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 Degree Discipline: Higher Education
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
University-industry Alliances : A Study of Faculty Attitudes Toward the Effects of Alliances on the Governance and Operations of Institutions of Higher Education
The central purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes of faculty in applied sciences to the attitudes of faculty in liberal arts and other selected fields to determine if they differ significantly from each other in their perceptions of the effects of university-industry alliances on campus governance and operations. Secondary purposes were (a) to appraise the debate on alliances and the effects of alliances on academic values and (b) to contribute to the literature concerning alliances and their potential for improving higher education.
The Relationship Between Supplemental Instruction Leader Learning Style and Study Session Design
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the learning styles of supplemental instruction leaders at a large, public university during the fall 2010 semester and determine whether or not their personal learning styles influenced the way they designed and developed out-of-class study sessions. The total population of supplemental instruction leaders was 37, of which 24 were eligible to participate in the study. Of the 24 eligible supplemental instruction leaders, 20 completed the entire study. Participants in the study included nine male and 11 female supplemental instruction leaders with a median age of 22.25 years-old. Seventeen participants indicated their classification as senior, two as junior, and one as sophomore. Of the participants, 16 indicated white as a race or ethnicity, one indicated Asian, two indicated African American, and one indicated both American Indian/Alaska Native and white. Supplemental instruction leader learning style was assessed using the Kolb Learning Style Inventory. Leaders were then interviewed, and their study sessions were analyzed. Through triangulation of data from learning style, interviews and actual study session documents, four major themes emerged. The four themes were: 1) incorporation of personal experience into study session design, 2) the sense of impact on student learning, 3) a feeling of the need to incorporate varied activities into study session design, and 4) the concept that students must take ownership over their own learning. No consistent pattern emerged among the themes; however, the results attributed out-of-class study session design to both the incorporation of personal learning style preferences as identified through the Kolb Learning Style Inventory and training conducted by the institution. Implications for future research include the need for continued research addressing how and if supplemental instruction leader learning style influences out-of-class study session design. Also, as institutions of higher education seek to expand academic support services to all students, future research should explore supplemental instruction leader training and the impact such training has on students seeking support from the supplemental instruction program.
The Effects of Interactive Reviews and Learning Style on Student Learning Outcomes at a Texas State University
This study investigated the effects of interactive lessons and learning style on student learning outcomes in self-defense education classes. The study utilized an experimental design that incorporated four self-defense education classes at the University of North Texas (UNT) during the fall semester 2007 (N = 87). A pre-test was administered during the first week of class to determine prior knowledge of the participants. The Visual Auditory Reading/Kinesthetic Inventory (VARK) was used to assess the learning styles of the students and was completed after the pre-test of knowledge was administered. The treatment group received the interactive lesson and the control received a paper review. The difference between the pre and posttest was used as a measure of improvement of the student's learning outcomes. A 2 (treatment/control) by 2 (pretest/posttest) ANOVA with repeated measures was conducted to examine the differential improvement in knowledge across the intervention. Based on the 2-way ANOVA there was a significant difference between the treatment group and the control group based on their learning outcomes. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to determine if there was a significant difference between the groups based on the pre and post test scores. Based on the results of a one week study it was determined that interactive lessons do make a significant impact on learning outcomes compared to traditional reviews.
Identification of College Freshmen According to Scholastic and Persistence Potential
This study was designed to develop a procedure for the identification of freshman students at risk in the academic and social integration process at Texas Christian University. The data for the study were collected from the Student Information Form (SIF) and student records system at Texas Christian University. The data included demographic, attitudinal, educational background and one-year persistence indicators (retain and drop) as well as one-year cumulative grade point averages for the fall 1990 entering freshman class.
