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A Comparison of Five Robust Regression Methods with Ordinary Least Squares: Relative Efficiency, Bias and Test of the Null Hypothesis

A Comparison of Five Robust Regression Methods with Ordinary Least Squares: Relative Efficiency, Bias and Test of the Null Hypothesis

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Date: August 2001
Creator: Anderson, Cynthia, 1962-
Description: A Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate data for a comparison of five robust regression estimation methods with ordinary least squares (OLS) under 36 different outlier data configurations. Two of the robust estimators, Least Absolute Value (LAV) estimation and MM estimation, are commercially available. Three authormodified variations on MM were also included (MM1, MM2, and MM3). Design parameters that were varied include sample size (n=60 and n=180), number of independent predictor variables (2, 3 and 6), outlier density (0%, 5% and 15%) and outlier location (2x,2y s, 8x8y s, 4x,8y s and 8x,4y s). Criteria on which the regression methods were measured are relative efficiency, bias and a test of the null hypothesis. Results indicated that MM2 was the best performing robust estimator on relative efficiency. The best performing estimator on bias was MM1. The best performing regression method on the test of the null hypothesis was MM2. Overall, the MM-type robust regression methods outperformed OLS and LAV on relative efficiency, bias, and the test of the null hypothesis.
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Comparative Analysis of Management and Employee Job Satisfaction and Policy Perceptions.

Comparative Analysis of Management and Employee Job Satisfaction and Policy Perceptions.

Date: May 2003
Creator: Andrews, Charles G.
Description: The purpose of the study was to investigate the perceptions of job satisfaction as defined by management and nonmanagement employees and to compare both parties' perceptions of organizational benefits to a list prepared by the organization's benefit personnel. Turnover is costly to the organization, both in money and in the impact it has on those individuals remaining with the organization. Every effort should be undertaken to reduce the amount of turnover within the organization. A contributing factor leading to turnover may be a gap between what the employees believe is important to them and what management believes is important to the employees. The boundaries of the gap need to be identified before any effort can be made to reduce or bridge the gap. Once the boundaries are identified, policies can be analyzed and the possibility of reducing the gap investigated. Management as a whole must be aware of the needs and wants of their employees before any attempt to develop a retention strategy is undertaken. This knowledge can be acquired only through two-way communication with the employee. The communication process includes the simple process of asking employees for this information and then listening to how they respond. This study suggests ...
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A Study of the Demographic Status, Actual Role and Ideal Role of the Elementary School Assistant Principal in Texas

A Study of the Demographic Status, Actual Role and Ideal Role of the Elementary School Assistant Principal in Texas

Date: August 1986
Creator: Anthony, Dean Wade
Description: This study analyzes the status and job functions of the 546 elementary school assistant principals in Texas during the 1985-1986 school year. It is concerned with the status of the position and the degree of responsibility assigned to the assistant principal for forty-eight specific job functions in the actual and ideal practice. A sample of 125 assistant principals, 125 supervising principals and a population of 135 superintendents whose districts employ assistant principals were included in the study. All three groups completed the role survey instrument. The results were analyzed by using the one-sample chi-square test to determine whether significant differences existed among the perceptions of the superintendents, principals, and assistant principals at the .01 level. The return rate was 60.8 percent for the assistant principals and principals and 84.6 percent for the superintendents.
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The Development of A Philosophy  for Advising Elementary Education Majors in their Selection of an Academic Area of Specialization

The Development of A Philosophy for Advising Elementary Education Majors in their Selection of an Academic Area of Specialization

Date: August 1971
Creator: Anthony, Virgil Allen, 1930-
Description: This study is concerned with the problem of providing a program of formal advising for aiding elementary education majors in their selection of an academic area of specialization. .
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Determining the Validity of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) with Learning Disabilities

Determining the Validity of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) with Learning Disabilities

Date: August 1986
Creator: Antonetti, Robert C.
Description: This study investigated the relation of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised (WISC-R) for learning disabled (LD) children, the relation of K-ABC Achievement subtests with other achievement tests, and the relation of verbal and perceptual abilities assessment and the K-ABC. One hundred white, middle to above socioeconomic status (SES), LD students 6 to 12 1/2 years old were administered the K-ABC in addition to the test battery used to identify them. Findings indicated significant differences (2<-01) between WISC-R Full Scale scores and KABC MPC scores, with MPC scores being 3.33 points lower. Significant correlations (2<-01) were found between the following: (a) WISC-R Performance scores and K-ABC Simultaneous scores, (b) K-ABC Sequential and Simultaneous scores, (c) WISC-R Performance and K-ABC Sequential scores, (d) K-ABC Arithmetic and WRAT Arithmetic, and (e) K-ABC Reading Understanding and the following: Woodcock Word Identification, Woodcock Passage Comprehension, WRAT Reading, and Durrell Silent Reading. The study found the MPC correlates higher with tests of perceptual ability than with tests of verbal ability. Results indicate the following: (a) the WISC-R and K-ABC can substitute each other when measuring overall intelligence, (b) the WISC-R and K-ABC do not measure ...
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The Relationship Between Economic Development and Higher Education in Iran from the Period 1953-1979

