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 Language: English
 Degree Discipline: Physical Education
Perceptions of Graduate Courses and Competencies Associated with High School and Junior College Athletic Administration

Perceptions of Graduate Courses and Competencies Associated with High School and Junior College Athletic Administration

Date: August 1988
Creator: Davey, Diane F.
Description: Texas 5A high school and junior college athletic directors' perceptions concerning graduate courses and competencies relating to athletic director performance were investigated. Graduate courses needing emphasis for prospective directors, most and least beneficial graduate courses, perceptions of values of graduate courses, and selected skills necessary for performance of duties were ranked. Significant differences of perceptions of values of graduate courses between 5A high school and junior college athletic directors were found using chi square. Significant differences between graduate course areas and competency areas in Communications, Technical, Business and Public Relations were found utilizing a t-test. 5A athletic directors receive adequate preparation in Communications. Junior college athletic directors receive adequate preparation in Business and Public Relations.
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The Relationship Between Cohesion and Performance in Competitive Bowling Teams

The Relationship Between Cohesion and Performance in Competitive Bowling Teams

Date: August 1988
Creator: Frierman, Steven H. (Steven Howard)
Description: The purpose of this present investigation was twofold: to determine the relationship between cohesion and performance for successful and unsuccessful bowling teams and to investigate the internal consistency of items from the Group Environment Questionnaire. Subjects were 148 bowling teams (28 men's, 55 women's, 65 mixed--3-5 members each) from 14 different leagues. Results revealed that task cohesion (ATGT) in early, mid, and late season, as well as social cohesion (ATGS) in late season significantly differentiated between high/low cohesion teams. In addition, successful teams (i.e., league position) exhibited significantly higher levels of both task and composite cohesion. All cohesion scales, with the exception of ATGS in early season, revealed a moderate to high level of internal consistency.
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Relationship Between Ventilation and Oxygen Uptake at 40% And 85% of Peak Oxygen Uptake in 18-35-Year-Old Women Using the Arm Crank Ergometer

Relationship Between Ventilation and Oxygen Uptake at 40% And 85% of Peak Oxygen Uptake in 18-35-Year-Old Women Using the Arm Crank Ergometer

Date: May 1988
Creator: Zervopoulos, Peter C. (Peter Cosmas)
Description: This study investigated whether or not a relationship exists between ventilation and oxygen uptake at 40% and 85% of V02 peak intensity in 30 upper body fit and 30 unfit 18- 35-year-old women. The correlations between ventilation and oxygen uptake at 40% of peak intensity for the fit group (r = -.51) and the unfit group (r = -.48) were modestly negative. At 85% intensity the relationship between ventilation and oxygen uptake in the two groups was -.44 and -.66, respectively. The lower correlations between ventilation and oxygen uptake observed at the 85% level of peak intensity among the unfit group could be due to a lower ventilatory threshold (66% = fit; 49% = unfit), lesser local muscle changes, along with reduced lactate and C02 management; all of which would be improved with training.
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A Kinematic Comparison Between Greater-and Lesser-Skilled Powerlifters Doing the Traditional Style Deadlift

A Kinematic Comparison Between Greater-and Lesser-Skilled Powerlifters Doing the Traditional Style Deadlift

Date: December 1987
Creator: Canales, Daniel
Description: Comparison kinematic models of the traditional style deadlift are presented. Data was obtained through film and analyzed via computer and computer graphics. The comparison between the models revealed that the greater-skilled: 1. used less trunk flexion from the instant of initial trunk lean to the instant of maximum trunk lean, 2. used less knee extension (in same time interval as 1), and 3. demonstrated a smaller horizontal distance between the body center of mass (CM) and the CM of the bar at the instant the bar left the platform. A trend was also observed in which the greater-skilled subjects demonstrated less thoracic lean than the lesser-skilled group at the time the bar reached knee level.
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A Field Test of Garland's Cognitive Mediation Theory of Goal Setting

