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 Degree Discipline: Counseling Psychology
 Degree Level: Doctoral
The Relationship Between Mood Elevation and Attribution Change in the Reduction of Depression

The Relationship Between Mood Elevation and Attribution Change in the Reduction of Depression

Date: August 1985
Creator: Swenson, Carol
Description: This study investigated the relationship between the depressive attributional style described by Beck and Seligman and elevation of mood. It was proposed that mood elevation would reduce the level of depression and, in addition, would reduce the number of negative attributions. The reduction of negative attributions was assumed to be a more cognitively mediated process and was proposed to occur subsequent to mood change. These assumptions are contrary to the current cognitive theories of depression and attribution which view attributional style as a prerequisite to both the development and reduction of depression. Subjects were 30 undergraduate students between the ages of 19 and 40 years old who volunteered to participate in the study. They were screened on the basis of demonstrated depression (13 and above on the Beck Inventory) and susceptibility to hypnosis (high susceptibility on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility) . Subjects were randcmly assigned to one of three groups; (1) hypnosis with mood elevation, (2) hypnosis with relaxation, and (3) no treatment control. The results supported the hypothesis that mood elevation would reduce level of depression. The mood elevation group demonstrated a lowering of depression. The effects of the treatment procedure did not appear until the ...
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Family Environment, Affect, Ambivalence and Decisions About Unplanned Adolescent Pregnancy

Family Environment, Affect, Ambivalence and Decisions About Unplanned Adolescent Pregnancy

Date: December 1985
Creator: Warren, Keith Clements
Description: This study investigated the relationships among family environment, demographic measures, the decisions made by unintentionally pregnant adolescents regarding post-delivery plans (stay single, get married, adoption), and the certainty with which these decisions were made. The Information Sheet, Family Environment Scale (Moos & Moos, 1981), and Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (Zuckerman & Lubin, 1965a) were administered to 17 5 pregnant adolescents, ages 14 through 22, who intended to carry their pregnancies to term. Pearson product-moment correlations and multiple regression analyses were utilized to assess the relationships between family environment and certainty of decision and between family environment and negative affect. Greater uncertainty was associated with nonwhite racial status and living with both natural parents or mother only. Higher levels of negative affect were related to lower levels of perceived family cohesion, independence, expressiveness, and intellectualcultural orientation. The demographic variables of age, trimester of pregnancy, and family constellation were also found to be useful in predicting levels of negative affect. Subjects who were older, further along in their pregnancies, and living with both natural parents or mother only tended to report greater negative affect. Findings of greater uncertainty and negative affect associated with living with the natural mother are consistent with ...
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The Effects of Mood State and Intensity on Cognitive Processing Modes

The Effects of Mood State and Intensity on Cognitive Processing Modes

Date: August 1986
Creator: Lamar, Marlys Camille
Description: To investigate the effects of emotional arousal on information processing strategy, three different moods (sadness, anger, and happiness) were hypnotically induced at three different levels of intensity (high, medium, and low) in 29 male and female undergraduate students, while engaging them in a visual information processing task. Subjects were screened for hypnotic susceptibility and assigned to either a high susceptibility group or low susceptibility group to account for the attentional bias associated with this trait. All subjects were trained to access the three emotions at the three levels of intensity. During separate experimental sessions, subjects were hypnotized, and asked to access a mood and experience each level of intensity while being administered the Navon Design Discrimination Task, a measure of global and analytic visual information processing. Scores were derived for global processing, analytic processing, and a percentage of global to analytic processing for each level of mood and intensity. Two (hypnotic susceptibility) x 3 (emotion) x 3 (intensity level) repeated measures ANOVAs were computed on the global, analytic, and percentage scores. In addition, two separate ANCOVAs were computed on each dependent measure to account for the effects of handedness, and cognitive style. None of these analyses revealed significant main effects ...
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An Examination of the Perceptual Asymmetries of Depressed Persons as Mediated by Hypnosis

