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Degree Discipline: Computer Science
Degree Level: Doctoral
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Date: December 1986
Creator: Atwood, Larry D. (Larry Dale)
Description: This dissertation deals with the problem of manipulating and storing an image using quadtrees. A quadtree is a tree in which each node has four ordered children or is a leaf. It can be used to represent an image via hierarchical decomposition. The image is broken into four regions. A region can be a solid color (homogeneous) or a mixture of colors (heterogeneous). If a region is heterogeneous it is broken into four subregions, and the process continues recursively until all subregions are homogeneous. The traditional quadtree suffers from dependence on the underlying grid. The grid coordinate system is implicit, and therefore fixed. The fixed coordinate system implies a rigid tree. A rigid tree cannot be translated, scaled, or rotated. Instead, a new tree must be built which is the result of one of these transformations. This dissertation introduces the independent quadtree. The independent quadtree is free of any underlying coordinate system. The tree is no longer rigid and can be easily translated, scaled, or rotated. Algorithms to perform these operations axe presented. The translation and rotation algorithms take constant time. The scaling algorithm has linear time in the number nodes in the tree. The disadvantage of independent quadtrees is ...
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### A Comparative Analysis of Guided vs. Query-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) Using a Class-Entity-Relationship-Attribute (CERA) Knowledge Base

Date: August 1987
Creator: Hall, Douglas Lee
Description: One of the greatest problems facing researchers in the sub field of Artificial Intelligence known as Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) is the selection of a knowledge base designs that will facilitate the modification of the knowledge base. The Class-Entity-Relationship-Attribute (CERA), proposed by R. P. Brazile, holds certain promise as a more generic knowledge base design framework upon which can be built robust and efficient ITS. This study has a twofold purpose. The first is to demonstrate that a CERA knowledge base can be constructed for an ITS on a subset of the domain of Cretaceous paleontology and function as the "expert module" of the ITS. The second is to test the validity of the ideas that students guided through a lesson learn more factual knowledge, while those who explore the knowledge base that underlies the lesson through query at their own pace will be able to formulate their own integrative knowledge from the knowledge gained in their explorations and spend more time on the system. This study concludes that a CERA-based system can be constructed as an effective teaching tool. However, while an ITS - treatment provides for statistically significant gains in achievement test scores, the type of treatment seems ...
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### A Timescale Estimating Model for Rule-Based Systems

Date: December 1987
Creator: Moseley, Charles Warren
Description: The purpose of this study was to explore the subject of timescale estimating for rule-based systems. A model for estimating the timescale necessary to build rule-based systems was built and then tested in a controlled environment.
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### Computer Realization of Human Music Cognition

Date: August 1988
Creator: Albright, Larry E. (Larry Eugene)
Description: This study models the human process of music cognition on the digital computer. The definition of music cognition is derived from the work in music cognition done by the researchers Carol Krumhansl and Edward Kessler, and by Mari Jones, as well as from the music theories of Heinrich Schenker. The computer implementation functions in three stages. First, it translates a musical "performance" in the form of MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) messages into LISP structures. Second, the various parameters of the performance are examined separately a la Jones's joint accent structure, quantified according to psychological findings, and adjusted to a common scale. The findings of Krumhansl and Kessler are used to evaluate the consonance of each note with respect to the key of the piece and with respect to the immediately sounding harmony. This process yields a multidimensional set of points, each of which is a cognitive evaluation of a single musical event within the context of the piece of music within which it occurred. This set of points forms a metric space in multi-dimensional Euclidean space. The third phase of the analysis maps the set of points into a topology-preserving data structure for a Schenkerian-like middleground structural analysis. This ...
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### Semaphore Solutions for General Mutual Exclusion Problems

