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 Department: Department of Chemistry
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Carbon Nanostructure Based Donor-acceptor Systems for Solar Energy Harvesting

Carbon Nanostructure Based Donor-acceptor Systems for Solar Energy Harvesting

Date: December 2013
Creator: Das, Sushanta Kumar
Description: Carbon nanostructure based functional hybrid molecules hold promise in solarenergy harvesting. Research presented in this dissertation systematically investigates building of various donor-acceptor nanohybrid systems utilizing enriched single walled carbon nanotube and graphene with redox and photoactive molecules such as fullerene, porphyrin, and phthalocyanine. Design, synthesis, and characterization of the donor-acceptor hybrid systems have been carefully performed via supramolecular binding strategies. Various spectroscopic studies have provided ample information in terms of establishment of the formation of donor-acceptor hybrids and their extent of interaction in solution and eventual rate of photoinduced electron and/or energy transfer. Electrochemical studies enabled construction of energy level diagram revealing energetic details of the possible different photochemical events supported by computational studies carried out to establish the HOMO-LUMO levels in the donor acceptor systems. Transient absorption studies confirmed formation of charge separated species in the donor-acceptor systems which have been supported by electron mediation experiments. Based on the photoelectrochemical studies, IPCE of 8% was reported for enriched SWCNT(7,6)-ZnP donor-acceptor systems. In summary, the present investigation on the various nanocarbon sensitized donor-acceptor hybrids substantiates tremendous prospect, that could very well become the next generation of materials in building efficient solar energy harvesting devices andphotocatalyst.
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Determination of Molecular Descriptors for Illegal Drugs by Gc-fid Using Abraham Solvation Model

Determination of Molecular Descriptors for Illegal Drugs by Gc-fid Using Abraham Solvation Model

Date: December 2013
Creator: Akhter, Syeda Sabrina
Description: The Abraham solvation parameter model is a good approach for analyzing and predicting biological activities and partitioning coefficients. The general solvation equation has been used to predict the solute property (SP) behavior of drug compounds between biological barriers. Gas chromatography (GC) retention time can be used to predict molecular descriptors, such as E, S, A, B & L for existing and newly developed drug compounds. In this research, six columns of different stationary phases were used to predict the Abraham molecular descriptors more accurately. The six stationary phases used were 5% phenylmethyl polysiloxane, 6% cyanopropylphenyl 94% dimethylpolysiloxane, 5% diphenyl 95% dimethylpolysiloxane, 100% dimethylpolysiloxane, polyethylene glycol and 35% diphenyl 65% dimethylpolysiloxane. Retention times (RT) of 75 compounds have been measured and logarithm of experimental average retention time Ln(RTexp) are calculated. The Abraham solvation model is then applied to predict the process coefficients of these compounds using the literature values of the molecular descriptors (Acree Compilation descriptors). Six correlation equations are built up as a training set for each of the six columns. The six equations are then used to predict the molecular descriptors of the illegal drugs as a test set. This work shows the ability to extract molecular information from ...
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Miniature Mass Spectrometry: Theory, Development and Applications

Miniature Mass Spectrometry: Theory, Development and Applications

Date: December 2013
Creator: Fox, James D.
Description: As mass analyzer technology has continued to improve over the last fifty years, the prospect of field-portable mass spectrometers has garnered interest from many research groups and organizations. Designing a field portable instrument entails more than the scaling down of current commercial systems. Additional considerations such as power consumption, vacuum requirements and ruggedization also play key roles. In this research, two avenues were pursued in the initial development of a portable system. First, micrometer-scale mass analyzers and other electrostatic components were fabricated using silicon on insulator-deep reactive ion etching, and tested. Second, the dimensions of an ion trap were scaled to the millimeter level and fabricated from common metals and commercially available vacuum plastics. This instrument was tested for use in ion isolation and collision induced dissociation for secondary mass spectrometry and confirmatory analyses of unknowns. In addition to portable instrumentation, miniature mass spectrometers show potential for usage in process and reaction monitoring. To this end, a commercial residual gas analyzer was used to monitor plasma deposition and cleaning inside of a chamber designed for laser ablation and soft landing-ion mobility to generate metal-main group clusters. This chamber was also equipped for multiple types of spectral analysis in order to ...
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Photochemical and Photophysical Properties of Mononuclear and Multinuclear Closed Shell D10 Coinage Metal Complexes and Their Metallo-organometallic Adducts

Photochemical and Photophysical Properties of Mononuclear and Multinuclear Closed Shell D10 Coinage Metal Complexes and Their Metallo-organometallic Adducts