An Examination of the Perceptual Asymmetries of Depressed Persons as Mediated by Hypnosis

Date: August 1986
Creator: Wilson, Lucy Erma
Description: This study evaluated the role of asymmetric processing of information in depression. Depression has been hypothesized to involve a deficit in the global processing of information (Tucker, 1982). This type of global processing has been manipulated through the use of hypnosis by Crawford and Allen (1983). In the current study, a 3 x 2 ANCOVA design allowed the comparison of three groups of subjects on their performance on a perceptual task measuring global perception. The task chosen was designed by Navon (1977) and consisted of designs which differed on global or local features. The groups were screened with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, yielding 46 subjects divided into three groups of right-handed males and females. The experimental group consisted of high susceptible depressives from the community. The controls were one group of high susceptible normals and one of low susceptible depressives. All groups performed the Navon task under both waking and hypnosis conditions. Analysis of the results revealed a main effect for group (F(2, 86) = 9.60, p < .01) on the global scores. In addition, high social desirability scores predicted slower presentation times. However, hypnosis was not effective ...
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The Effects of the Type A Behavior Pattern and Aerobic Exercise on the Allocation of Attention

The Effects of the Type A Behavior Pattern and Aerobic Exercise on the Allocation of Attention

Date: December 1986
Creator: Morton, Anne Aldredge
Description: This investigation examined the effects of aerobic fitness and the Type A behavior pattern on cognitive functioning in the split-attention (dual task) paradigm. Sixty-four adults were classified as Type A or B by means of the Jenkins Activity Survey, and as Runner or Sedentary using self-reports of physical activity. Under challenging instructions, subjects performed a primary task (Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices) and secondary task (Backward Digit Span) alternatively under single and dual task conditions. There was a significant interaction between aerobic fitness and task condition such that Runners outperformed Sedentary subjects under dual, but not single, task conditions on the secondary task. No differences were found on the primary task. Backward Digit Span performance under dual, but not single, task conditions, was also found to be positively related to the subjects eating a low cholesterol diet and maintaining a healthy weight. Contrary to predictions, there were no significant effects of the Type A behavior pattern, either main or interaction, on any of the cognitive measures. Type A Runners exceeded Type B Runners in aerobic points, races per year, runs per week, Personal Record attempts, and level of dissatisfaction with performance. There were no differences in the tendency to run while ...
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Relaxation Training in Anxiety and Stress Management Differential Effects of an Audible vs. Imaginal Meditational Focus

Relaxation Training in Anxiety and Stress Management Differential Effects of an Audible vs. Imaginal Meditational Focus

Date: December 1986
Creator: Shaw, Patricia (Patricia Hyman)
Description: The hypothesis was tested that meditation using an audible word-sound would be superior to silent repetition of the same word in producing decrements in autonomic arousal and improvements in anxiety, mood, and the ability to cope with stress. The influence of hypnotic susceptibility upon improvement was also evaluated. Thirty subjects, assigned to one of three groups: audible meditation, silent meditation, and relaxation control, met one hour weekly for six weeks to practice their respective technique and discuss their progress. All subjects were evaluated using the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, a medical symptom checklist, the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale, a self-rating of state anxiety, and factors C and Q4 of the 16PF. Finger temperature was taken as a measure of physiological arousal. Confidence ratings of the respective strategies were taken pre- and post-treatment.
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Training and Practice Effects on Performance Attributions Among Non-Depressed and Depressed Older Persons

Training and Practice Effects on Performance Attributions Among Non-Depressed and Depressed Older Persons