The Relationship Between Economic Development and Higher Education in Iran from the Period 1953-1979

Date: May 1987
Creator: Anvari, Behrooz
Description: The purpose of this study was to discover whether there was a relationship between economic development and higher education in Iran from 1953 to 1979. Seven variables were used to define economic development. These variables were factor analyzed and the outcome was three new empirically satisfying variables labeled Rent (R), Finance (F), and Technology (T) which were used as dependent and independent variables in subsequent analyses. In order to define higher education, just one variable, constant dollar expenditures on higher education, was used. Several changes occurred in Iran during 1953 to 1979. Therefore, two intervention variables (for the periods of 1962 and 1973) were used to present these changes. Three models were used in order to examine the relationship between economic development and higher education. Using 2 stage least square in model one tested the hypothesis that the educational variable and development variable (T) were mutually causal. In this model two identification variables (energy consumption and the number of students in higher education) were used in order to identify the effect of the technological growth and expenditures on higher education. This model had two regression equations. In the first equation the dependent variable was the technological dimension of economic growth ...
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An Analysis of the Current Texas School Finance System to Determine to What Extent it Meets Criteria for Equity Concerning School Finances

An Analysis of the Current Texas School Finance System to Determine to What Extent it Meets Criteria for Equity Concerning School Finances

Date: December 1986
Creator: Arrington, Ronald L. (Ronald Lee)
Description: The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Texas House Bill 72 on equalization of finances in the public school districts of Texas. House Bill 72 is a finance reform bill which was passed by the Texas Legislature during the Summer of 1984. This study involves basically three steps. First, current criteria for equity as defined by school finance "experts" and recent definitive court decisions were determined. Second, financial data from the Texas Education Agency were statistically analyzed for the 1984-1985 school year. Third, the statistical analysis was used to determine if the current Texas school finance plan meets the current criteria for equity. The population used in the study was 1,068 school districts. Based on the findings of this study the following conclusions were drawn. 1. The use of a per capita flat grant by the Texas Public School Finance System contributes to the unequalizing of financial resources available to school districts. 2. School districts with greater property index values are required to exercise very little effort toward the support of their public schools. 3. School districts with high property index values tend to have lower effective tax rates and high per-pupil expenditures. 4. School ...
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The Anatomy of Academic Dishonesty: Cognitive Development, Self-Concept, Neutralization Techniques, and Attitudes Toward Cheating

The Anatomy of Academic Dishonesty: Cognitive Development, Self-Concept, Neutralization Techniques, and Attitudes Toward Cheating

Date: August 2004
Creator: Arvidson, Cody Jean
Description: This study explored the relationship between cheating among university students and their cognitive developmental levels, use of neutralization techniques, self-concept as a multifaceted cognitive construct, and attitude toward cheating. The purposes of this study were to investigate: (1) The relationships between academic dishonesty and each of the following overall independent variables: cognitive development, use of neutralization techniques, self-concept as a multifaceted cognitive construct, and attitude toward cheating, and (2) the reasons behind college student academic cheating behaviors. The study used data from anonymous, self-report surveys administered to undergraduate students in-class and at supplemental sessions. Student participation was voluntary. The study was correlational. The five hypotheses were: (1) Self-concept is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (2) Cognitive development is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (3) Attitude toward cheating is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (4) The use of neutralization techniques is significantly and positively related to academic dishonesty; (5) Cognitive development, self-concept, and attitude toward cheating will make significant contributions to the regression model for the dependent variables of academic dishonesty. The data supported the first, third, and fourth hypotheses. However, the second and fifth hypotheses were supported under certain conditions. The roles of cognitive ...
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The Early Literacy Development of Young Mildly Handicapped Children