A Field Test of Garland's Cognitive Mediation Theory of Goal Setting

Date: August 1987
Creator: Bagnall, Jamie
Description: The present study examined Garland's cognitive mediation theory of goal setting in a three-minute basketball shooting task. The effects of different goal conditions were also investigated along with achievement motivation and self-motivation as mediating constructs of performance. Subjects (N=150) were males and females, assigned to one of five goal conditions: "do your best", easy, moderate, hard, and improbable. Results indicated no performance differences between the different goal conditions, with subjects in the "do your best" condition performing as well as subjects in the other goal conditions. Results also yielded partial support for Garland's cognitive mediation theory with task goals influencing performance through its influence on performance expectancy. Furthermore, a negative correlation between achievement motivation and performance was found for females in the improbable goal condition and a positive correlation was found between self-motivation and performance for females in the easy goal condition.
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The Relationship of the Sit and Reach Test to Criterion Measures of Hamstring and Back Flexibility in Adult Males and Females

The Relationship of the Sit and Reach Test to Criterion Measures of Hamstring and Back Flexibility in Adult Males and Females

Date: August 1987
Creator: Langford, Nancy Jane
Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the criterion-related validity of the sit and reach test as a measure of hamstring and low back flexibility in adult males and females. Subjects were 52 males and 52 females, 20 to 45 years of age. Hamstring flexibility was measured using a goniometer. Spinal flexibility was measured using a tape measure and an inclinometer. The sit and reach test was performed according to the AAHPERD Health Related Fitness Test Manual. Data were analyzed using correlations and appropriate descriptive statistics. Conclusions of the investigation were: 1) in adult males 20 to 45, the sit and reach test is a valid measure of hamstring flexibility but has questionable validity as a measure of low back flexibility, 2) in adult females 20 to 45, the sit and reach test is a moderately valid measure of hamstring flexibility and is not a valid measure of low back flexibility.
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The Effects of Mastery, Competitive and Cooperative Goals on Performance in Simple and Complex Sport Skills

The Effects of Mastery, Competitive and Cooperative Goals on Performance in Simple and Complex Sport Skills

Date: December 1986
Creator: Giannini, John
Description: The present study investigated the effects of different goal and feedback conditions on performance of a basketball field goal shooting task and a more complex one-on-one offensive basketball task. Subjects (N = 100) were matched, based on pre-test performance, into one of five conditions: competitive goal, cooperative goal, mastery goal, "do your best" with feedback, and "do your best" without feedback. Results indicated the competitive group was significantly better than the "do your best" without feedback group in one-on-one performance. No other between group differences were significant, although some consistent group trends were present. Subjects' goal orientations were not related to performance in specific goal conditions, with the exception of mastery oriented subjects in the mastery goal condition.
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The Interrelationships of Strength, Speed, Power and Anthropometric Measures in College Aged Women

The Interrelationships of Strength, Speed, Power and Anthropometric Measures in College Aged Women

Date: December 1985
Creator: Hinojosa, Richard
Description: The purpose of the investigation was to determine the interrelationships of strength, speed, power and anthropometric measures in women. Sixty females ranging in ages from 18 to 25 volunteered as subjects. Subjects were measured for strength on the bench press, leg extension and leg curl, power vertical jump, speed--a 40 yard dash, body weight (BW) and fat weight (FW) using a scale and skinfold tests. The correlations for strength and power (.35 to .53), strength and speed (-.37 to -.56) and speed and power (-.45) were significant (p < .01). Partial correlations with (BW) and (FW) held constant were also significant, but were not significantly greater than their zero-order correlations.
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The Relationship Between Pace Characteristics of Distance Runs and Criterion Measures of Endurance

The Relationship Between Pace Characteristics of Distance Runs and Criterion Measures of Endurance

Date: December 1985
Creator: Sanchez, Robert J.
Description: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between treadmill time, maximal oxygen consumption and pace characteristics of the 1.5 and 3 mile runs and to compare the distances and pace characteristics as predictors of aerobic capacity. Subjects were 70 college aged males, ages 18 to 25, enrolled in jogging and conditioning classes at North Texas State University. Three tests were administered: the 1.5 mile run, the 3 mile run and the Bruce treadmill test. The data were analyzed using correlations and factor analysis. Conclusions of the investigation were (1) the 1.5 and 3 mile runs are valid measures of aerobic capacity, (2) the 3 mile run does not significantly increase the correlation between VO2max and endurance runs and (3) pacing characteristics are evident in the 1.5 and 3 mile runs.
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The Relative Contribution of Flexibility of the Back and Hamstring Muscles in the Performance of the Sit and Reach Component of the AAHPERD Health Related Fitness Test in Girls Thirteen to Fifteen Years of Age