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Date: December 2013
Creator: McDougald Jr., Roy N.
Description: This dissertation covers the studies of two major topics: the photochemistry of mononuclear and multinuclear gold(I) complexes and synthetic approaches to tailor photophysical properties of cyclic trinuclear d10 complexes. First a detailed photochemical examination into the photoreactivity of neutral mononuclear and multinuclear gold(I) complexes is discussed, with the aim of gold nanoparticle size and shape control for biomedical and catalysis applications. Next is a comprehensive systematic synthetic approach to tailor the photophysical properties of cyclic trinuclear d10 complexes. This synthetic approach includes an investigation of structure-luminescence relationships between cyclic trinuclear complexes, an examination into their π-acid/π-base reactivity with heavy metal cations and an exploration into the photophysical properties of new heterobimetallic cyclic trinuclear complexes. These photophysical properties inspections are used to screen materials for their employment in molecular electronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and thin film transistors (OTFTs).
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Studies on High Potential Porphyrin-fullerene Supramolecular Dyads

Studies on High Potential Porphyrin-fullerene Supramolecular Dyads

Date: December 2013
Creator: Song, Baiyun
Description: Photoinduced electron transfer in self-assembled via axial coordination porphyrin-fullerene dyads is investigated. Fullerene functionalized with imidazole and fullerenes functionalized with pyridine are chosen as electron acceptors, while zinc pophyrin derivatives are utilized as electron donors. The electron withdrawing ability of halogen atoms make the porphyrin ring electrophilic, which explained the binding of (F20TPP)Zn with fullerene derivatives having the highest binding constant around 105M-1. Another important observation is that the fullerene imidazole binding to zinc pophyrin had higher stability than fullerene pyridine-porphyrin dyad. Computational DFT B3LYP-21G(*) calculations are used to study the geometric and electronic structures. The HOMO and LUMO was found to be located on the porphyrin and fullerene entities, respectively. Photoinduced electron transfer is investigated by the steady-state absorption and emission, differential pulse voltammetry, and nanosecond and femtosecond transient absorption studies. The measurements provided the same conclusion that the increasing number of the halogen atoms on the porphyrin ring leads to the higher binding of porphyrin-fullerene supramolecular dyads and efficient charge separation and charge recombination processes.
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Studies on the Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine Modified on Sno2 Photoelectrochemical Cells

Studies on the Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine Modified on Sno2 Photoelectrochemical Cells

Date: December 2013
Creator: Lin, Chunyu
Description: The world is facing a tough challenge regarding fulfilling human energy needs. Scientists are motivated to find alternative ways to the fossil fuel at a lower cost with little or no environmental pollution. Among the available renewable resources, the solar energy is an alternative energy to fossil fuel. Scientists are engaged in mimicking the photosynthesis to create the new energy devices such as dye sensitized solar cells. The fundamental theory and properties of the dye sensitized solar cells is given in the first chapter. In this research, the application of the different methods for surface alteration of SnO2 with water soluble porphyrins and phthalocyanine is studied. Using optical absorbance and steady state fluorescence studies, the formation of porphyrins and phthalocyanine discuss on the SnO2 surface is shown. Moreover, the different results of photoelectrochemical cells are show on chapter 2 to understand the porphyrin and phthalocyanine modified on SnO2 as electron injector. In summary, the application porphyrin and phthalocyanine of dimers as a broad band capturing photosensitized dye is discussed.
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Substitution Effects of Phenothiazine and Porphyrin Dyes in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

Substitution Effects of Phenothiazine and Porphyrin Dyes in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

Date: December 2013
Creator: Hart, Aaron S.
Description: The details of dye sensitized solar cells was explained and phenothiazine and porphyrin based dyes were synthesized for use in DSSCs. DSSCs offer a unique and cost effective method of renewable energy. DSSCs are characterized through various tests, with the overall efficiency, η, bearing the greatest importance. Incident photon to current conversion efficiency, or IPCE, is also another important characterization of DSSCs. Effect of positioning of the cyanoacrylic acid anchoring group on ring periphery of phenothiazine dye on the performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is reported. The performances of the cells are found to be prominent for solar cells made out of Type-1 dyes compared to Type-2 dyes. This trend has been rationalized based on spectral, electrochemical, computational and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results. Free-base and zinc porphyrins bearing a carboxyl anchoring group at the para, meta, or ortho positions of one of the meso-phenyl rings were synthesized for DSSCs. Photoelectrochemical studies were performed after immobilization of porphyrins onto nanocrystalline TiO2. The performance of DSSCs with the porphyrin anchoring at the para or meta position were found to greatly exceed those in the ortho position. Additionally, zinc porphyrin derivatives outperformed the free-base porphyrin analogs, including better dye regeneration efficiency ...
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Computational Studies of Inorganic Systems with a Multiscale Modeling Approach: From Atomistic to Continuum Scale