Date: August 1988
Creator: Yue, Kwok B. (Kwok Bun)
Description: Automatic generation of starvation-free semaphore solutions to general mutual exclusion problems is discussed. A reduction approach is introduced for recognizing edge-solvable problems, together with an O(N^2) algorithm for graph reduction, where N is the number of nodes. An algorithm for the automatic generation of starvation-free edge-solvable solutions is presented. The solutions are proved to be very efficient. For general problems, there are two ways to generate efficient solutions. One associates a semaphore with every node, the other with every edge. They are both better than the standard monitorâ€”like solutions. Besides strong semaphores, solutions using weak semaphores, weaker semaphores and generalized semaphores are also considered. Basic properties of semaphore solutions are also discussed. Tools describing the dynamic behavior of parallel systems, as well as performance criteria for evaluating semaphore solutions are elaborated.
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### Speech Recognition Using a Synthesized Codebook

Date: August 1988
Creator: Smith, Lloyd A. (Lloyd Allen)
Description: Speech sounds generated by a simple waveform synthesizer were used to create a vector quantization codebook for use in speech recognition. Recognition was tested over the TI-20 isolated word data base using a conventional DTW matching algorithm. Input speech was band limited to 300 - 3300 Hz, then passed through the Scott Instruments Corp. Coretechs process, implemented on a VET3 speech terminal, to create the speech representation for matching. Synthesized sounds were processed in software by a VET3 signal processing emulation program. Emulation and recognition were performed on a DEC VAX 11/750. The experiments were organized in 2 series. A preliminary experiment, using no vector quantization, provided a baseline for comparison. The original codebook contained 109 vectors, all derived from 2 formant synthesized sounds. This codebook was decimated through the course of the first series of experiments, based on the number of times each vector was used in quantizing the training data for the previous experiment, in order to determine the smallest subset of vectors suitable for coding the speech data base. The second series of experiments altered several test conditions in order to evaluate the applicability of the minimal synthesized codebook to conventional codebook training. The baseline recognition rate ...
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### Inheritance Problems in Object-Oriented Database

Date: May 1989
Creator: Auepanwiriyakul, Raweewan
Description: This research is concerned with inheritance as used in object-oriented database. More specifically, partial bi-directional inheritance among classes is examined. In partial inheritance, a class can inherit a proper subset of instance variables from another class. Two subclasses of the same superclass do not need to inherit the same proper subset of instance variables from their superclass. Bi-directional partial inheritance allows a class to inherit instance variables from its subclass. The prototype of an object-oriented database that supports both full and partial bi-directional inheritance among classes was developed on top of an existing relational database management system. The prototype was tested with two database applications. One database application needs full and partial inheritance. The second database application required bi-directional inheritance. The result of this testing suggests both advantages and disadvantages of partial bi-directional inheritance. Future areas of research are also suggested.
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### A Mechanism for Facilitating Temporal Reasoning in Discrete Event Simulation

Date: May 1992
Creator: Legge, Gaynor W.
Description: This research establishes the feasibility and potential utility of a software mechanism which employs artificial intelligence techniques to enhance the capabilities of standard discrete event simulators. As background, current methods of integrating artificial intelligence with simulation and relevant research are briefly reviewed.
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### Using Extended Logic Programs to Formalize Commonsense Reasoning

Date: May 1992
Creator: Horng, Wen-Bing
Description: In this dissertation, we investigate how commonsense reasoning can be formalized by using extended logic programs. In this investigation, we first use extended logic programs to formalize inheritance hierarchies with exceptions by adopting McCarthy's simple abnormality formalism to express uncertain knowledge. In our representation, not only credulous reasoning can be performed but also the ambiguity-blocking inheritance and the ambiguity-propagating inheritance in skeptical reasoning are simulated. In response to the anomalous extension problem, we explore and discover that the intuition underlying commonsense reasoning is a kind of forward reasoning. The unidirectional nature of this reasoning is applied by many reformulations of the Yale shooting problem to exclude the undesired conclusion. We then identify defeasible conclusions in our representation based on the syntax of extended logic programs. A similar idea is also applied to other formalizations of commonsense reasoning to achieve such a purpose.
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### Using Normal Deduction Graphs in Common Sense Reasoning

