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 Degree Discipline: Counseling Psychology
The Relationship between Cause of Death, Perceptions of Funerals, and Bereavement Adjustment

The Relationship between Cause of Death, Perceptions of Funerals, and Bereavement Adjustment

Date: August 1995
Creator: Ragow, Dina P. (Dina Paige)
Description: Although funerals are seen as universal rituals to honor the death of a loved one, their value in facilitating the grief process is not known. The present study explored the relationships between cause of death, feelings and attitudes toward the funeral, and subsequent bereavement adjustment.
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Increasing Differentiation on Vocational Assessments among Gifted High School Students

Increasing Differentiation on Vocational Assessments among Gifted High School Students

Date: August 1997
Creator: Kidner, Cindy L. (Cindy Lee)
Description: Multipotentiality makes career counseling with gifted students difficult. High-flat vocational profiles give the impression that gifted students can develop a wide range of abilities to an equally high level. High-flat vocational profiles may be due to assessments that consider abilities and disregard interests and values, and ceiling effects from the use of age-appropriate, rather than cognitively-appropriate measures. Subjects included 170 gifted students from a residential, early college entrance program (M=15.9 yrs., SD=.361). Subjects completed the Scholastic Aptitude Test, Self-Directed Search, and Study of Values. McNemar's Test of Correlated Proportions shows the proportion of multipotential profiles decreases significantly when cognitively-appropriate measures of interests and values are considered, in addition to abilities. Pearson Chi-square shows no ethnic differences.
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The Relationship between Hardiness and Responses to Life Events in Adulthood

The Relationship between Hardiness and Responses to Life Events in Adulthood

Date: December 1997
Creator: Crowley, Barbara Jo
Description: The relationship between psychological hardiness and individuals' coping with two life events, involuntary job loss and post-parental launching of adolescent children, was investigated in a sample of 146 adults, 83 of which had experienced job loss and 61 of which had experienced the empty nest. Volunteers completed questionnaires which measured hardiness, distress, coping strategies, neuroticism, and extraversion. Multivariate analyses were performed, both with and without covariates, for overall hardiness as well as the hardiness subscales of control, commitment, and challenge. Significant hardiness by life event interactions on escape-avoidance coping were found in both sets of analyses. Main effects for hardiness, however, disappeared when controls for neuroticism and extraversion were utilized. Findings underscore the necessity of employing neuroticism controls in future hardiness research.
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Vicarious traumatization, secondary traumatic stress, and burnout in sexual assault and domestic violence agency staff and volunteers

Vicarious traumatization, secondary traumatic stress, and burnout in sexual assault and domestic violence agency staff and volunteers

Date: August 1999
Creator: Baird, Stephanie
Description: Two constructs, vicarious trauma (VT) and secondary traumatic stress (STS), describe therapists’ reactions to clients’ traumatic material. VT (TSI Belief Scale [BSL]), emphasizes cognitive belief system changes resulting from cumulative exposure to survivors. STS, (Compassion Fatigue Self-test for Psychotherapists [CFST]) combines PTSD and burnout symptomatology explaining sudden adverse reactions to survivors. Burnout (BO; Maslach Burnout Inventory [MBI]), links emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and deficient personal accomplishment to inadequate institutional supports in interpersonally demanding work. This study investigated BSL and CFST validity, counselor trauma history, and client exposure-related VT, STS, and BO in 105 trauma counselors. Results demonstrate concurrent validity between BSL and CFST; other results dispute adequate validity. BO, and client exposure were related. Traumatized counselors scored higher than non-traumatized counselors on CFST, BSL, and SCL-90-R.
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Media effects on the body shape ideal and bulimic symptomatology in males

Media effects on the body shape ideal and bulimic symptomatology in males

Date: December 1999
Creator: Barta, Jonna Lee
Description: This study investigates the impact of sociocultural mediators in relation to eating disorders among male undergraduates. Literature on eating disorders has demonstrated that a thin body shape ideal depicted in the media directly contributes to eating pathology among females, but little research has investigated the direct effects of ideal body shape images among men. The focus of the present investigation was to assess the direct effects of exposure to the ideal male body shape on men’s affect, self esteem, body satisfaction, and endorsement of U. S. societal ideals of attractiveness. In addition, the relation of these variables to bulimic symptomatology was examined. Modeling a study conducted on women (Stice & Shaw, 1994), male undergraduates between the ages of 18 to 25 participated in premeasure (N = 169) and post measure (N = 95) conditions. Participants in the post measure were randomly exposed to pictures from magazines containing either male models depicting the ideal body shape, an average body or pictures of clothing without models. Results from repeated mulitvariate analysis indicated that exposure to the ideal body shape condition did not demonstrate significant negative changes in men’s affect, self esteem, body satisfaction or endorsement of U. S. societal ideals of attractiveness. ...
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Perceived attractiveness and personality attributes: A gender and racial analysis

Perceived attractiveness and personality attributes: A gender and racial analysis

Date: May 2000
Creator: Olby, Brian C.
Description: Subjects rated 12 female body shapes with respect to their physical attractiveness, and the extent to which they would be expected to possess various personality characteristics. The shapes were varied using 3 levels of overall weight and 4 levels of body shapeliness. The sample was modified to control for socioeconomic factors and results are based on 297 undergraduates from Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic racial backgrounds. Loglinear analyses revealed that men and women, regardless of racial background, rated shapely underweight females as most physically attractive, sexy, and ideal for a woman, followed by normal weight figures of similar proportion. African Americans, women in particular, judged the shapely normal weight figures more favorably than the other subjects. Multidimensional scaling and subsequent frequency analyses showed that those figures judged as most attractive, sexy, and ideal were also expected to be fairly emotionally stable, and most successful and interpersonally competitive, but least faithful, kind, and family-oriented. Overweight female shapes, while rated as least physically attractive, sexy, and emotionally stable, were expected to be most family-oriented, kind, and faithful. Shapely normal weight figures were judged to be attractive and sexy, and were assumed to possess a moderate amount of the personality traits in question. ...
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The Interface of Personality Processes and Cognitive Abilities: A Comparative Study of Elderly and Young Adults