High-temperature corrosion of aluminum alloys: Oxide-alloy interactions and sulfur interface chemistry
The spallation of aluminum, chromium, and iron oxide scales is a chronic problem that critically impacts technological applications like aerospace, power plant operation, catalysis, petrochemical industry, and the fabrication of composite materials. The presence of interfacial impurities, mainly sulfur, has been reported to accelerate spallation, thereby promoting the high-temperature corrosion of metals and alloys. The precise mechanism for sulfur-induced destruction of oxides, however, is ambiguous. The objective of the present research is to elucidate the microscopic mechanism for the high-temperature corrosion of aluminum alloys in the presence of sulfur. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies were conducted under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions on oxidized sulfur-free and sulfur-modified Al/Fe and Ni3Al(111). Evaporative deposition of aluminum onto a sulfur-covered iron surface results in the insertion of aluminum between the sulfur adlayer and the substrate, producing an Fe-Al-S interface. Aluminum oxidation at 300 K is retarded in the presence of sulfur. Oxide destabilization, and the formation of metallic aluminum are observed at temperatures > 600 K when sulfur is located at the Al2O3-Fe interface, while the sulfur-free interface is stable up to 900 K. In contrast, the thermal stability (up to at least 1100 K) of the Al2O3 formed on an Ni3Al(111) surface is unaffected by sulfur. Sulfur remains at the oxide-Ni3Al(111) interface after oxidation at 300 K. During annealing, aluminum segregation to the g ¢ -Al2O3-Ni3Al(111) interface occurs, coincident with the removal of sulfur from the interfacial region. A comparison of the results observed for the Al2O3/Fe and Al2O3/Ni3Al systems indicates that the high-temperature stability of Al2O3 films on aluminum alloys is connected with the concentration of aluminum in the alloy.
Strategic Planning in Higher Education : A Study of Application in Arkansas Senior Colleges and Universities
This empirical study focused on the level of application of strategic planning by senior colleges and universities in Arkansas. The study was designed to examine, analyze, and describe the extent of strategic planning practices by Arkansas higher education institutions, as reflected in the opinions and perceptions of the institutions' chief executive officers and based on the profile of characteristics validated by twenty experts in the strategic planning literature.
Characteristics of Administrative Leadership Behavior : A Comparative Study of Municipal and University Administrators
The problem with which this study is concerned is comparative administrative leadership behavior between municipal and university administrators. The specially designed survey instrument elicited respondents' perceptions of their administrative leadership behavior based on the 12 dimensions of the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire- XII.
Perceptions of Student Affairs Services by Students and Student Affairs Personnel at Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of students and student affairs personnel of student affairs services at Andrews University's main campus in Berrien Springs, Michigan. A modified questionnaire, based on the work of Selgas and Blocker (1974) and Glenister (1977), was developed for this study. Eleven student services found in the Council for the Advancement of Standards for Student Services/Development Program's guidelines were included. A random sample of 280 students at Andrews University received surveys, with 165 (59%) responding. The 30 full-time student affairs personnel also received surveys, with 20 (67%) responding. Students and student affairs personnel rated their perceptions of student services, using 77 statements associated with these services. Services were rated on a 6-point scale in the categories of status of knowledge, relative importance, and effectiveness. Respondents were asked to include additional comments concerning the services and to provide biographical data. The following are some of the main findings: Significant differences between students' and student affairs personnel's status of knowledge of student services were found in career planning/employment, commuter programs/services, counseling services/substance abuse education, religious programs/services, student activities, and wellness/health. Significant differences between the two groups' perceptions of relative importance of student services were found in counseling services/substance abuse education, housing/residential life programs, international student/multicultural services, religious programs/services, student activities, and wellness/health. Significant differences between the two groups' perceptions of the effectiveness of student services were found in counseling services/substance abuse education, minority student programs/services, religious programs/services, services for students with disabilities, student activities, and wellness/health. Important information for the improvement of student services has resulted from this study, which provides student insights about student services that go beyond those of the current student affairs personnel. The study also provides a program-evaluation model unique to Andrews University for periodic assessment of the status and progress of student affairs services.