Date: May 1992
Creator: Munoz, Ricardo A. (Ricardo Alberto)
Description: This investigation proposes a powerful formalization of common sense knowledge based on function-free normal deduction graphs (NDGs) which form a powerful tool for deriving Horn and non-Horn clauses without functions. Such formalization allows common sense reasoning since it has the ability to handle not only negative but also incomplete information.
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### Efficient Linked List Ranking Algorithms and Parentheses Matching as a New Strategy for Parallel Algorithm Design

Date: December 1993
Creator: Halverson, Ranette Hudson
Description: The goal of a parallel algorithm is to solve a single problem using multiple processors working together and to do so in an efficient manner. In this regard, there is a need to categorize strategies in order to solve broad classes of problems with similar structures and requirements. In this dissertation, two parallel algorithm design strategies are considered: linked list ranking and parentheses matching.
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### Multiresolutional/Fractal Compression of Still and Moving Pictures

Date: December 1993
Creator: Kiselyov, Oleg E.
Description: The scope of the present dissertation is a deep lossy compression of still and moving grayscale pictures while maintaining their fidelity, with a specific goal of creating a working prototype of a software system for use in low bandwidth transmission of still satellite imagery and weather briefings with the best preservation of features considered important by the end user.
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### Temporal Connectionist Expert Systems Using a Temporal Backpropagation Algorithm

Date: December 1993
Creator: Civelek, Ferda N. (Ferda Nur)
Description: Representing time has been considered a general problem for artificial intelligence research for many years. More recently, the question of representing time has become increasingly important in representing human decision making process through connectionist expert systems. Because most human behaviors unfold over time, any attempt to represent expert performance, without considering its temporal nature, can often lead to incorrect results. A temporal feedforward neural network model that can be applied to a number of neural network application areas, including connectionist expert systems, has been introduced. The neural network model has a multi-layer structure, i.e. the number of layers is not limited. Also, the model has the flexibility of defining output nodes in any layer. This is especially important for connectionist expert system applications. A temporal backpropagation algorithm which supports the model has been developed. The model along with the temporal backpropagation algorithm makes it extremely practical to define any artificial neural network application. Also, an approach that can be followed to decrease the memory space used by weight matrix has been introduced. The algorithm was tested using a medical connectionist expert system to show how best we describe not only the disease but also the entire course of the disease. ...
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### A Multi-Time Scale Learning Mechanism for Neuromimic Processing

Date: August 1994
Creator: Mobus, George E. (George Edward)
Description: Learning and representing and reasoning about temporal relations, particularly causal relations, is a deep problem in artificial intelligence (AI). Learning such representations in the real world is complicated by the fact that phenomena are subject to multiple time scale influences and may operate with a strange attractor dynamic. This dissertation proposes a new computational learning mechanism, the adaptrode, which, used in a neuromimic processing architecture may help to solve some of these problems. The adaptrode is shown to emulate the dynamics of real biological synapses and represents a significant departure from the classical weighted input scheme of conventional artificial neural networks. Indeed the adaptrode is shown, by analysis of the deep structure of real synapses, to have a strong structural correspondence with the latter in terms of multi-time scale biophysical processes. Simulations of an adaptrode-based neuron and a small network of neurons are shown to have the same learning capabilities as invertebrate animals in classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is considered a fundamental learning task in animals. Furthermore, it is subject to temporal ordering constraints that fulfill the criteria of causal relations in natural systems. It may offer clues to the learning of causal relations and mechanisms for causal reasoning. The ...
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### A Highly Fault-Tolerant Distributed Database System with Replicated Data

Date: December 1994
Creator: Lin, Tsai S. (Tsai Shooumeei)
Description: Because of the high cost and impracticality of a high connectivity network, most recent research in transaction processing has focused on a distributed replicated database system. In such a system, multiple copies of a data item are created and stored at several sites in the network, so that the system is able to tolerate more crash and communication failures and attain higher data availability. However, the multiple copies also introduce a global inconsistency problem, especially in a partitioned network. In this dissertation a tree quorum algorithm is proposed to solve this problem, imposing a logical tree structure along with dynamic system reconfiguration on all the copies of each data item. The proposed algorithm can be viewed as a dynamic voting technique which, with the help of an appropriate concurrency control algorithm, exhibits the major advantages of quorum-based replica control algorithms and of the available copies algorithm, so that a single copy is read for a read operation and a quorum of copies is written for a write operation. In addition, read and write quorums are computed dynamically and independently. As a result expensive read operations, like those that require several copies of a data item to be read in most ...
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### Recognition of Face Images