Date: December 1987
Creator: Segal, Carolyn
Description: Previous research examining the impact of training and practice effects on modifying performance of fluid intelligence tasks (Gf) and crystallized intelligence tasks (Gc) were extended to include self-rated performance attributions among non-depressed and depressed older persons. The following general questions were addressed. How does level of depression affect performance on Gf and Gc measures and performance attributions? How does level of depression and degree of benefit from either training or practice relate to changes in attributional styles? The framework used for predicting shifts in attributional styles was the reformulated learned helplessness model. Three hundred twenty-five community-dwelling older persons completed the Gf/Gc Sampler, Beck Depression Inventory, and Attributions for Success/Failure Questionnaire at pretest, posttest (one week), and follow-up (one month). Between the pretest and posttest sessions, subjects participated in one of three experimental conditions; (a) cognitive (induction) training, (b) stress inoculation training, and (c) no-contact control groups. The results from univariate and multivariate analysis of covariance procedures provided partial support for the hypotheses. At pretest, both non-depressed and depressed older persons had internal attributional styles, although based on differential performance outcomes. The depressed persons were found to have more failure experiences as a result of their significantly poorer performance on Gf ...
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Childhood Fears and the Impact of Divorce and Remarriage

Childhood Fears and the Impact of Divorce and Remarriage

Date: May 1989
Creator: Pickard, David C.
Description: Different family structures and levels of parental and financial stress were investigated in relation to children's overtly expressed fears, and secondarily, covertly measured fears and concerns. The family structures consisted of divorced and remarried families divided into those divorced less than two years and those divorced greater than two years. Intact families were used as the control group. One-hundred-twenty-one children from six to eleven years of age and their biological mothers from a semirural, southwestern town comprised the sample. The children were administered five instruments assessing overt fears, covert fears/concerns, and positiveness in family relationships. Mothers were given eight self-report measures which included a questionnaire, a report of their child's overt fears, and an indication of the positiveness in family relationships. Results indicated that the children of divorced, single mothers tended to report greater overt fears than remarried and intact families. Indications of covert fears of death and separation were also suggested. This was especially true for those single mothers divorced less than two years. Children of intact families did not generally differ from remarried groups although there were implications that remarriage too soon after divorce may impact covert fears as well as positive feelings toward the stepfather. Children of ...
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Type A Behavior Pattern: Its Relationship to the Holland Types and the Career Choice Process

Type A Behavior Pattern: Its Relationship to the Holland Types and the Career Choice Process

Date: May 1989
Creator: Martin, Kyle Thomas
Description: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of the Type A behavior pattern to Holland's occupational types and the career choice process. The Type A behavior pattern is characterized by high levels of achievement striving, time urgency, chronic activation and hostility, and is an independent risk factor in the development of coronary heart disease. It was hypothesized that Type A college students would be more attracted than Type B individuals to aspects of a future work environment which would reinforce their Type A behaviors. Previous research had suggested a relationship between the Type A behavior pattern and Holland's Enterprising and Investigative types (Martin, 1986). This study sought to replicate those findings, and further examine the nature of the Type A/B-Holland types relationship. Data were collected from undergraduate students in a variety of academic fields of study. Subjects completed a questionnaire packet consisting of the student version of the Jenkins Activity Survey (Jenkins, Rosenman, and Zyzanski, 1965; Glass, 1977), the Vocational Preference Inventory (Holland, 1985b), and a modified version of the Minnesota Job Description Questionnaire (Rosen, et al., 1972) . The findings demonstrated that the Type A/B pattern is a significant factor in the career choice process. ...
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The Prediction of Homophobic Attitudes among College Students

The Prediction of Homophobic Attitudes among College Students

Date: August 1989
Creator: Schatman, Michael E. (Michael Edward)
Description: A review of the literature on homophobia indicates that negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality have been empirically related to numerous socio-demographic and attitudinal variables. Research to this date has focused on the relationship between individual variables and homophobia rather than examining multiple variables simultaneously. The purpose of the present investigation was to identify the factors which are predictive of homophobia. One hundred and ninety-four female and 115 male participants completed a biographical information questionnaire requesting socio-demographic information, self-proclaimed religiosity, frequency of church attendance, self-proclaimed political orientation, and political party identification. Participants also completed measures of attitudes toward male homosexuality, attitudes toward lesbianism, attitudes toward women, authoritarianism, sex anxiety, sexual attitudes, and socio-economic status. Statistical treatment of the data through principal components analysis indicated that homophobic attitudes are best predicted by a factor identified as "conservatism". Other factors were identified which predicted homophobia to a lesser extent. Male participant gender was determined to predict homophobia toward male homosexuals, but gender was not found to predict homophobic attitudes toward lesbians.
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Critical Expectations of Workers Undergoing a Major Change in the Workplace