The Early Literacy Development of Young Mildly Handicapped Children

Date: August 1986
Creator: Austin, Jerry Patricia Gentry
Description: The purpose of this study was to describe the extent and quality of prior knowledge, transactional nature, and social context of literacy knowledge demonstrated by young mildly handicapped learners. The study was based on current theories of literacy which view literacy growth as part of the total language system development, and ethnographic methods were used to gather and analyze qualitative data. Language and literacy events were observed in three special education classrooms including 43 students ranging in age from 4 years 1 month to 9 years 11 months. Major findings of the study included: (a) The children in this study demonstrated prior literacy knowledge much like that of non-handicapped peers, (b) Demonstrations of oral and written language system transactions decreased after students received formal instruction in reading and writing. And (c) children's ability to interpret print depended greatly on the presence or absence of context with the print.
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The Differences in Perceived Needs Between Practicing Teachers and College Instructors Concerning Inservice Education Programs in Teachers Colleges in Thailand

The Differences in Perceived Needs Between Practicing Teachers and College Instructors Concerning Inservice Education Programs in Teachers Colleges in Thailand

Date: May 1986
Creator: Ayuwathana, Wanida
Description: The purpose of this study is to identify and compare the perceptions of practicing teachers and college instructors toward four components of inservice education programs: content, organization, format of presentation, and participant involvement in the teachers colleges in Thailand. The comparison is based on the demographic variables of sex, age, educational background, and teaching experience in the institution. The "In-Service Education Attitude Survey" by Yesuratnam, Basimalla at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois in 1982 was used to gather data for this study. It was distributed to a sample of 380 practicing teachers and college instructors in 19 randomly selected teachers colleges in Thailand; 368 usable instruments were returned (97.15%). The data were treated to produce numbers and percentages. The t tests for two independent samples were computed to determine any statistically significant differences between the respondent groups of practicing teachers and college instructors, and between the practicing elementary and secondary school teachers. The F tests were also utilized to determine any statistically significant differences among the variables of practicing teachers and college instructors.
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Recreation Program Participation by Older Adults: Its Relationship to Perceived Freedom in Leisure and Life Satisfaction

Recreation Program Participation by Older Adults: Its Relationship to Perceived Freedom in Leisure and Life Satisfaction

Date: December 1985
Creator: Baack, Sharon Ann
Description: This study examined the contribution of several variables to the prediction of perceived freedom in leisure (PFL) and life satisfaction in older adults. Demographic, health and socioeconomic variables were compared with participation in recreation programs, church involvement and PFL. Church involvement was viewed as a leisure activity rather than a measure of religiosity. The survey instrument incorporated all these variables and was pretested and revised before use in the study. The sample consisted of 198 persons 60 years of age and older who were members of two Southern Baptist churches. Subjects were randomly selected, but persons considered by church staff members to be incapable of completing the survey were eliminated. Surveys were hand delivered and picked up by volunteer workers, and a 38 percent return rate was obtained. Alpha reliability for the church involvement, PFL and life satisfaction scales in the instrument were .87, .94, and .77, respectively. Frequency counts and percentages or means and standard deviations were calculated for the demographic variables. Subjects were categorized by level of involvement in church and community recreation programs. Persons involved in community but not church recreation programs were underrepresented in the sample. A selective sampling procedure was utilized to obtain more respondents ...
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A Comparison of Two Approaches Designed to Improve the Computational Skills of Pupils in Grades Five and Seven

A Comparison of Two Approaches Designed to Improve the Computational Skills of Pupils in Grades Five and Seven

Date: May 1973
Creator: Bailey, James Melton
Description: The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the effect upon the arithmetic computation, concepts, and application skills of pupils when the regular instructional program in arithmetic at the fifth- and seventh-grade levels was supplemented with the Cyclo-Teacher (2) programmed materials; 2) to determine the effect upon the arithmetic computation, concepts, and application skills of pupils when the regular instructional program in arithmetic at the fifth- and seventh-grade levels was supplemented with the Mental Computation (6) materials.
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A Study to Determine the Effect of Industrial Arts Experience on the Attitude Changes of University Freshmen

A Study to Determine the Effect of Industrial Arts Experience on the Attitude Changes of University Freshmen

Date: May 1971
Creator: Ball, John E.
Description: The problem of this study was to determine the effect of industrial arts experiences on changing the attitudes of North Texas State University freshmen toward industrial arts generally and toward specific curriculum areas in industrial arts.
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The Effects of Motivational Group Techniques Upon Selected Personality and Behavioral Variables

The Effects of Motivational Group Techniques Upon Selected Personality and Behavioral Variables

Date: May 1971
Creator: Ballard, Stanley Newton, 1933-
Description: The problem of this study was to investigate the effects of motivational group techniques upon selected personality and behavioral variables. Particular emphasis was placed upon changes in personality and behavior with respect to freshmen college students.
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Computer Supported Collaboration: Is the Transfer of Cognitive Structures Mediated by Mode of Communication?