Date: December 1994
Creator: Pershits, Edward
Description: The focus of this dissertation is a methodology that enables computer systems to classify different up-front images of human faces as belonging to one of the individuals to which the system has been exposed previously. The images can present variance in size, location of the face, orientation, facial expressions, and overall illumination. The approach to the problem taken in this dissertation can be classified as analytic as the shapes of individual features of human faces are examined separately, as opposed to holistic approaches to face recognition. The outline of the features is used to construct signature functions. These functions are then magnitude-, period-, and phase-normalized to form a translation-, size-, and rotation-invariant representation of the features. Vectors of a limited number of the Fourier decomposition coefficients of these functions are taken to form the feature vectors representing the features in the corresponding vector space. With this approach no computation is necessary to enforce the translational, size, and rotational invariance at the stage of recognition thus reducing the problem of recognition to the k-dimensional clustering problem. A recognizer is specified that can reliably classify the vectors of the feature space into object classes. The recognizer made use of the following principle: ...
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### A Theoretical Network Model and the Incremental Hypercube-Based Networks

Date: May 1995
Creator: Mao, Ai-sheng
Description: The study of multicomputer interconnection networks is an important area of research in parallel processing. We introduce vertex-symmetric Hamming-group graphs as a model to design a wide variety of network topologies including the hypercube network.
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### Practical Cursive Script Recognition

Date: August 1995
Creator: Carroll, Johnny Glen, 1953-
Description: This research focused on the off-line cursive script recognition application. The problem is very large and difficult and there is much room for improvement in every aspect of the problem. Many different aspects of this problem were explored in pursuit of solutions to create a more practical and usable off-line cursive script recognizer than is currently available.
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### An Algorithm for the PLA Equivalence Problem

Date: December 1995
Creator: Moon, Gyo Sik
Description: The Programmable Logic Array (PLA) has been widely used in the design of VLSI circuits and systems because of its regularity, flexibility, and simplicity. The equivalence problem is typically to verify that the final description of a circuit is functionally equivalent to its initial description. Verifying the functional equivalence of two descriptions is equivalent to proving their logical equivalence. This problem of pure logic is essential to circuit design. The most widely used technique to solve the problem is based on Binary Decision Diagram or BDD, proposed by Bryant in 1986. Unfortunately, BDD requires too much time and space to represent moderately large circuits for equivalence testing. We design and implement a new algorithm called the Cover-Merge Algorithm for the equivalence problem based on a divide-and-conquer strategy using the concept of cover and a derivational method. We prove that the algorithm is sound and complete. Because of the NP-completeness of the problem, we emphasize simplifications to reduce the search space or to avoid redundant computations. Simplification techniques are incorporated into the algorithm as an essential part to speed up the the derivation process. Two different sets of heuristics are developed for two opposite goals: one for the proof of equivalence ...
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### Convexity-Preserving Scattered Data Interpolation

Date: December 1995
Creator: Leung, Nim Keung
Description: Surface fitting methods play an important role in many scientific fields as well as in computer aided geometric design. The problem treated here is that of constructing a smooth surface that interpolates data values associated with scattered nodes in the plane. The data is said to be convex if there exists a convex interpolant. The problem of convexity-preserving interpolation is to determine if the data is convex, and construct a convex interpolant if it exists.
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### Quantifying Design Principles in Reusable Software Components