The Relative Contribution of Flexibility of the Back and Hamstring Muscles in the Performance of the Sit and Reach Component of the AAHPERD Health Related Fitness Test in Girls Thirteen to Fifteen Years of Age

Date: August 1985
Creator: Baker, Alice Ann
Description: The purpose of the study was to quantify the relative contribution of low back flexibility and hamstring flexibility in the sit and reach test item of the AAHPERD Health Related Fitness Test in order to examine the validity of the sit and reach test. Subjects were 100 female students, 13 to 15 years of age in physical education classes. Hamstring flexibility was measured using the Leighton flexometer. Spinal mobility was measured using a tape measure. The sit and reach test was performed according to instructions given in the AAHPERD Test Manual. Data were analyzed using correlation, linear regression, and multiple regression. Conclusions of the investigation were (1) hamstring flexibility is moderately related to the sit and reach test, (2) low back flexibility has a very small relationship to the sit and reach test, and (3) the sit and reach test is an inadequate measure of low back and hamstring flexibility.
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The Effects of Goal Difficulty and Information Feedback on the Performance of an Endurance Task

The Effects of Goal Difficulty and Information Feedback on the Performance of an Endurance Task

Date: December 1984
Creator: Hall, Howard (Howard Kingsley)
Description: Few studies in the sporting realm have been conducted to verify the findings from industrial or organizational settings regarding the strong positive motivational effects of goal setting (Locke et al., 1981). Therefore, the purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of three levels of goal difficulty and two levels of feedback on the performance of males undertaking an endurance task. Performance results were analyzed using a 2 x 3 x 2 (feedback x goal difficulty x trials) ANOVA with repeated measures on the last factor. Results indicated a significant goal by trials interaction with both specific difficult goal groups improving from trial one to trial two. The "do best" group showed no significant improvements. It was also found that only the difficult, but not the extremely difficult goal group performed significantly better than the "do best" goal group. No significant differences were found between the two feedback groups. The results are discussed in terms of Locke's (1968) original theory of goal setting.
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Enkephalin Metabolism in Exercise Stress

Enkephalin Metabolism in Exercise Stress

Date: December 1984
Creator: Jaskowski, Margaret Anne
Description: Investigators have suggested that opiate peptide hormones released during exercise stress may play an important role in athletic performance or perceived effort. Their enzymatic inactivation in the periphery is of considerable interest since the opiate peptides may be regulated by enkephalin hydrolyzing enzyme (EHA). In this study, the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity (VO_2max) and EHA activity was examined in two distinct fitness groups. When the metabolic capacity was evaluated in whole blood, the unfit subjects metabolized the peptides significantly faster than their fit counterparts. Since the total enzyme activity of the two groups is similar, the difference in metabolism must result from circulating factors in the trained athletes, which slow the rate of peptide inactivation.
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Fatigue Related Changes in the Body Motion and Force Application During the Performance of Consecutive Chin-ups

Fatigue Related Changes in the Body Motion and Force Application During the Performance of Consecutive Chin-ups

Date: December 1984
Creator: Hong, Der-Ming
Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of fatigue on force application and resulting movement patterns during the performance of consecutive chin-ups. Special attention was directed toward relating any fatigue effects to upper limb strength dominance. Twenty male adult subjects each performed one trial. Each trial consisted of consecutive chin-ups. Fatigue caused changes in the movement patterns, duration of movement and force applied through the supporting hands. Throughout the performance greater vertical forces were applied through the dominant upper limb segment with the application of these forces resulting in horizontal displacement of the total body center of gravity toward the dominant hand.
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The Effect of Psychological Sex-Role and Sex of Performer on Pre-Performance Anxiety in Selected Masculine, Feminine, and Neutral Sports

The Effect of Psychological Sex-Role and Sex of Performer on Pre-Performance Anxiety in Selected Masculine, Feminine, and Neutral Sports

Date: August 1984
Creator: Taylor, Angela D. (Angela Denise)
Description: The study was designed to determine the effects of psychological sex-role on pre-performance anxiety in masculine (rugby), feminine (balance beam), and neutral (badminton) sex-typed motor activities. Instruments used to gather data included the Personal Attributes Questionnaire, the Sport Competition Anxiety Test, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. Twenty-six masculine, 24 feminine, and 27 androgynous males and females were submitted to a three-phase training session for each sport skill. At the conclusion of each session, prior to performing the skill in front of a panel of judges (confederates of the experimenter), subjects were administered the self-report state anxiety (A-state) inventory. Data were analyzed by a 2 x 3 x 3 design. Conclusions were that individuals classified as feminine reported more feelings of A-state prior to performance than individuals classified as masculine or androgynous. Furthermore, the performer's biological sex affected anxiety levels, depending upon perceptions concerning the sex-appropriateness of the activity.
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The Effects of Shoe Modification on Transverse Tibial Rotation

