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 Collection: Environmental Policy Collection
Global Change and Mountain Regions:  The Mountain Research Initiative

Global Change and Mountain Regions: The Mountain Research Initiative

Date: 2001
Creator: Bekcer, Alfred & Bugmann, Harald
Description: The strong altitudinal gradients in mountain regions provide unique and sometimes the best opportunities to detect and analyse global change processes and phenomena. Meteorological, hydrological, cryospheric and ecological conditions change strongly over relatively short distances; thus biodiversity tends to be high, and characteristic sequences of ecosystems and cryospheric systems are found along mountain slopes. The boundaries between these systems experience shifts due to environmental change and thus may be used as indicators of such changes. The higher parts of many mountain ranges are not affected by direct human activities. These areas include many national parks and other protected environments. They may serve as locations where the environmental impacts of climate change alone, including changes in atmospheric chemistry, can be studied directly. Mountain regions are distributed all over the globe, from the Equator almost to the poles and from oceanic to highly continental climates. This global distribution allows us to perform comparative regional studies and to analyse the regional differentiation of environmental change processes as characterised above. Therefore, within the IGBP an Initiative for Collaborative Research on Global Change and Mountain Regions was developed, which strives to achieve an integrated approach for observing, modelling and investigating global change phenomena and processes ...
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Decision-Support Experiments and Evaluations using Seasonal-to-Interannual Forecasts and Observational Data: A Focus on Water Resources

Decision-Support Experiments and Evaluations using Seasonal-to-Interannual Forecasts and Observational Data: A Focus on Water Resources

Date: January 2009
Creator: Beller-Simms, Nancy; Ingram, Helen; Feldman, David; Mantua, Nathan; Jacobs, Katharine L. & Waple, Anne M.
Description: This Synthesis and Assessment Product focuses on the connection between the scientific ability to predict climate on seasonal scales and the opportunity to incorporate such understanding into water resource management decisions. It directly addresses decision support experiments and evaluations that have used seasonal-to-interannual forecasts and observational data, and is expected to inform (1) decision makers about the relative success of experiences of others who have experimented with these forecasts and data in resource management; (2) climatologists, hydrologists, and social scientists on how to advance the delivery of decision-support resources that use the most recent forecast products, methodologies, and tools; and (3) science and resource managers as they plan for future investments in research related to forecasts and their role in decision support. It is important to note, however, that while the focus of this Product is on the water resources management sector, the findings within this Synthesis and Assessment Product may be directly transferred to other sectors.
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Florida's Global Warming Solutions: A Study for: World Wildlife Fund

Florida's Global Warming Solutions: A Study for: World Wildlife Fund

Date: November 1999
Creator: Bernow, Stephen; Cory, Karlynn; Dougherty, William; Kartha, Sivan; Duckworth, Max; Ruth, Michael et al.
Description: This report assesses how the set of national actions presented in America’s Global Warming Solutions would affect Florida’s energy systems, carbon emissions and economy. This study finds that by 2010, the set of national actions to reduce global warming would decrease Florida’s primary energy use by 26 percent and its carbon emissions by 36 percent. They would also provide increasing annual savings reaching about $300 per-capita in 2010 and averaging about $110 per-capita per year between now and 2010. Thus, the State would cumulatively save about $17 billion over that period. The set of national actions would also create approximately 39,000 net additional jobs in Florida by 2010. They would reduce emissions of other pollutants and begin to shift the basis of the State’s economy towards more advanced, energy-efficient technologies and cleaner resources. The table below summarizes these results.
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Texas' Global Warming Solutions: A Study for World Wildlife Fund