Higher Education and Entrepreneurship: The Relation between College Educational Background and Small Business Success in Texas
This study examined the relationship between success of small businesses and the educational backgrounds of their owners. A survey composed of questions concerning demographics, educational backgrounds, and business success was mailed to 1100 businesses in Dallas, Denton, and Tarrant counties in Texas. There were 228 usable responses which were analyzed by using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS12). Data were sorted so that educational level, sales volume, number of employees, and longevity, were identified on a 5-point ordinal scale. Educational major was identified on a 5-point nominal scale. Pearson's correlation was used to determine whether relationships existed between founders' educational background and small business success. Spearman's correlation was used to determine the direction and strength of the relationships. Then educational level and major were combined with age, gender, ethnicity, and industry, to determine the relationships between founders' educational background, and business success. For this purpose a canonical correlation was used. Five opinion questions concerned influence of college education on business success among college graduates and non-college graduates were identified on a 5-point Likert scale and tested using one-way ANOVA, and independent sample t-test. When educational level and major were the only predictors of business success, a statistically significant relationship was found between years of formal education, and sales volume. When educational level and major were combined with age, gender, ethnicity, and industry, a statistically significant relationship was found between founders' educational level and age, and business success. A statistically significant and negative relationship was found between founders' educational major and industry, and business success. All opinion questions revealed statistically significant relationships between owner's college education and business success. These relationships indicate the ability for the owner to learn, adapt and maintain a successful business. The influence of a college education on small business success was noticeable and reflects the continuing need for higher education to cope with technological advances, business competition, and the changing global economy.
Self-Perceived Administrative Leadership Styles of Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Deans in Public Community and Junior Colleges inTexas
The major purpose for this study was to determine the self-perceived leadership styles of the presidents, vice-presidents, and deans of public community and junior colleges in Texas in 1994. Administrators' choices of leadership style were also compared with personal characteristics of leaders, such as age, gender, title, number of years in current position, number of years in current institution, number of years in administration, degree earned, number of years in teaching, and number of full-time subordinates. The backgrounds of the administrators, particularly their previous experience, control over their respective budgets, size of their budgets (state, local, other, percentage of workers' compensation), and the ethnicity of leaders, were also examined. The Styles of Leadership Survey and a Demographic Information Form were used to collect the data.
Attitudes toward Research and Teaching: Differences Between Faculty and Administrators at Three Saudi Arabian Universities
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This study is an investigation of the perceived attitudinal differences between administrators and faculty toward research and teaching at three Saudi Arabian universities, King Saud University (KSU), King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), and the Islamic University (IU). The researcher also investigated the effect of several variables, such as rank, university, and academic field on administrators and faculty members' attitudes toward teaching and research. Little Attention has been given to studies that examine the differences between faculty and administrators with regard to their attitudes toward the priorities of teaching and research in Saudi Arabian institutions. Also, little research has been conducted regarding the effects of rank and academic field on faculty attitudes in Saudi Arabian institutions. The author used a mail survey and collected 518 useable responses from a total of 710 questionnaires distributed. Factor analysis, MANCOVA, MANOVA, and ANOVA were the statistical methods employed in data analysis. Five attitudes were identified as a result of factor analysis: (a) attitudes toward teaching; (b) attitudes toward research; (c) mission; (d) promotion; and (e) interest. Results indicated that there was a significant difference between faculty and administrators regarding teaching and resea4rch. Administrators showed stronger attitudes toward teaching than faculty at all three universities. There were also significant differences regarding these attitudes in terms of rank, academic field, and university. Full professors had the strongest attitude toward a research emphasis compared to assistant professors. Assistant professors had the strongest teaching orientation. In addition, faculty members in the humanities had stronger teaching orientations preferences than did those in the natural and social sciences. Regarding the universities, faculty members at IU had the strongest teaching orientation preferences, whereas faculty members at KSU had the strongest research orientation preferences.
The Contributions of George S. Benson to Christian Education
The problem is to examine the contributions of George S. Benson to Christian education. The study presents data obtained by personal interviews with George Benson and people who have been close to him, excerpts from letters written by former students, teachers, and board members, minutes of the Board of Trustees of Harding College, books, articles, speeches and newspapers.
