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 Department: Department of Physics
Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Nonlinear Bioimaging, Cell Detection and Selective Cell Destruction

Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Nonlinear Bioimaging, Cell Detection and Selective Cell Destruction

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Date: May 2013
Creator: Urban, Ben E.
Description: Light matter interactions have led to a great part of our current understanding of the universe. When light interacts with matter it affects the properties of both the light and the matter. Visible light, being in the region that the human eye can "see," was one of the first natural phenomenon we used to learn about our universe. The application of fundamental physics research has spilled over into other fields that were traditionally separated from physics, being considered two different sciences. Current physics research has applications in all scientific fields. By taking a more physical approach to problems in fields such as chemistry and biology, we have furthered our knowledge of both. Nanocrystals have many interesting optical properties. Furthermore, the size and properties of nanocrystals has given them applications in materials ranging from solar cells to sunscreens. By understanding and controlling their interactions with systems we can utilize them to increase our knowledge in other fields of science, such as biology. Nanocrystals exhibit optical properties superior to currently used fluorescent dyes. By replacing molecular dyes with nanoparticles we can reduce toxicity, increase resolution and have better cellular targeting abilities. They have also shown to have toxicity to cancer and antibacterial ...
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Electrostatic Effects in III-V Semiconductor Based Metal-optical Nanostructures

Electrostatic Effects in III-V Semiconductor Based Metal-optical Nanostructures

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Date: May 2012
Creator: Gryczynski, Karol Grzegorz
Description: The modification of the band edge or emission energy of semiconductor quantum well light emitters due to image charge induced phenomenon is an emerging field of study. This effect observed in quantum well light emitters is critical for all metal-optics based light emitters including plasmonics, or nanometallic electrode based light emitters. This dissertation presents, for the first time, a systematic study of the image charge effect on semiconductor–metal systems. the necessity of introducing the image charge interactions is demonstrated by experiments and mathematical methods for semiconductor-metal image charge interactions are introduced and developed.
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Characterization, properties and applications of novel nanostructured hydrogels.

Characterization, properties and applications of novel nanostructured hydrogels.

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Date: December 2006
Creator: Tang, Shijun
Description: The characterization, properties and applications of the novel nanostructured microgel (nanoparticle network and microgel crystal) composed of poly-N-isopropylacrylanmide-co-allylamine (PNIPAM-co-allylamine) and PNIPAM-co-acrylic acid(AA) have been investigated. For the novel nanostructured hydrogels with the two levels of structure: the primary network inside each individual particle and the secondary network of the crosslinked nanoparticles, the new shear modulus, drug release law from hydrogel with heterogeneous structure have been studied. The successful method for calculating the volume fraction related the phase transition of colloid have been obtained. The kinetics of crystallization in an aqueous dispersion of PNIPAM particles has been explored using UV-visible transmission spectroscopy. This dissertation also includes the initial research on the melting behavior of colloidal crystals composed of PNIPAM microgels. Many new findings in this study area have never been reported before. The theoretical model for the columnar crystal growth from the top to bottom of PNIPAM microgel has been built, which explains the growth mechanism of the novel columnar hydrogel colloidal crystals. Since the unique structure of the novel nanostructured hydrogels, their properties are different with the conventional hydrogels and the hard-sphere-like system. The studies and results in this dissertation have the important significant for theoretical study and valuable application ...
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Brownian Movement and Quantum Computers

Brownian Movement and Quantum Computers

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Date: December 2004
Creator: Habel, Agnieszka
Description: This problem in lieu of thesis is a discussion of two topics: Brownian movement and quantum computers. Brownian movement is a physical phenomenon in which the particle velocity is constantly undergoing random fluctuations. Chapters 2, 3 and 4, describe Brownian motion from three different perspectives. The next four chapters are devoted to the subject of quantum computers, which are the signal of a new era of technology and science combined together. In the first chapter I present to a reader the two topics of my problem in lieu of thesis. In the second chapter I explain the idea of Brownian motion, its interpretation as a stochastic process and I find its distribution function. The next chapter illustrates the probabilistic picture of Brownian motion, where the statistical averages over trajectories are related to the probability distribution function. Chapter 4 shows how to derive the Langevin equation, introduced in chapter 1, using a Hamiltonian picture of a bath with infinite number of harmonic oscillators. The chapter 5 explains how the idea of quantum computers was developed and how step-by-step all the puzzles for the field of quantum computers were created. The next chapter, chapter 6, discus the basic quantum unit of information ...
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Random growth of interfaces: Statistical analysis of single columns and detection of critical events.

Random growth of interfaces: Statistical analysis of single columns and detection of critical events.

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Date: August 2004
Creator: Failla, Roberto
Description: The dynamics of growth and formation of surfaces and interfaces is becoming very important for the understanding of the origin and the behavior of a wide range of natural and industrial dynamical processes. The first part of the paper is focused on the interesting field of the random growth of surfaces and interfaces, which finds application in physics, geology, biology, economics, and engineering among others. In this part it is studied the random growth of surfaces from within the perspective of a single column, namely, the fluctuation of the column height around the mean value, which is depicted as being subordinated to a standard fluctuation-dissipation process with friction g. It is argued that the main properties of Kardar-Parisi-Zhang theory are derived by identifying the distribution of return times to y(0) = 0, which is a truncated inverse power law, with the distribution of subordination times. The agreement of the theoretical prediction with the numerical treatment of the model of ballistic deposition is remarkably good, in spite of the finite size effects affecting this model. The second part of the paper deals with the efficiency of the diffusion entropy analysis (DEA) when applied to the studies of stromatolites. In this case ...
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Carbon nanotube/microwave interactions and applications to hydrogen fuel cells.