Texas' Global Warming Solutions: A Study for World Wildlife Fund

Date: February 2000
Creator: Bernow, Stephen; Dougherty, William; Dunbar & Goldberg, Marshall
Description: This report outlined and evaluated a plan through which the United States could reduce its annual carbon-dioxide emissions by about 654 million metric tons of carbon (MtC) by 2010, 36 percent below businesses-usual projections for that year. This brings 2010 emissions to 14 percent below 1990 emissions, thereby exceeding the reductions required under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The study also found that these reductions could be obtained with net economic savings, almost 900,000 net additional jobs, and significant decreases in pollutant emissions that damage the environment, and are harmful to human health, especially of children and elderly.
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New England's Global Warming Solutions: A Study for World Wild life Fund

New England's Global Warming Solutions: A Study for World Wild life Fund

Date: August 2000
Creator: Bernow, Stephen; Dougherty, William; Page, Tom; Dunbar, Jana & Goldberg, Marshall
Description: This report presents a detailed analysis of the energy impacts, carbon and pollutant emissions reductions, and economic benefits in New England of the national policies and measures analyzed in America’s Global Warming Solutions. That study indicated that the region would reap about one sixth of the net national employment created. As two years have passed since that study was begun, time has been lost for pursuing and implementing the policies and measures evaluated along the same temporal path. Now, achieving such benefits by 2010 would require an even more aggressive set and schedule of policies, or else the benefits would occur somewhat later in time. Nonetheless, these results show that a truly aggressive national policy commitment to the problem of climate change could achieve large near-term carbon emissions reductions along with environmental and economic gains.
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Turning Up the Heat: How Global Warming Threatens Life in the Sea

Turning Up the Heat: How Global Warming Threatens Life in the Sea

Date: February 1999
Creator: Berntson, Ewann A.
Description: This new report argues that rising temperatures have impacted the world's oceans to a far greater extent than previously acknowledged. Addressing topics such as sea-level rise, ocean circulation, coral reefs, sea birds and invertebrates, as well as the increasing threats to Salmon, the report predicts a dangerous chain reaction in marine ecosystems if global warming continues unabated. On the positive side, it also argues that decisive actions now to reduce pollution can slow the warming and preserve the world's oceans.
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Forests and Emissions: A contribution to the Eliasch Review

Forests and Emissions: A contribution to the Eliasch Review

Date: July 9, 2008
Creator: Betts, Richard; Gornall, Jemma; Hughes, John; Kaye, Neil; McNeall, Doug & Wiltshire, Andy
Description: This report discusses the impacts of deforestation and reforestation on carbon emissions and carbon storage, and how change in land cover will affect future trends in climate change and carbon levels.
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Recent Greenhouse Gas Concentrations

Recent Greenhouse Gas Concentrations

Date: July 2009
Creator: Blasing, T.J.
Description: Gases typically measured in parts per million (ppm), parts per billion (ppb) or parts per trillion (ppt) by volume are presented separately to facilitate comparison of numbers.
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Financial Sustainability Scorecard for National Systems of Protected Areas

Financial Sustainability Scorecard for National Systems of Protected Areas

Date: January 2010
Creator: Bovarnick, Andrew
Description: The purpose of this scorecard is to assist governments, donors and NGOs to investigate and record significant aspects of aProtected Area (PA) financing system –its accounts and its underlying structural foundations – to show both its current health and status and to indicate if the system is holistically moving over the long-term towards an improved financial situation. The scorecard is designed for national systems of PAs but could be used by sub-national eg state, regional or municipal or networks of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs).
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Executive Order 2010-06 : Governor's Policy on Climate Change

Executive Order 2010-06 : Governor's Policy on Climate Change

Date: October 2010
Creator: Brewer, Janice K.
Description: WHEREAS, Arizona was a founding member of the Western Climate Initiative (WCI) in February 2007; WHEREAS, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) finalized regulations mandating GHG reporting, effective on December 29, 2009,...WHEREAS, it is critical that Arizona stay informed of and influence any federal regulation and legislation relating to climate change and capping of GHG emission...NOW, THEREFORE, I, Janice K. Brewer, Governor of the State of Arizona,...hereby order and direct as follows: 4. The Climate Change Oversight Group ("Group") is established and charged with monitoring the continued work of the WCI...11. The Group and this Executive Order shall expire December 31, 2012
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Antarctic fact-file

