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A Comparison of Five Robust Regression Methods with Ordinary Least Squares: Relative Efficiency, Bias and Test of the Null Hypothesis

A Comparison of Five Robust Regression Methods with Ordinary Least Squares: Relative Efficiency, Bias and Test of the Null Hypothesis

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Date: August 2001
Creator: Anderson, Cynthia, 1962-
Description: A Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate data for a comparison of five robust regression estimation methods with ordinary least squares (OLS) under 36 different outlier data configurations. Two of the robust estimators, Least Absolute Value (LAV) estimation and MM estimation, are commercially available. Three authormodified variations on MM were also included (MM1, MM2, and MM3). Design parameters that were varied include sample size (n=60 and n=180), number of independent predictor variables (2, 3 and 6), outlier density (0%, 5% and 15%) and outlier location (2x,2y s, 8x8y s, 4x,8y s and 8x,4y s). Criteria on which the regression methods were measured are relative efficiency, bias and a test of the null hypothesis. Results indicated that MM2 was the best performing robust estimator on relative efficiency. The best performing estimator on bias was MM1. The best performing regression method on the test of the null hypothesis was MM2. Overall, the MM-type robust regression methods outperformed OLS and LAV on relative efficiency, bias, and the test of the null hypothesis.
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Comparative Analysis of Management and Employee Job Satisfaction and Policy Perceptions.

Comparative Analysis of Management and Employee Job Satisfaction and Policy Perceptions.

Date: May 2003
Creator: Andrews, Charles G.
Description: The purpose of the study was to investigate the perceptions of job satisfaction as defined by management and nonmanagement employees and to compare both parties' perceptions of organizational benefits to a list prepared by the organization's benefit personnel. Turnover is costly to the organization, both in money and in the impact it has on those individuals remaining with the organization. Every effort should be undertaken to reduce the amount of turnover within the organization. A contributing factor leading to turnover may be a gap between what the employees believe is important to them and what management believes is important to the employees. The boundaries of the gap need to be identified before any effort can be made to reduce or bridge the gap. Once the boundaries are identified, policies can be analyzed and the possibility of reducing the gap investigated. Management as a whole must be aware of the needs and wants of their employees before any attempt to develop a retention strategy is undertaken. This knowledge can be acquired only through two-way communication with the employee. The communication process includes the simple process of asking employees for this information and then listening to how they respond. This study suggests ...
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A Study of the Demographic Status, Actual Role and Ideal Role of the Elementary School Assistant Principal in Texas

A Study of the Demographic Status, Actual Role and Ideal Role of the Elementary School Assistant Principal in Texas

Date: August 1986
Creator: Anthony, Dean Wade
Description: This study analyzes the status and job functions of the 546 elementary school assistant principals in Texas during the 1985-1986 school year. It is concerned with the status of the position and the degree of responsibility assigned to the assistant principal for forty-eight specific job functions in the actual and ideal practice. A sample of 125 assistant principals, 125 supervising principals and a population of 135 superintendents whose districts employ assistant principals were included in the study. All three groups completed the role survey instrument. The results were analyzed by using the one-sample chi-square test to determine whether significant differences existed among the perceptions of the superintendents, principals, and assistant principals at the .01 level. The return rate was 60.8 percent for the assistant principals and principals and 84.6 percent for the superintendents.
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The Development of A Philosophy  for Advising Elementary Education Majors in their Selection of an Academic Area of Specialization

The Development of A Philosophy for Advising Elementary Education Majors in their Selection of an Academic Area of Specialization

Date: August 1971
Creator: Anthony, Virgil Allen, 1930-
Description: This study is concerned with the problem of providing a program of formal advising for aiding elementary education majors in their selection of an academic area of specialization. .
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Determining the Validity of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) with Learning Disabilities

Determining the Validity of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) with Learning Disabilities

Date: August 1986
Creator: Antonetti, Robert C.
Description: This study investigated the relation of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised (WISC-R) for learning disabled (LD) children, the relation of K-ABC Achievement subtests with other achievement tests, and the relation of verbal and perceptual abilities assessment and the K-ABC. One hundred white, middle to above socioeconomic status (SES), LD students 6 to 12 1/2 years old were administered the K-ABC in addition to the test battery used to identify them. Findings indicated significant differences (2<-01) between WISC-R Full Scale scores and KABC MPC scores, with MPC scores being 3.33 points lower. Significant correlations (2<-01) were found between the following: (a) WISC-R Performance scores and K-ABC Simultaneous scores, (b) K-ABC Sequential and Simultaneous scores, (c) WISC-R Performance and K-ABC Sequential scores, (d) K-ABC Arithmetic and WRAT Arithmetic, and (e) K-ABC Reading Understanding and the following: Woodcock Word Identification, Woodcock Passage Comprehension, WRAT Reading, and Durrell Silent Reading. The study found the MPC correlates higher with tests of perceptual ability than with tests of verbal ability. Results indicate the following: (a) the WISC-R and K-ABC can substitute each other when measuring overall intelligence, (b) the WISC-R and K-ABC do not measure ...
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The Relationship Between Economic Development and Higher Education in Iran from the Period 1953-1979

The Relationship Between Economic Development and Higher Education in Iran from the Period 1953-1979