The Impact of Student-Faculty Informal Interpersonal Relationships on Intellectual and Personal Development in the University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
This study was conducted to determine the impact of student-faculty informal interpersonal relationships on the intellectual development and personal achievement of students attending the University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. Specifically, the work of Pascarella and Terenzini was generalized with respect to the positive influence of student-faculty interactions on academic outcomes. Additionally, the work of Pascarella and Terenzini was extended with a sample of students at the University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. Eight hundred subjects were selected for the study; 621 subjects responded. One survey instrument was used. Frequencies and multiple regression analyses were used. A series of studies on student-faculty interaction has shown a significant relationship between student-faculty informal contact and student outcomes. A large number of studies have also indicated that student outcomes are not independent of students' background. Therefore, pre-enrollment characteristics were controlled for this study.
Predictive Relationships among Learner Characteristics, Academic Involvement, and Doctoral Education Outcomes
The literature identifies multiple factors pertinent to learner characteristics and learning experiences that may promote doctoral education outcomes, and yet little quantitative research has examined relationships between those factors deemed important in the effectiveness of doctoral education. This study sought to examine predictive relationships among doctoral students’ learner characteristics, their involvement in mentorship and intellectual community, and doctoral education outcomes. Using Astin’s theory of involvement and the literature on signature pedagogies in doctoral education as conceptual guides, a survey instrument was constructed for the purpose of measuring variables identified as relevant to the effective formation of scholars. Central to the conceptualization of this study was academic involvement as represented by mentorship and intellectual community. The instrument was validated in a two-stage pilot testing process and administered to doctoral candidates at three public Texas higher education institutions. Of the 217 participants, the majority were female, White (Non-Hispanic), US citizens, and were pursuing education doctorates. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses. Reliability and validity estimates indicated psychometric integrity of the 20 observed variables measured to represent the constructs of mentorship and intellectual community. Results indicated that doctoral students’ learner characteristics were not notably predictive of doctoral students’ degree of involvement in mentorship and intellectual community (p < .05, R2 = .23). Doctoral students’ degree of academic involvement was strongly predictive of outcomes (p < .001, R2 = .58), particularly student satisfaction with the doctoral education experience and self-efficacy in conducting various forms of scholarly work. Of this effect, more tangible outcomes such as scholarly productivity and degree progress were not meaningfully related to academic involvement. Regardless of the frequency of academic involvement, students perceived faculty mentorship and intellectual community as very important. The predictive value and perceived importance of faculty mentorship and intellectual community highlight the critical role faculty and peer support plays in the doctoral learning experience, and imply that such teaching and learning practices should be promoted in doctoral education. Considering that satisfaction and self-efficacy tend to be related to other educational outcomes, those concerned with the overall quality of doctoral education should focus increased attention on building collegial, effective, productive relationships among and within program communities.
Factors Influencing Freshmen Students' College Choice at the University of North Texas: a Focus Group Study
This study focused on factors that may influence freshmen students when choosing their colleges, specifically those who attend metropolitan universities such as the University of North Texas. In addition to identifying major characteristics of the institution that attract students, it also explored the sources of information that students considered important when making their choice about where to attend college. The primary instrument for gathering the data was focus groups. These informal, small groups provided a format for in-depth discussion and probing questioning about the needs, wants and influential factors driving freshmen college choice. Ten focus groups were held with between six and ten students in a specially designed room on the campus of the University of North Texas. A professional moderator was employed and sessions were observed via a two-way mirror and tape recorded for later transcription. The major questions addressed in the focus groups included: What factors influenced students the most to attend the University of North Texas? What did they consider the level of friendliness on campus? And how did the marketing materials that the university distributed impact their decision to attend? The study found that the factors that most influenced freshmen to attend the University of North Texas were low cost, convenient location and the good academic reputation of their field of study. Students believed North Texas to have a very friendly campus and were pleased with the overall academic environment. They were not, however, impressed or greatly influenced by the marketing materials currently being used by the University and suggested ways to improve the design and distribution of these materials to make them more effective. Additional observations were made concerning these and related questions. A partial transcription of the focus group sessions is included.