Antarctic fact-file

Date: 2003
Creator: British Antactic Survey
Description: Antarctica is a continent for science. All countries working in Antarctica carry out scientific research, in a surprising range of physical and biological sciences, from the vastness of space to the minute scale of micro-organisms. Activities are regulated by the Antarctic Treaty, which has been in force since 1959 and is signed by all countries operating there. The Treaty reserves the continent for peaceful purposes, and all military and industrial activities are banned.
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Climate change

Climate change

Date: 2003
Creator: British Antactic Survey
Description: The Earth's climate has not been constant over geological time. This record is contained in ice, which has built up as snowfall accumulated in distinct yearly layers. Pockets of air trapped between the snow crystals contain traces of past atmospheres, which in turn tell us about the climate at the time the snow formed. Glaciologists collect this record by drilling ice cores and then use sensitive chemical techniques to analyse the layers.
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The ozone hole

The ozone hole

Date: 2003
Creator: British Antactic Survey
Description: Discovery of the hole in the ozone layer showed that human activity can have major, and often unexpected impacts on the planet. The destruction of ozone in the stratosphere high above the planet's surface has been brought about as the result of the widespread use of chemicals which under normal conditions are chemically inert and harmless
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Understanding ecosystems

Understanding ecosystems

Date: 2003
Creator: British Antactic Survey
Description: Plants and animals live in environments which change over different periods of time. Some changes happen each year with the seasons, whilst others take hundreds or even millions of years. As these changes occur, living organisms respond in different ways. To cope with the changing seasons, individuals can change their physiology or behaviour, for instance by hibernating or migration. In response to longer-scale change, species may adapt through evolutionary change. If they cannot, they must either move away or become extinct.
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The Surface Ocean - Lower Atmosphere Study: Science Plan and Implementation Strategy

The Surface Ocean - Lower Atmosphere Study: Science Plan and Implementation Strategy

Date: 2004
Creator: Broadgate, Wendy & Young, Bill
Description: SOLAS (Surface Ocean - Lower Atmosphere Study) is a new international research initiative that has as its goal: To achieve quantitative understanding of the key biogeochemical-physical interactions and feedbacks between the ocean and the atmosphere, and of how this coupled system affects and is affected by climate and environmental change. Achievement of this goal is important in order to understand and quantify the role that ocean-atmosphere interactions play in the regulation of climate and global change. The domain of SOLAS is focussed on processes at the air-sea interface and includes a natural emphasis on the atmospheric and upper-ocean boundary layers, while recognising that some of the processes to be studied will, of necessity, be linked to significantly greater height and depth scales. SOLAS research will cover all ocean areas including coastal seas and ice covered areas. A fundamental characteristic of SOLAS is that the research is not only interdisciplinary (involving biogeochemistry, physics, mathematical modelling, etc.), but also involves closely coupled studies requiring marine and atmospheric scientists to work together. Such research will require a shift in attitude within the academic and funding communities, both of which are generally organised on a medium-by-medium basis in most countries.
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Policy Statements on Data Management for Global Change Research

Policy Statements on Data Management for Global Change Research

Date: July 2, 1991
Creator: Bromley, Allan
Description: This document is the final version of the "Data Management for Global Change Research Policy Statements." The overall purpose of these policy statements is to facilitate full open access to quality data for global change research. They were prepared in consonance with the goal of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and represent the U.S. Government's position on the access to global change research data.
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Providing for Backyard Wildlife: A Do-It-Yourself Guide for Feeders, Houses and Plants

Providing for Backyard Wildlife: A Do-It-Yourself Guide for Feeders, Houses and Plants