Critical Expectations of Workers Undergoing a Major Change in the Workplace

Date: May 1990
Creator: Cheney, Alan B. (Alan Bruce)
Description: In an effort to determine whether job satisfaction and expectations in a group of workers undergoing major change in the workplace differ from groups of workers not undergoing major change, data were collected from three groups of workers at the operator level in a major U.S. electronics manufacturing company. Two of the groups were not undergoing a major work redesign and served as control groups. A group undergoing the early stages of a major work redesign, characterized primarily by their formation into a self-managed work team, served as the experimental group. The experimental group and one control group were located at the same manufacturing plant, while the other control group was located at another plant. It was hypothesized that the group of workers undergoing change would differ in job satisfaction and that over time, the difference would grow. It was also hypothesized that the group undergoing change would have different expectations about the nature of their jobs in the future. Data were collected from members of the three groups using a modified version of Hackman and Oldham's (1980) Job Diagnostic Survey, with two administrations of the survey seven months apart. Data were analyzed using a 3 (Groups) X 2 (Perception: ...
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An Empirically Derived Typology of Single Custodial Fathers: Characteristics and Implications for Role Adjustment

An Empirically Derived Typology of Single Custodial Fathers: Characteristics and Implications for Role Adjustment

Date: May 1990
Creator: Theurer, Gregory W. (Gregory Wayne)
Description: Eighty-seven single custodial fathers were surveyed to test the validity of previously developed typologies and/or construct a more empirically valid framework with implications for adjustment to the role. Mendes1 (1975) aggressive seekers, conciliatory seekers, conciliatory assenters, and aggressive assenters were compared to O'Brien's (1980) hostile seekers, conciliatory negotiators, and passive acceptors. In addition to demographic variables, relationship to ex-wife and child, and reasons for becoming single and obtaining custody, several personality variables were included along with measures of adjustment. One year follow-up measures of adjustment were collected to evaluate implications of typologies in adjustment. Two nearly equal groups were established in a Q type factor analysis of continuous data. Factor loadings of individual cases suggest a continuum of the two types of single fathers, rather than two distinct groups. Group differences were evaluated in a series of MANOVA and Chisquare analyses. Analysis included six factor scores from a supplemental R factor analysis of selected variables. Type I fathers are characterized as older, more passive, selfreflective, and aloof in interpersonal relationships. They are somewhat less oriented toward a relationship with their children and had felt satisfied with their wives* care of them. Alternatively, Type II fathers are younger, active, assured (not ...
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A Model for Predicting Bereavement Outcome in Widowhood

A Model for Predicting Bereavement Outcome in Widowhood

Date: May 1990
Creator: Allen, Susan Elise
Description: The present longitudinal study examined the effects and interactions of several variables thought to affect adjustment to conjugal bereavement. Questionnaires were administered to 147 conjugally bereaved subjects and to 46 persons bereaved of close relatives other than spouse. Independent variables included experienced competence (self-esteem, locus of control, coping self-efficacy, and prior coping strategies), impact of loss (anticipation and preventabillty of loss, centrality of relationship and life change), and perceived resources. All of the independent variables were found to be important predictors of adjustment in conjugal bereavement. However, hypothesized interactions among variables were generally not found. Experimental variables were better predictors of adjustment in conjugal bereavement than were demographic variables. Contrary to prediction, widowed subjects tended to become more lonely and showed increased bereavement adjustment difficulties over a six month period of time. However, post hoc analysis suggested that levels of adjustment do not decline over the long term in widowhood. The present study supports a view of widowhood as a multidimensional event, characterized by seemingly contradictory feelings, experiences, and behaviors.
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Interpersonal Reactions to Bereaved Parents: An Exploration of Attachment and Interpersonal Theories