The Effects of Shoe Modification on Transverse Tibial Rotation

Date: August 1984
Creator: Trudelle, Elaine
Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of change in transverse tibial rotation at the knee achieved through the use of shoe modification. In addition, an attempt to evaluate the Q-angle dynamically through the stance phase to reflect changes in transverse tibial rotation was made. Ten male subjects were filmed as they ran on a treadmill at a 2.82 m/sec pace and transverse tibial rotation data was collected simultaneously from an affixed electrogoniometer at the knee joint. The subjects were tested under three conditions: 1) barefoot, 2) running shoe, and 3) shoe plus standard orthotic. The results of the study showed that an unprescribed, standard orthotic was ineffective in changing foot pronation and transverse tibial rotation at the knee. It also showed that there was no relationship between leg-heel alignment measurements of pronation and electrogoniometric measurements of transverse tibial rotation. Q-angle measurements could not be obtained from the film date due to difficulty in visualizing body landmarks.
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Swinging Gait Patterns and Preferred Rung Spacing During Free Choice Horizontal Ladder Traverses

Swinging Gait Patterns and Preferred Rung Spacing During Free Choice Horizontal Ladder Traverses

Date: August 1984
Creator: Roth, Charles H. (Charles Hillary)
Description: Fifty-one subjects each performed two trials which consisted of traversing a horizontal ladder. Film records were made of each trial using a high-speed camera. Absolute and relative temporal and kinematic parameters were obtained from the film records. The conclusions were that there was no age related interaction or differences in preferred rung spacing or contact/airborne times. A Chi-Square analysis did show a preference for a specific gait pattern for the six year old age group.
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Normative Assessment Technique for Bench Press and Leg Extension Strength in College Females on the Universal Gym

Normative Assessment Technique for Bench Press and Leg Extension Strength in College Females on the Universal Gym

Date: August 1983
Creator: Gibson, Jean
Description: This study was to develop normative data of isotonic muscular strength in college females using the Spartacus model Universal Gym bench press and leg extension and to control for the influence of body weight. Two hundred and two college age females enrolled in weight training and conditioning classes used the Universal Gym for twelve weeks. Subjects were tested for maximum strength on 2 exercises and their percent body fat was calculated. Pearson-product moment correlations between lean body weight , body weight and the bench press test and the leg extension test were correlated. After statistically controlling for the effects of body weight, percentile ranks were calculated for both tests.
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The Effect of Four Different Conditions of Mental Practice on the Performance of Beginning and Intermediate Bowlers

The Effect of Four Different Conditions of Mental Practice on the Performance of Beginning and Intermediate Bowlers

Date: August 1979
Creator: Reading, Rosemary
Description: This study investigated the effects of four different types of mental practice (free imagery, directed visual, directed reading, and directed audio) on the performance of 45 beginning and 40 intermediate college bowlers. The groups bowled six games with two sets of five minutes of mental practice prior to the first frame and the sixth frame of each game. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. No significant differences existed between treatment groups at either the beginning or intermediate levels. Conclusions were that no one technique of mental practice was more effective than another in increasing bowling performance.
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The Relationship of Anxiety to Performance in Stressful Situations in Slo-Pitch Softball

The Relationship of Anxiety to Performance in Stressful Situations in Slo-Pitch Softball

Date: August 1979
Creator: Rogers, Michael E.
Description: The purposes of the study were to compare (1) the relationship between competitive A-trait and competitive A-state in Slo-Pitch softball and (2) the relationship between A-trait and performance in selected stressful situations in softball. The study also considered the ranking of players by a manager and overall performance. The Sport Competition Anxiety Test and a competitive short form of the State Anxiety Inventory were used to measure A-trait and A-state. Trait anxiety, state anxiety and performance were compared using the Pearson product moment correlation technique. Trait anxiety scores were found to be accurate predictors of pregame state anxiety, but not of performance. The manager's rating was a better predictor of performance than competitive A-trait in selected stress situations.
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A Study of the Relationship Between Sex-Roles and Success in Competitive Fencing