Date: December 1995
Creator: Moore, Freeman Leroy
Description: Software reuse can occur in various places during the software development cycle. Reuse of existing source code is the most commonly practiced form of software reuse. One of the key requirements for software reuse is readability, thus the interest in the use of data abstraction, inheritance, modularity, and aspects of the visible portion of module specifications. This research analyzed the contents of software reuse libraries to answer the basic question of what makes a good reusable software component. The approach taken was to measure and analyze various software metrics as mapped to design characteristics. A related research question investigated the change in the design principles over time. This was measured by comparing sets of Ada reuse libraries categorized into two time periods. It was discovered that recently developed Ada reuse components scored better on readability than earlier developed components. A benefit of this research has been the development of a set of "design for reuse" guidelines. These guidelines address coding practices as well as design principles for an Ada implementation. C++ software reuse libraries were also analyzed to determine if design principles can be applied in a language independent fashion. This research used cyclomatic complexity metrics, software science metrics, and ...
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### Rollback Reduction Techniques Through Load Balancing in Optimistic Parallel Discrete Event Simulation

Date: May 1996
Creator: Sarkar, Falguni
Description: Discrete event simulation is an important tool for modeling and analysis. Some of the simulation applications such as telecommunication network performance, VLSI logic circuits design, battlefield simulation, require enormous amount of computing resources. One way to satisfy this demand for computing power is to decompose the simulation system into several logical processes (Ip) and run them concurrently. In any parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) system, the events are ordered according to their time of occurrence. In order for the simulation to be correct, this ordering has to be preserved. There are three approaches to maintain this ordering. In a conservative system, no lp executes an event unless it is certain that all events with earlier time-stamps have been executed. Such systems are prone to deadlock. In an optimistic system on the other hand, simulation progresses disregarding this ordering and saves the system states regularly. Whenever a causality violation is detected, the system rolls back to a state saved earlier and restarts processing after correcting the error. There is another approach in which all the lps participate in the computation of a safe time-window and all events with time-stamps within this window are processed concurrently. In optimistic simulation systems, there is ...
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### A Machine Learning Method Suitable for Dynamic Domains

Date: July 1996
Creator: Rowe, Michael C. (Michael Charles)
Description: The efficacy of a machine learning technique is domain dependent. Some machine learning techniques work very well for certain domains but are ill-suited for other domains. One area that is of real-world concern is the flexibility with which machine learning techniques can adapt to dynamic domains. Currently, there are no known reports of any system that can learn dynamic domains, short of starting over (i.e., re-running the program). Starting over is neither time nor cost efficient for real-world production environments. This dissertation studied a method, referred to as Experience Based Learning (EBL), that attempts to deal with conditions related to learning dynamic domains. EBL is an extension of Instance Based Learning methods. The hypothesis of the study related to this research was that the EBL method would automatically adjust to domain changes and still provide classification accuracy similar to methods that require starting over. To test this hypothesis, twelve widely studied machine learning datasets were used. A dynamic domain was simulated by presenting these datasets in an uninterrupted cycle of train, test, and retrain. The order of the twelve datasets and the order of records within each dataset were randomized to control for order biases in each of ten runs. ...
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### Automatic Speech Recognition Using Finite Inductive Sequences

Date: August 1996
Creator: Cherri, Mona Youssef, 1956-
Description: This dissertation addresses the general problem of recognition of acoustic signals which may be derived from speech, sonar, or acoustic phenomena. The specific problem of recognizing speech is the main focus of this research. The intention is to design a recognition system for a definite number of discrete words. For this purpose specifically, eight isolated words from the T1MIT database are selected. Four medium length words "greasy," "dark," "wash," and "water" are used. In addition, four short words are considered "she," "had," "in," and "all." The recognition system addresses the following issues: filtering or preprocessing, training, and decision-making. The preprocessing phase uses linear predictive coding of order 12. Following the filtering process, a vector quantization method is used to further reduce the input data and generate a finite inductive sequence of symbols representative of each input signal. The sequences generated by the vector quantization process of the same word are factored, and a single ruling or reference template is generated and stored in a codebook. This system introduces a new modeling technique which relies heavily on the basic concept that all finite sequences are finitely inductive. This technique is used in the training stage. In order to accommodate the variabilities ...
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