Interpersonal Reactions to Bereaved Parents: An Exploration of Attachment and Interpersonal Theories

Date: June 1990
Creator: Wilhite, Thomas R. (Thomas Ray)
Description: The experiment examined negative social reactions to bereaved parents from unrelated others. Both the behavior displayed by the parent and attachment style of the perceiver were expected to influence reactions to bereaved parents. Undergraduates at a southern university (N = 239) completed both attachment measures and measures of reactions to videotapes of bereaved parents. Results indicated that bereaved parents do indeed receive negative evaluations from unrelated others, in the form of decreased willingness to interact in various roles. However, a nonbereaved parent displaying depressive symptoms also received negative evaluations. Depressed targets in the present study did receive negative evaluations, supporting the predictions of Coyne's interpersonal-process theory of reactions to depressed individuals. Contrary to the predictions of interpersonal-process theory, a bereaved parent displaying loss content without depressive symptoms also elicited negative evaluations. Coyne's hypothesis that the amount of induced negative affect in the perceiver leads to negative evaluations was not supported by the data. Subjects appear to react to a complex set of factors when forming these evaluations, including both personal and situational information. Two factors may have undermined the present study s ability to adequately test this theory. Subjects may have perceived depressive symptoms in loss content in the present ...
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Elder Abuse: Education for Persons with Experienced Violence

Elder Abuse: Education for Persons with Experienced Violence

Date: August 1990
Creator: Reinberg, Julie A. (Julie Ann)
Description: The rationale for this study was based on the application of the cycle of domestic violence theory to elder abuse. It examined the effect of history of experienced childhood violence on tolerance, behavioral intentions, and past behaviors of elder abuse toward general and specific elderly targets. The effectiveness of educational interventions for altering tolerance and behavioral intentions of elder abuse was examined. Two hundred and twenty-five undergraduates were assessed for aging knowledge, general aging attitudes, aging anxiety, elder abuse attitudes, and elder abuse intentions and past behaviors. Participants were assigned to a High or Low Experienced Violence group and participated in an educational group or control group. Posttest and one-month followup measures were obtained. No differences were found at pretest between High and Low Violence. Level of Violence did not impact intervention efficacy. Elder abuse education altered attitudes, intentions, and behaviors of elder abuse at posttest significantly more than did aging education or control groups (p < .001), but these effects were no longer significant at followup. Elder abuse attitudes had higher relationships with elder abuse intentions and reported past behaviors than did global aging attitudes or aging anxiety (p < .05). General elderly targets yielded more tolerance, intentions, and ...
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Female Adolescent Runaways: Personality Patterns in Response to Physical or Sexual Abuse

Female Adolescent Runaways: Personality Patterns in Response to Physical or Sexual Abuse

Date: August 1990
Creator: Keefe, Carmen Kay
Description: Personality patterns of sexually abused female adolescent runaways are compared to personality patterns of physically abused female adolescent runaways. Eighty-six female adolescents from 13 to 17 years of age completed a self report inventory to determine personality traits. To test the hypotheses of the study, a multivariate analysis of variance was conducted, followed with univariate tests to find differences on separate dependent measures. Results indicated that on the Jesness Inventory there may be a common personality pattern associated with abuse. Univariate tests yielded data which indicated that although there may be a general personality pattern for abused adolescents, there were significant differences between the physically and sexually abused adolescents on some personality variables. Results were evaluated taking into account the selective sample from which the population was drawn. Recommendations for future research included the use of projectives, a more comprehensive personality inventory, and selected demographics.
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Perceived Influence of Single-Parent Sexual Behavior on Quality of Parenting and Sexual Development of Offspring