Computational Studies of Inorganic Systems with a Multiscale Modeling Approach: From Atomistic to Continuum Scale

Date: August 2013
Creator: Olatunji-Ojo, Olayinka A.
Description: Multiscale modeling is an effective tool for integrating different computational methods, creating a way of modeling diverse chemical and physical phenomena. Presented are studies on a variety of chemical problems at different computational scales and also the combination of different computational methods to study a single phenomenon. The methods used encompass density functional theory (DFT), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and finite element analysis (FEA). The DFT studies were conducted both on the molecular level and using plane-wave methods. The particular topics studied using DFT are the rational catalyst design of complexes for C—H bond activation, oxidation of nickel surfaces and the calculation of interaction properties of carbon dioxide containing systems directed towards carbon dioxide sequestration studies. Second and third row (typically precious metals) transition metal complexes are known to possess certain electronic features that define their structure and reactivity, and which are usually not observed in their first-row (base metal) congeners. Can these electronic features be conferred onto first-row transition metals with the aid of non-innocent and/or very high-field ligands? Using DFT, the impact of these electronic features upon methane C—H bond activation was modeled using the dipyridylazaallyl (smif) supporting ligand for late, first-row transition metal (M) imide, oxo and ...
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Development of Novel Semi-conducting Ortho-carborane Based Polymer Films: Enhanced Electronic and Chemical Properties

Development of Novel Semi-conducting Ortho-carborane Based Polymer Films: Enhanced Electronic and Chemical Properties

Date: August 2013
Creator: Pasquale, Frank L.
Description: A novel class of semi-conducting ortho-carborane (B10C2H12) based polymer films with enhanced electronic and chemical properties has been developed. The novel films are formed from electron-beam cross-linking of condensed B10C2H12 and B10C2H12 co-condensed with aromatic linking units (Y) (Y=1,4-diaminobenzene (DAB), benzene (BNZ) and pyridine (PY)) at 110 K. The bonding and electronic properties of the novel films were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and Mulliken charge analysis using density functional theory (DFT). These films exhibit site-specific cross-linking with bonding, in the pure B10C2HX films, occurring at B sites non-adjacent to C in the B10C2H12 icosahedra. The B10C2H12:Y films exhibit the same phenomena, with cross-linking that creates bonds primarily between B sites non-adjacent to C in the B10C2H12 icosahedra to C sites in the Y linking units. These novel B10C2HX: Y linked films exhibit significantly different electron structure when compared to pure B10C2HX films as seen in the UPS spectra. The valence band maxima (VBM) shift from - 4.3 eV below the Fermi level for pure B10C2HX to -2.6, -2.2, and -1.7 for B10C2HX:BNZ, B10C2HX:PY, and B10C2HX:DAB, respectively. The top of the valence band is composed of states derived primarily from the Y linking units, suggesting ...
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Synthetic and Structural Chemistry of Ligand-substituted Triosmium Clusters and a Rhenium(i) Complex

Synthetic and Structural Chemistry of Ligand-substituted Triosmium Clusters and a Rhenium(i) Complex

Date: August 2013
Creator: Lin, Chen-Hao
Description: The reaction of 2-[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]-6-methylpyridine (PN) with Os3(CO)12-n(MeCN)n [where n = 0 (1), 1 (2), 2 (3)] has been investigated. Os3(CO)12 reacts with PN in the presence of Me3NO to afford the clusters Os3(CO)11(1-PN) (4) and 1,2-Os3(CO)10(1-PN)2 (5). X-ray diffraction analyses confirm the equatorial coordination of the phosphine(s) in 4 and 5, with the two phosphines in the latter cluster exhibiting a 1,2-trans orientation about the Os-Os vector that contains the two ligands. Treatment of the MeCN-substituted cluster Os3(CO)11(MeCN) and PN (1:1 ratio) in CH2Cl2 gives clusters 4 and 5, in addition to HOs3(η1-Cl)(CO)10(1-PN) (6) as a result of competitive activation of the reaction solvent. Cluster 6 contains 48e- and the diffraction structure reveals the presence of axial chloride and equatorial phosphine ligands which are located on adjacent osmium atoms. The bridging hydride ligand in 6 spans the Cl,P-substituted Os-Os vector. The reaction of Os3(CO)10(MeCN)2 with PN furnishes 5, 6, and 1,1-Os3(CO)10(2-PN) (7) in yields that are dependent on the reagent stoichiometry and reaction solvent. The solid-state structure of 7 confirms the chelation of the PN ligand to a single osmium atom via the pyridine and phosphine moieties at axial and equatorial sites, respectively. The bonding in 7 relative to other ...
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