what counselor characteristics would be helpful. The social influence model is used as basis for predictions. The first research hypothesis for the present study was that there would be an age by cohort interaction in perceptions of helpful counselor characteristics at both Time 1 (1991) and Time 2 (2001). The second research hypothesis was that there would be a main effect for cohort, with more recently born cohorts preferring more interpersonal counselor characteristics. The third research hypothesis was that there would be a main effect for age in endorsement of the social influence model. The fourth research hypothesis was that there would be a significant difference between the perceptions of those individuals who had previously sought help from a mental health professional and those individuals who had not sought help, regardless of age and cohort. A revised Adjective Check List (Gough, 1965; Gough & Heilbrum, 1983) was used to assess perceptions of helpful counselor characteristics. Chi-square analyses, MANOVA/supplementary ANOVAs, and exploratory factor analyses were used to test ...
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A model for the development of disordered eating among lesbians

A model for the development of disordered eating among lesbians

Date: August 2002
Creator: Joshua, Michelle D.
Description: It has only been in recent years that eating disorder researchers have begun focusing on sexual orientation as a variable that may affect prevalence rates. Heeding the call for studies that extend beyond identification of fixed eating disorder risk factors (e.g., gender), this study was designed to explore factors that contribute to the development of disordered eating among lesbians. In this study, a hypothesized Lesbian Model of Disordered Eating was tested using structural equation modeling. Lesbian Sexual Identity and Social Supports were hypothesized to positively influence Psychological Health. In addition, Internalization of U.S. Societal Norms of beauty and attractiveness was hypothesized to negatively affect Psychological Health. Psychological Health, in turn, was hypothesized to negatively influence Body Image Concerns. Body Image Concerns was then hypothesized to positively affect Disordered Eating. The fit of the model was evaluated and one of the hypothesized pathways, Internalization of Norms was moved to directly predict Body Image Concerns. After adjusting the model, the model accounted for 54% of the variance in disordered eating. Most notably, the results highlight the potential affects of adopting a positive lesbian identity on disordered eating and underscore the importance of including sexual identity as a demographic variable in studies of ...
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The Relationship Between Adjustment And Bereavement-Related Distress: A Longitudinal Study

The Relationship Between Adjustment And Bereavement-Related Distress: A Longitudinal Study

Date: August 2002
Creator: Henderson, John Mark
Description: The current study assessed 125 conjugally bereaved persons using multiple self-report measures as indicators of personal adjustment and bereavement distress across three times of testing (initial, 6-month, and 3-year follow-up). Cross-lagged panel analyses were conducted to examine the causal relationships between adjustment and bereavement distress indicators and overall factors. Exploratory factor analyses indicate measures of adjustment load on a single Adjustment factor and measures of bereavement distress load on a single Grief factor. Considering results using composite scores for each variable, adjustment was significantly more predictive of bereavement distress than bereavement distress was predictive of adjustment for both Time 1 to Time 3 and Time 2 to Time 3. Adjustment issues measured by indicators such as the UCLA, POMS, HSC, BDI, and RSES significantly influenced the extent of grief symptoms as measure by the BEQ and the severity of scope of grief symptoms as assessed by the IOLQ.
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Religiosity as a moderator of anger in the expression of violence by women

Religiosity as a moderator of anger in the expression of violence by women

Date: August 2002
Creator: Wilson, Jennifer L.
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of women's anger and religiosity on their expression of violence toward their partner. The sample consisted of the 664 women who completed three interviews for Project HOW: Health Outcomes of Women, a study of low-income, ethnically diverse women in Dallas county. Across the waves, women completed measures of relationship violence, anger, and religiosity. Religiosity was not found to moderate the relationship between women's anger and their use of violence. When partners' threats and violence were included in the regression equations, these variables were consistently related to women's behavior. Due to several methodological limitations, clinical implications of the results should be considered with caution.
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