Perceived Influence of Single-Parent Sexual Behavior on Quality of Parenting and Sexual Development of Offspring

Date: August 1990
Creator: Castillo, Michael G. (Michael George)
Description: Double standard effects in inferences about quality of parenting and adult sexual outcomes for children were investigated under five conditions of single-parent sexual behavior. The sample comprised six hundred married parents from three major metropolitan areas in Texas. Subjects were administered a scenario about a hypothetical single parent family. The scenario varied with respect to parent gender, child gender, and type of parental sexual activity (e.g., abstinence, limited affairs away from home, involvement with a live-in lover, frequent partners spending the night, and a control condition containing no sexual message). Subjects were asked to rate a parent from the scenario on quality of parenting and predict the adult sexual behavior of the child. Hypothesized double standard effects did not emerge. A double standard in judgments about sexually active single parents and parenting did appear. Main effects were found for child gender and sexual lifestyle of the parent (e.g., parents with boys rated less favorably than parents with girls; promiscuous fathers were rated lower than promiscuous mothers). Several interaction effects among parent gender, child gender, and sexual lifestyle condition were also found (e.g., promiscuous parents were rated lower as parents and seen as negatively influencing the child's sexual development). Recommendations for ...
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First-Time Parenthood: Attachment, Family Variables, Emotional Reactions, and Task Responsibilities as Predictors Of Stress

First-Time Parenthood: Attachment, Family Variables, Emotional Reactions, and Task Responsibilities as Predictors Of Stress

Date: December 1990
Creator: Abbott, Donna Christine
Description: The purpose of this study was to explore factors which are predictive of parenting stress for first-time parents. Based on attachment theory and empirical research, the factors investigated were the responsibility for child care and housework, the current and retrospective relationship with the family of origin, the change in emotions related to parenthood, the marital relationship, and attachment and individuation.
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Perceived Family Competence and Late Adolescence: an Exploratory Look at Affective, Cognitive, and Interpersonal Variables

Perceived Family Competence and Late Adolescence: an Exploratory Look at Affective, Cognitive, and Interpersonal Variables

Date: August 1992
Creator: Swart, Jana L. (Jana Leigh)
Description: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of perceived family competence on late adolescent problem-solving abilities, family relationships, and affective experience. Specific areas of interest were perceived confidence in problem-solving and approach rather than avoidance of problems; intergenerational intimacy, intergenerational individuation, and personal authority in the family system as the adolescent relates to parents; and level of depression. Subjects were 256 late adolescents whose parents were still married and living together. Results indicated that perceived family competence had an effect on the dependent variables in the expected directions. Specifically, individuals who scored high on perceived family competence were high on perceived problem-solving confidence, approached problem-solving, were high on intergenerational intimacy, intergenerational individuation, and personal authority in relation to parents, and had less depression than individuals low on perceived family competence. Several sex differences were noted. Females had significantly higher approach to problem-solving than did males. Women reported significantly higher intergenerational intimacy with parents than did men. There was a significant interaction on personal authority such that for the high perceived family competence group, women scored higher than men. However, there were no significant differences between males and females in the low perceived family competence group.
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The Influence of Separation, Attachment and Family Processes on the Career Exploratory Behavior of Late Adolescents

The Influence of Separation, Attachment and Family Processes on the Career Exploratory Behavior of Late Adolescents