Date: May 2010
Creator: Brown, Walter
Description: Brochure containing information "to assist people wanting to create habitat and features that will attract wildlife to their backyards" (About the Author). The table of contents lists sections for: platform bird feeder, platform butterfly feeder, simple squirrel and dove feeder, suet feeder, solitary bees, pollinator box, general use nesting box, nesting platform, butterfly attracting plants, and hummingbird plants for Texas.
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Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation [Map]

Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation [Map]

Date: 2003
Creator: CAVM Team
Description: The Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map shows the types of vegetation that occur across the Arctic, between the ice-covered Arctic Ocean to the north and the northern limit of forests to the south. Environmental and climatic conditions are extreme, with a short growing season and low summer temperatures. As one moves southward (outward from map's center in all directions), the amount of warmth available for plant growth increases considerably.
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Investment and Growth from Climate Action A Briefing by CDP to Support the EU 2030 Climate and Energy Package

Investment and Growth from Climate Action A Briefing by CDP to Support the EU 2030 Climate and Energy Package

Date: October 15, 2014
Creator: CDP - Driving sustainable economies
Description: CDP has created this briefing confident that it will provide a useful further contribution to these policy debates.The briefing is launched alongside its global report ‘The A List: The CDP Climate Performance Leadership Index 2014’. CDP’s Climate Performance Leadership Index (CPLI) is an index highlighting companies that exhibit leadership through their actions to mitigate climate change.
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AB 32 Fact Sheet - California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006

AB 32 Fact Sheet - California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006

Date: October 2006
Creator: California Air Resources Board
Description: Establishes first-in-the-world comprehensive program of regulatory and market mechanisms to achieve real, quantifiable, cost-effective reductions of greenhouse gases (GHG).
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California Legislature, 2001-2002 Session, Senate Bill No. 527

California Legislature, 2001-2002 Session, Senate Bill No. 527

Date: September 2001
Creator: California. Legislature. Senate.
Description: Bill introduced by the California Senate to revise the functions and duties of the California Climate Action Registry and requires the Registry, in coordination with CEC to adopt third-party verification metrics, developing GHG emissions protocols and qualifying third-party organizations to provide technical assistance and certification of emissions baselines and inventories. SB 527 amended SB 1771 to emphasize third-party verification.
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Illinois Commodity/Waste Generation and Characterization Study

Illinois Commodity/Waste Generation and Characterization Study

Date: May 22, 2009
Creator: Camp, Dresser & McKee
Description: This study was conducted to find ways to reduce waste and increase recycling and composting in Illinois. The report contains data on the composition of residential and commercial waste from around the state and makes recommendations for future consideration.
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What Can Be Learned From Champions of Ozone Layer Protection for Urban and Regional Carbon Management in Japan?

What Can Be Learned From Champions of Ozone Layer Protection for Urban and Regional Carbon Management in Japan?

Date: April 1, 2006
Creator: Canan, Penelope & Crawford, Shaney
Description: The document contains the opening addresses of the conveners and presentation slides of the presenters in the Tokyo Office of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) event. The conference was organized around the idea of introducing two important groups to each other to stimulate new ideas to break through barriers for carbon management, a major environmental and social challenge in the 21st Century.
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The Economic Effects of EU-Wide Industry-Level Emission Trading to Reduce Greenhouse Gases: Results from PRIMES Energy Systems Model

The Economic Effects of EU-Wide Industry-Level Emission Trading to Reduce Greenhouse Gases: Results from PRIMES Energy Systems Model

Date: May 2000
Creator: Capros, P. & Manzos, L.
Description: In preparation of the Green Paper on greenhouse gas emissions trading within the European Union, the cost implications of EU-wide emissions trading carbon dioxide were estimated by E3-Lab with their PRIMES energy systems model. According to the report, if each EU member States implemented its target under the Burden sharing agreement individually, the total annual cost for the EU to reach the Kyoto target would be 9.0 billion Pound.
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