Computer Supported Collaboration: Is the Transfer of Cognitive Structures Mediated by Mode of Communication?

Date: May 2002
Creator: Bandy, Kenneth E.
Description: The objective of this study was to observe evidence of structural transfer among subjects in a group problem-solving activity and determine whether mode of collaborative technology or use of a priming agent affected the nature of transferred structures. Evidence for structural transfer is found in three theoretical perspectives: organizational ditransitive (linguistic) verb structures, adaptive structuration theory, and mental model transfer theory. Dependent variables included various grammatical structures and coefficients derived from pretest and posttest scores on David Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory, modified for the experiment. The combination of changes in grammatical frequencies and learning style may suggest that one or more media or the priming agent may affect structural transfer. Results indicate that groups using the GroupSystems™ collaborative technology produced less overall linguistic content than did subjects using a generic chat system, but employed more complex language as indicated by frequency of the organizational ditransitive verb structure. Also, subjects supplied with an organization chart (priming agent) during the group problem-solving session experienced greater change on the learning styles inventory than did those participating in the session without the chart. These findings suggest that mode of communication and use of priming agents may contribute positively or negatively to the transfer of ...
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The Effect of Using Class Discussion as a Pre-Writing Activity in Teaching Composition to ESL Students

The Effect of Using Class Discussion as a Pre-Writing Activity in Teaching Composition to ESL Students

Date: December 1986
Creator: Bang, Hwa-Ja Park
Description: This study examines the effect of class discussion as a pre-writing activity on actual writing performance. The experiment was conducted with all the Level 3 and Level 4 students enrolled in the Intensive English Language Institute of North Texas State University in the Spring, 1986 semester. Cochrans C test was performed to test significant differences between groups at the beginning of this test. Multivariate analysis of variance tests were used to determine the treatment effect between and within groups, and a matched t-test was also utilized to analyze the difference within tests. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the relationship between the discussion activity score and the actual writing score. Analysis of covariance tests were used to determine which variance of discussion activities had greater effect on the actual writing score.
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Family Stress Factors Across Three Family Types

Family Stress Factors Across Three Family Types

Date: August 1987
Creator: Barlow, Karen Haun
Description: This study investigated the difference in stress levels of stress factors according to the structure or type of family. The relatedness of the ranking of stress factors within and across three family types and the relationship between level of stress and number of years in current family type were also examined. Important aspects of this study were using three family types, using families seeking counseling as the subjects, and investigating numerous stress factors across family types. These research techniques avoided the limitations of previous research which investigated only one family type, thus isolating special stress issues for a certain family type where those special issues actually might not differentiate among family types. Also, considering numerous stress factors at one time, rather than only a few factors, indicated relative levels of stress as well as absolute stresses that families are likely to experience. Targeting families who had sought counseling should give counselors a more realistic view of clients and their problems.
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Perceived Importance of the Characteristics and Functions of the Advanced Nurse Practitioner

Perceived Importance of the Characteristics and Functions of the Advanced Nurse Practitioner

Date: December 1987
Creator: Barnes, Ellen Sue M.
Description: The purpose of this study was two-fold: to identify role functions and characteristics perceived as important to Advanced Nurse Practitioners (ANPs) in Texas, and to identify differences in perceived importance of role functions and characteristics of ANPs according to gender, educational preparation, practice setting, and whether the practitioner entered practice before or after the current rules and regulations for ANP practice were adopted. Two questionnaires and a demographic data form were mailed to 300 ANPs in primary health care in Texas, with 152 responding. Data from the questionnaire, "Characteristics of the Advanced Nurse Practitioner," were analyzed using independent group t-tests. The findings indicated that the characteristics "person-oriented," "perceptive," and "skilled in problem-solving" were the most valued by the practitioners, while aggressive" was the least valued. Independent group t-tests were used to analyze data from the instrument, "Advanced Nurse Practitioner Functions." The results of this analysis were not significant. The Chi square test was used to further examine data from this questionnaire to determine if the responses differed from chance. With the exception of four items, all of the responses differed significantly from chance. The responses "extremely important or important" were selected significantly more frequently that any of the other options. ...
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The Effects of Spouse Presence During Graded Exercise Testing on Psychological and Physiological Parameters in Cardiac Patients and Healthy Adults

The Effects of Spouse Presence During Graded Exercise Testing on Psychological and Physiological Parameters in Cardiac Patients and Healthy Adults