Date: December 1992
Creator: Moreault, Anne-Marie
Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the idea that a late adolescent's career exploration activities may be influenced by levels of attachment to and psychological separation from family, family health, and family structure. It was proposed that higher levels of self and environmental exploration would be associated with positive family relationships and adequate levels of psychological separation and attachment. Cognitive and demographic variables were included as control measures. Measures of family health, attachment, separation, family structure, career exploration, career decision making self efficacy, and beliefs in the usefulness of engaging in self and environmental exploration were administered to 304 undergraduates from intact families. Multiple regression analyses were employed to examine the contribution of the independent variables measuring family processes to the variability in the dependent variables of self and environmental exploration, after controlling for the variability associated with the control measures. The demographic variables were age, gender, class standing, and decision status about a major. Results indicated that the best predictors of career exploration in late adolescence were the cognitive variables. Beliefs in the usefulness of self exploration were the best predictor of self exploration, whereas career decision making self efficacy was the best predictor of environmental exploration. ...
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Assessing Adolescent Personality and Interactional Style with the Rorschach and the Personality Inventory for Youth

Assessing Adolescent Personality and Interactional Style with the Rorschach and the Personality Inventory for Youth

Date: May 1993
Creator: Wheeler, Ann C.
Description: An investigation was undertaken to examine two measures of personality and their utility with adolescent patient populations. The Rorschach, scored using Exner's (1991) Comprehensive System (2nd Ed.), and the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY; Lachar & Gruber, in press) were explored as to their ability to distinguish inpatients from outpatients, males from females, and diagnostic groups from one another. COP, AG, CDI, DEPI, SCZI, and HVI scores on the Rorschach were utilized, as were the DIS, SOM, FAM, RLTY, WDL, and SSK scores from the PIY.
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Detecting Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: a Validation Study of Selected Screening Instruments

Detecting Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: a Validation Study of Selected Screening Instruments

Date: May 1993
Creator: McBride-Houtz, Patricia (Patricia Ann)
Description: The present study investigated the criterion-based validity of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Cognitive Capacity Screening Examination (CCSE), and the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) in a sample of older adults with suspected cognitive impairment. As cognitive screening tests, the MMSE, CCSE, and NCSE should predict performance relative to a more thorough testing procedure. In the present study, performance on the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery (HRNTB) was employed as the criterion measure. Scores on the General Neuropsychological Deficit Scale (G-NDS), a global performance measure computed from the HRNTB, served as the standard by which to judge the presence of cognitive impairment. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of each screening test, as well as how well each screening test correlated with the G-NDS, were investigated. Results of this investigation found that, although the MMSE, CCSE, and NCSE were all significantly correlated with the G-NDS, only the NCSE demonstrated an appropriate balance between high sensitivity and specificity. When a rigorous neuropsychological evaluation was employed as the criterion standard, the NCSE accurately detected the presence of cognitive impairment: in 82% of the cases. The MMSE and CCSE, however, failed to detect cognitive deficits in approximately 80% of the cases. These findings ...
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The Relationship of Separation and Attachment Processes of Late Adolescence to Career Decision-Making Obstacles

The Relationship of Separation and Attachment Processes of Late Adolescence to Career Decision-Making Obstacles

Date: May 1993
Creator: Polk, Nancy E. (Nancy Elizabeth)
Description: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of separation-individuation during late adolescence and obstacles to career decision making.
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The Use of Coping Strategies in Depressed and Nondepressed Chronic Pain Patients

The Use of Coping Strategies in Depressed and Nondepressed Chronic Pain Patients

Date: May 1993
Creator: Henson, C. D. (Connie Dee)
Description: This study investigated the relationship between preferred coping strategies, and major stressors for nondepressed, and depressed chronic pain patients. The subjects for this study were 67 chronic pain patients who are participating in a pain/spinal rehabilitation program. The information collected from the individuals or their records included: (1) basic demographic information, (2) level of activity, (3) level of perceived pain, (4) medication usage, (5) therapist rating of level of stabilization, (6) scores on three inventories including the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the Ways of Coping Checklist, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Analyses included an examination of the relationship between level of depression and (1) type of stressors, (2) coping strategies, and (3) level of perceived pain. Further analyses included multiple regression with outcome as defined by therapist ratings at the end of treatment, and patients' ratings at follow up as the criterion variables.
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