A Study of the Relationship Between Sex-Roles and Success in Competitive Fencing

Date: August 1979
Creator: Grauso, Janet C.
Description: This investigation was designed to determine whether a relationship existed between sex-roles (masculinity, femininity and androgyny) as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory and success (win-loss record) in a round-robin fencing tournament of 35 subjects enrolled in beginning fencing during spring semester of 1979 at North Texas State University. The Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlations were calculated to ascertain whether or not significant relationships at the .05 level of confidence existed among the sex-roles of the subjects and success in fencing. This study concluded that individuals with a high feminine score will find success in a round-robin fencing tournament and individuals with a high masculine score will find success in a round-robin fencing tournament.
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Chronic Alterations in Joint Flexibility Associated with Aerobic Dance Instruction of College Age Females

Chronic Alterations in Joint Flexibility Associated with Aerobic Dance Instruction of College Age Females

Date: August 1978
Creator: Cooper, Melisa Lynne
Description: The purposes of this study were (1) to determine if three selected aerobic dance related conditions would result in chronic alterations of flexibility of college women and (2) to compare flexibility measures of college age females during a semester of aerobic dance instruction. Subjects were sixty-three college women enrolled in aerobic dance, bowling, and archery classes. Eight flexibility measures were obtained during the third and eleventh weeks of the experimental period. Data were analyzed by a factor analysis the Pearson Product Moment Correlation, and eight oneway analyses of covariance. Conclusions of the investigation were (1) a program of aerobic dance alone is not sufficient to promote flexibility, and (2) supplemental flexibility activities of ten minutes duration used with aerobic dance training are beneficial in increasing hip flexion.
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A Cinematographic Comparison of Two Long-Hang Kip Techniques on the Horizontal Bar

A Cinematographic Comparison of Two Long-Hang Kip Techniques on the Horizontal Bar

Date: August 1978
Creator: Cox, Pamela S.
Description: This study used cinematography to determine differences in velocity, acceleration, moments of force, and body centers of gravity in four different positions of two techniques of the long-hang kip. Three female gymnasts performed five attempts of each technique: the traditional method, with an arch in the lower back at the end of the forward swing, and approximate shoulder angle of 180 degrees or more; and the newer method, with no arch in the lower back and approximate shoulder angle of 90 degrees or less. Three. USGF-rated judges scored the kips, and due to inability to distinguish between the two techniques, two subjects were eliminated. Major differences occurred in the swing extension, with the newer technique producing more velocity and a higher center of gravity throughout the movement.
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The Establishment of Norms for Two Selected Tennis Skills Tests at North Texas State University

The Establishment of Norms for Two Selected Tennis Skills Tests at North Texas State University

Date: August 1978
Creator: Avery, Cathy Ann
Description: The purposes of this study were 1) to establish validity and reliability for a modified service test, 2) to determine male and female norms for the service test, and 3) to establish norms for the Kemp-Vincent Rally Test. Subjects were 677 students enrolled in beginning and intermediate tennis classes at North Texas State University, Denton, Texas. Data were analyzed by the two-way analysis of variance to establish reliability. Norms were established by converting raw scores to normalized standard T-scores. Conclusions of the investigation were 1) the modified service test is valid and reliable, and 2) there is a need for separate male and female norms when the skill is governed by strength.
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A Comparison of Three Selected Exercises in Building Abdominal Strength and Endurance in Upper Elementary School Girls

A Comparison of Three Selected Exercises in Building Abdominal Strength and Endurance in Upper Elementary School Girls

Date: May 1978
Creator: Hemsell, Joyce
Description: This study compares the effectiveness of three selected exercises (curl-up, conventional hook sit-up and modified hook sit-up) in building abdominal strength and endurance in upper elementary school girls. Ninety-nine subjects were randomly divided into four groups. The study was designed to determine (1) whether an eight week exercise program can increase abdominal strength and endurance; (2) the most effective exercise; (3) if muscle action intensity affects the results. A cable tensiometer measured abdominal strength and a timed sit-up measured abdominal endurance. An analysis of covariance determined significance. Significant gains in abdominal strength and endurance were shown by the conventional hook sit-up. Further study on the relationship between muscle development and maturation in young children is recommended.
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