Date: May 1987
Creator: Anvari, Behrooz
Description: The purpose of this study was to discover whether there was a relationship between economic development and higher education in Iran from 1953 to 1979. Seven variables were used to define economic development. These variables were factor analyzed and the outcome was three new empirically satisfying variables labeled Rent (R), Finance (F), and Technology (T) which were used as dependent and independent variables in subsequent analyses. In order to define higher education, just one variable, constant dollar expenditures on higher education, was used. Several changes occurred in Iran during 1953 to 1979. Therefore, two intervention variables (for the periods of 1962 and 1973) were used to present these changes. Three models were used in order to examine the relationship between economic development and higher education. Using 2 stage least square in model one tested the hypothesis that the educational variable and development variable (T) were mutually causal. In this model two identification variables (energy consumption and the number of students in higher education) were used in order to identify the effect of the technological growth and expenditures on higher education. This model had two regression equations. In the first equation the dependent variable was the technological dimension of economic growth ...
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An Analysis of the Current Texas School Finance System to Determine to What Extent it Meets Criteria for Equity Concerning School Finances

An Analysis of the Current Texas School Finance System to Determine to What Extent it Meets Criteria for Equity Concerning School Finances

Date: December 1986
Creator: Arrington, Ronald L. (Ronald Lee)
Description: The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Texas House Bill 72 on equalization of finances in the public school districts of Texas. House Bill 72 is a finance reform bill which was passed by the Texas Legislature during the Summer of 1984. This study involves basically three steps. First, current criteria for equity as defined by school finance "experts" and recent definitive court decisions were determined. Second, financial data from the Texas Education Agency were statistically analyzed for the 1984-1985 school year. Third, the statistical analysis was used to determine if the current Texas school finance plan meets the current criteria for equity. The population used in the study was 1,068 school districts. Based on the findings of this study the following conclusions were drawn. 1. The use of a per capita flat grant by the Texas Public School Finance System contributes to the unequalizing of financial resources available to school districts. 2. School districts with greater property index values are required to exercise very little effort toward the support of their public schools. 3. School districts with high property index values tend to have lower effective tax rates and high per-pupil expenditures. 4. School ...
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The Anatomy of Academic Dishonesty: Cognitive Development, Self-Concept, Neutralization Techniques, and Attitudes Toward Cheating

The Anatomy of Academic Dishonesty: Cognitive Development, Self-Concept, Neutralization Techniques, and Attitudes Toward Cheating

Date: August 2004
Creator: Arvidson, Cody Jean
Description: This study explored the relationship between cheating among university students and their cognitive developmental levels, use of neutralization techniques, self-concept as a multifaceted cognitive construct, and attitude toward cheating. The purposes of this study were to investigate: (1) The relationships between academic dishonesty and each of the following overall independent variables: cognitive development, use of neutralization techniques, self-concept as a multifaceted cognitive construct, and attitude toward cheating, and (2) the reasons behind college student academic cheating behaviors. The study used data from anonymous, self-report surveys administered to undergraduate students in-class and at supplemental sessions. Student participation was voluntary. The study was correlational. The five hypotheses were: (1) Self-concept is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (2) Cognitive development is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (3) Attitude toward cheating is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (4) The use of neutralization techniques is significantly and positively related to academic dishonesty; (5) Cognitive development, self-concept, and attitude toward cheating will make significant contributions to the regression model for the dependent variables of academic dishonesty. The data supported the first, third, and fourth hypotheses. However, the second and fifth hypotheses were supported under certain conditions. The roles of cognitive ...
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The Early Literacy Development of Young Mildly Handicapped Children

The Early Literacy Development of Young Mildly Handicapped Children

Date: August 1986
Creator: Austin, Jerry Patricia Gentry
Description: The purpose of this study was to describe the extent and quality of prior knowledge, transactional nature, and social context of literacy knowledge demonstrated by young mildly handicapped learners. The study was based on current theories of literacy which view literacy growth as part of the total language system development, and ethnographic methods were used to gather and analyze qualitative data. Language and literacy events were observed in three special education classrooms including 43 students ranging in age from 4 years 1 month to 9 years 11 months. Major findings of the study included: (a) The children in this study demonstrated prior literacy knowledge much like that of non-handicapped peers, (b) Demonstrations of oral and written language system transactions decreased after students received formal instruction in reading and writing. And (c) children's ability to interpret print depended greatly on the presence or absence of context with the print.
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The Differences in Perceived Needs Between Practicing Teachers and College Instructors Concerning Inservice Education Programs in Teachers Colleges in Thailand

The Differences in Perceived Needs Between Practicing Teachers and College Instructors Concerning Inservice Education Programs in Teachers Colleges in Thailand

Date: May 1986
Creator: Ayuwathana, Wanida
Description: The purpose of this study is to identify and compare the perceptions of practicing teachers and college instructors toward four components of inservice education programs: content, organization, format of presentation, and participant involvement in the teachers colleges in Thailand. The comparison is based on the demographic variables of sex, age, educational background, and teaching experience in the institution. The "In-Service Education Attitude Survey" by Yesuratnam, Basimalla at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois in 1982 was used to gather data for this study. It was distributed to a sample of 380 practicing teachers and college instructors in 19 randomly selected teachers colleges in Thailand; 368 usable instruments were returned (97.15%). The data were treated to produce numbers and percentages. The t tests for two independent samples were computed to determine any statistically significant differences between the respondent groups of practicing teachers and college instructors, and between the practicing elementary and secondary school teachers. The F tests were also utilized to determine any statistically significant differences among the variables of practicing teachers and college instructors.
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