Carbon nanotube/microwave interactions and applications to hydrogen fuel cells.

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Date: May 2004
Creator: Imholt, Timothy James
Description: One of the leading problems that will be carried into the 21st century is that of alternative fuels to get our planet away from the consumption of fossil fuels. There has been a growing interest in the use of nanotechnology to somehow aid in this progression. There are several unanswered questions in how to do this. It is known that carbon nanotubes will store hydrogen but it is unclear how to increase that storage capacity and how to remove this hydrogen fuel once stored. This document offers some answers to these questions. It is possible to implant more hydrogen in a nanotube sample using a technique of ion implantation at energy levels ~50keV and below. This, accompanied with the rapid removal of that stored hydrogen through the application of a microwave field, proves to be one promising avenue to solve these two unanswered questions.
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Approach to Quantum Information starting from Bell's Inequality (Part I) and Statistical Analysis of Time Series Corresponding to Complex Processes (Part II)

Approach to Quantum Information starting from Bell's Inequality (Part I) and Statistical Analysis of Time Series Corresponding to Complex Processes (Part II)

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Date: May 2002
Creator: Failla, Roberto
Description: I: Quantum information obeys laws that subtly extend those governing classical information, making possible novel effect such as cryptography and quantum computation. Quantum computations are extremely sensitive to disruption by interaction of the computer with its environment, but this problem can be overcome by recently developed quantum versions of classical error-correcting codes and fault-tolerant circuits. Based on these ideas, the purpose of this paper is to provide an approach to quantum information by analyzing and demonstrating Bell's inequality and by discussing the problems related to decoherence and error-correcting. II: The growing need for a better understanding of complex processes has stimulated the development of new and more advanced data analysis techniques. The purpose of this research was to investigate some of the already existing techniques (Hurst's rescaled range and relative dispersion analysis), to develop a software able to process time series with these techniques, and to get familiar with the theory of diffusion processes.
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Monte Carlo simulation and experimental studies of the production of neutron-rich medical isotopes using a particle accelerator.

Monte Carlo simulation and experimental studies of the production of neutron-rich medical isotopes using a particle accelerator.

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Date: May 2002
Creator: Rosencranz, Daniela Necsoiu
Description: The developments of nuclear medicine lead to an increasing demand for the production of radioisotopes with suitable nuclear and chemical properties. Furthermore, from the literature it is evident that the production of radioisotopes using charged-particle accelerators instead of nuclear reactors is gaining increasing popularity. The main advantages of producing medical isotopes with accelerators are carrier free radionuclides of short lived isotopes, improved handling, reduction of the radioactive waste, and lower cost of isotope fabrication. Proton-rich isotopes are the result of nuclear interactions between enriched stable isotopes and energetic protons. An interesting observation is that during the production of proton-rich isotopes, fast and intermediately fast neutrons from nuclear reactions such as (p,xn) are also produced as a by-product in the nuclear reactions. This observation suggests that it is perhaps possible to use these neutrons to activate secondary targets for the production of neutron-rich isotopes. The study of secondary radioisotope production with fast neutrons from (p,xn) reactions using a particle accelerator is the main goal of the research in this thesis.
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Microwave Cavity Test for Superconductivity

Microwave Cavity Test for Superconductivity

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Date: December 2001
Creator: Tang, Shan
Description: The first part of this paper describes the Meissner effect in superconductors which serves as the most definitive evidence for superconductivity. It is shown that the microwave perturbation technique may be used to demonstrate this effect. By measuring the changes of resonant frequency and inverse quality factor Q of a microwave cavity with a small volume of sample loading, the Meissner effect can be shown by using the Slater perturbation equation. The experimental system is described with details and the basic principle of each component discussed. The second part of this work describes the technique employed to do the actual measurements. The experiments were conducted on samples of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) to look for the possible high temperature superconductivity properties. Results of these experiments are presented and discussed. Conclusion and suggestions to future exploration are made.
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The stopping of energetic Si, P and S ions in Ni, Cu, Ge and GaAs targets.

The stopping of energetic Si, P and S ions in Ni, Cu, Ge and GaAs targets.

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Date: December 2001
Creator: Nigam, Mohit
Description: Accurate knowledge of stopping powers is essential for these for quantitative analysis and surface characterization of thin films using ion beam analysis (IBA). These values are also of interest in radiobiology and radiotherapy, and in ion- implantation technology where shrinking feature sizes puts high demands on the accuracy of range calculations. A theory that predicts stopping powers and ranges for all projectile-target combinations is needed. The most important database used to report the stopping powers is the SRIM/TRIM program developed by Ziegler and coworkers. However, other researchers report that at times, these values differ significantly from experimental values. In this study the stopping powers of Si, P and S ions have been measured in Ni, Cu, Ge and GaAs absorbers in the energy range ~ 2-10 MeV. For elemental films of Ni, Cu and Ge, the stopping of heavy ions was measured using a novel ERD (Elastic Recoil Detection) based technique. In which an elastically recoiled lighter atom is used to indirectly measure the energy of the incoming heavy ion using a surface barrier detector. In this way it was possible to reduce the damage and to improve the FWHM of the detector. The results were compared to SRIM-2000 predictions ...
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