The Interface of Personality Processes and Cognitive Abilities: A Comparative Study of Elderly and Young Adults

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Date: August 2000
Creator: O'Brien, Dina Paige Ragow
Description: Although research has shown that the complex constructs of intelligence and personality are necessarily intertwined, studies exploring this issue in elderly individuals are rare. The importance attached to this interface in older adults becomes particularly clear in light of the debate over the cause and extent of age-related decrements in cognitive performance as well as whether such losses can be ameliorated or not, especially given societal shifts toward increased life expectancies. The present study explored the basis for shifts in personality-ability relationships in adulthood by comparing two samples of older adults, one of which was assessed in 1975 (N = 102, M age = 68.4), and the second of which was assessed in 1995 (N = 100, M age = 72.0), and a sample of younger adults (N = 100, M age = 21.8), also assessed in 1995. Each participant was administered the Holtzman Inkblot Technique and the Gf-Gc Sampler, a measure of crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) abilities. LISREL analyses of both age-related and historical shifts in personality-ability relationships suggested that not only were such shifts associated with cohort differences as reflected in factor loading (lambda) differences between the older samples and the younger sample, as well as between ...
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Prevalence of undiagnosed dissociative disorders in an inpatient setting

Prevalence of undiagnosed dissociative disorders in an inpatient setting

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Date: August 2000
Creator: Duffy, Colleen
Description: This study examined the prevalence of undiagnosed dissociative disorders in a sample of 201 adult patients admitted to a private psychiatric hospital in a major metropolitan city in the south-central United States, over an eight-month period. A screening measure, two blind structured interviews, and a blind clinical interview were employed. The lifetime prevalence of dissociate disorders among the interviewed subjects was 40.8%. More specifically, 7.5% were diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder, 15.4% with dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, 13.4% with dissociative amnesia, and 4.5% with depersonalization disorder. Dissociative fugue was not found in this sample. Cohen's kappa reliability coefficients were computed between the three interview measures, resulting in significant findings for the presence of dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified versus no dissociative disorder. The Cohen's kappa reliability coefficients were as follows: DDIS-DES-T = 0.81; SCID-D-DES-T = 0.76; Clinician-DES-T = 0.74, DDIS-SCID-D = 0.74; DDIS-Clinician = 0.71, and SCID-D-Clinician = 0.56. A meeting was conducted at the end of all subject interviews to discuss discrepant findings between measures. Four additional sub-analyses were performed between dissociative and non-dissociative subjects on DSM-IV variables. Patients diagnosed with a dissociative disorder had higher rates of comorbid major depressive disorder, borderline personality ...
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The relationship of parental attachment, peer attachment, and self-concept to the adjustment of first-year college students

The relationship of parental attachment, peer attachment, and self-concept to the adjustment of first-year college students

Date: August 2000
Creator: Selby, Jeanne Costello
Description: The transition to college is usually the first time many late adolescents live apart from their parents for an extended period, making it an important developmental task (Kenny, 1987) that requires a variety of adaptational resources. Bowlby's (1969/1982, 1973, 1980) attachment theory has been refined by Kenny and Rice (1995) to explain how internal working models of late adolescents are the bases of the adaptational resources that determine the quality of adjustment to college. The Kenny and Rice model may be interpreted to suggest that external resources should include relationships with parents and friends, while internal resources can include self-concept. According to the authors, "these resources are assumed to moderate or buffer the effects of developmental challenges and stressful events on adjustment" (p.437). The purpose of the present study was to extend and further clarify the ways that quality attachment relationships and positive self-concept conjointly may promote healthy adaptation in the college milieu. In particular, the present study examined the influence of self-concept as a mediating variable with respect to attachment and healthy adjustment to college. Students from Freshman Psychology classes completed measures to assess their attachment relationships with each parent, their attachment relationships with peers, their level of self-concept, ...
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Concurrent Validity of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability-Revised with a Neurologically Compromised Pediatric Population

Concurrent Validity of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability-Revised with a Neurologically Compromised Pediatric Population

Date: December 2000
Creator: Rochelle, Gary B.
Description: The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML) is a relatively new instrument used in the assessment of memory in children. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the WRAML by comparing the performance of children on both the WRAML and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability- Revised (WJTCA-R). Subjects for the study were children in treatment for a brain tumor at a regional children's medical center. Fifty children participated in the study ranging from ages 6 to 17. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which of four selected clusters from the WJTCA-R would have the highest correlation with the Verbal Memory Index (VERI) from the WRAML. The Short-Term Memory (GSM) cluster had the highest correlation ( r = .82) as predicted. A Pearson's product-moment correlational analysis was conducted between the Visual Processing (GV) cluster from the WJTCA-R and the Visual Memory Index (VISI) from the WRAML. GV was found to have a high positive correlation ( r = .63) with VISI. A similar analysis was conducted between the Long-Term Retrieval (GLR) cluster from the WJTCA-R and the Learning Index (LRNI) from the WRAML. GLR was found to have a high positive correlation ...
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