Date: August 1987
Creator: Baylor, Krissa A.
Description: The direct effect of spouse presence during graded exercise testing on anxiety and performance has not been previously delineated. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to (a) ascertain if spouse presence during graded exercise testing affects state anxiety or physiological performance variables, and (b) determine differences in psychological status between cardiac patients and healthy adults.
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An Evaluation of Student Learning and Engagement in a Technology-Enhanced Algebra Unit on Slope

An Evaluation of Student Learning and Engagement in a Technology-Enhanced Algebra Unit on Slope

Date: August 2000
Creator: Beck, Elaine K.
Description: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a technology-enhanced unit on slope in algebra. The technology used in the study was the Topological Panorama Camera (Topocam). The research questions explored the learning and transfer of knowledge about slope and the engagement level of students during Topocam learning activities. The Topocam is a computer-controlled camera that moves on a modular track while it scans a scene through a vertical slit. Students can program the speed of the camera and frequency of pictures. They then witness the results of time and motion in the image created by the camera. Data for this study were collected from a pretest/posttest, as well as from observations of indicators of engaged learning. The research population consisted of 46 students from three classes of Algebra I students. Three classroom teachers each taught a unit on slope, while a fourth teacher conducted the activities with the Topocam for all the classes. The classroom activities focused on the concept of slope as a rate of change utilizing coordinate grids. The Topocam activities involved students in collaboratively making and testing predictions about slope. The findings of the study indicate that student learning did occur with this ...
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The Relationship Between Classroom Climate and Student Achievement

The Relationship Between Classroom Climate and Student Achievement

Date: December 2001
Creator: Bennett, Jan
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between sixth grade students' academic achievement levels in math and their perceptions of school climate. Student characteristics of socioeconomic status and gender were used to identify groups for the purpose of data analysis. Data was gathered using the five independent variables of the My Class Inventory (satisfaction, friction, competitiveness, difficulty, and cohesiveness) and the dependent variable of the Stanford Achievement Total Math scores. The results of the data collection were tested using a Pearson product-moment analysis and a backward multiple regression analysis. A univariate analysis of variance was also used to compare the five independent variables of the My Class Inventory as well as to compare socioeconomic status and gender with the Stanford Achievement Total Math scores. The schools selected for this study were from a city in Texas with a population of approximately 100,000. The sample consisted of 262 sixth grade mathematics students. The findings of this study are as follows: (a) The Pearson product-moment correlation analysis revealed little, if any, correlation for any of the five subscale predictor variables; (b) the multiple regression analysis revealed that all five classroom climate indicators combined together could explain only 10.5% of ...
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Effects of Participation in the Taba In-Service Education Program on Teachers' Self Concept, Attitude, and Selected Personality Characteristics

Effects of Participation in the Taba In-Service Education Program on Teachers' Self Concept, Attitude, and Selected Personality Characteristics

Date: August 1971
Creator: Bennett, Margaret Ann, 1926-
Description: The problem of this study was to evaluate the effects of participation in the Hilda Taba In-Service Education Program on teachers' self concept, attitude, and selected personality characteristics.
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A Study of the Job Satisfaction of Female Principals and Vice-Principals in Texas Public Schools

A Study of the Job Satisfaction of Female Principals and Vice-Principals in Texas Public Schools

Date: August 1986
Creator: Bertl, Mary F.
Description: This study is designed to determine the degree to which female principals and vice-principals in Texas derive job satisfaction from their work and to identify those factors, both negative and positive, which affect the job satisfaction of these principals and vice-principals. A single questionnaire was used to collect the data for this study. Usable questionnaires were returned by 331 vice-principals and 504 principals. These represented 336 school districts throughout the state. Respondents were compared as to their view of their overall job satisfaction, the importance assigned to intrinsic and extrinsic job facets, their satisfaction with intrinsic and extrinsic job facets, and the differences in facet satisfaction connected with various personal characteristics.
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Levels of Questioning Used by Student Teachers and its Effect on Pupil Achievement and Critical Thinking Ability

Levels of Questioning Used by Student Teachers and its Effect on Pupil Achievement and Critical Thinking Ability

Date: August 1972
Creator: Beseda, Charles Garrett, 1929-
Description: The purposes of this study were: 1. To determine the effect of levels of questioning used on secondary public school students in social studies, as measured by (a) their achievement scores, and (b) their critical thinking ability; 2. To determine the effect of feedback to student teachers on their patterns of asking convergent and divergent questions, as measured by coding frequencies of each type on an Observation Schedule and Record form? 3. To draw conclusions from the findings--and develop implications concerning levels of questioning used by teachers and the use of feedback from college supervisors to student teachers.
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