The Anatomy of Academic Dishonesty: Cognitive Development, Self-Concept, Neutralization Techniques, and Attitudes Toward Cheating
This study explored the relationship between cheating among university students and their cognitive developmental levels, use of neutralization techniques, self-concept as a multifaceted cognitive construct, and attitude toward cheating. The purposes of this study were to investigate: (1) The relationships between academic dishonesty and each of the following overall independent variables: cognitive development, use of neutralization techniques, self-concept as a multifaceted cognitive construct, and attitude toward cheating, and (2) the reasons behind college student academic cheating behaviors. The study used data from anonymous, self-report surveys administered to undergraduate students in-class and at supplemental sessions. Student participation was voluntary. The study was correlational. The five hypotheses were: (1) Self-concept is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (2) Cognitive development is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (3) Attitude toward cheating is significantly and negatively related to academic dishonesty; (4) The use of neutralization techniques is significantly and positively related to academic dishonesty; (5) Cognitive development, self-concept, and attitude toward cheating will make significant contributions to the regression model for the dependent variables of academic dishonesty. The data supported the first, third, and fourth hypotheses. However, the second and fifth hypotheses were supported under certain conditions. The roles of cognitive development and self-concept in academic dishonesty represent major findings.
The Effect of Hand-Held Weights and Exaggerated Arm Swing on Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, and Ratings of Perceived Exertion during Submaximal Walking
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hand-weights and exaggerated arm swing on heart rate, blood pressure, and ratings of perceived exertion during submaximal walking. Twenty middle-aged (40- 59 years) female volunteers were given four submaximal treadmill tests at 3.0 mph and 0 grade. The four treatment conditions were as follows: 1) walking with unexaggerated arm swing (AS); 2) walking with unexaggerated arm swing with hand-held weights (ASHW); 3) walking with exaggerated arm swing (EAS), and 4) walking with exaggerated arm swing with hand-held weights (EASHW). The testing sequence was randomized and a minimum of 48 hr was given between tests.
College Student Adaptability and Greek Membership: A Single Institution Case Study
Since the birth of the United States in 1776, Greek-letter societies have been an integral part of American higher education. Research on the impact of Greek membership varies at best, and often is in conflict from study to study. This study surveyed students affiliated with Greek-letter organizations at the University of North Texas. The research examined the college adaptability of Greek students by gender in five areas: Overall adjustment, academic adjustment, personal-emotional adjustment, social adjustment, and attachment to the institution. The study, conducted in the spring of 2006 at the University of North Texas had 80 respondents. The Student Adaptability to College Questionnaire (SACQ) consisted of 67 items on a 9-point scale. The SACQ is designed to assess how well students adapt to the demands of the college experience. Raw scores and percentile rankings were determined by t-test calculations. Test scores were expressed through t-scores in relation to the standardized sample. Data show no statistical significance in any of the five areas studied: Overall adjustment, academic adjustment, personal-emotional adjustment, social adjustment, or attachment to the institution. Female participants scored higher on all scales than male participants, indicating a slightly higher level of adjustment, though not enough to be significant. Both males and females scored highest in attachment to the institution and social adjustment, while both scored lowest in personal-emotional adjustment.
Covering the Campus: The History of The Chronicle of Higher Education
This study, the first comprehensive history of The Chronicle, melds a quarter-century of higher education and journalism milestones.
The Role of Contract Training by Academic Institutions in Corporate Education and Training Programs
This study explored the role of contract training provided by North Texas higher education institutions in the education and training programs administered by area businesses employing more than 100 people. A survey instrument was mailed to corporate trainers that were members of the Dallas Chapter of the American Society of Training and Development in businesses employing more than 100 people. A total list of 292 trainers generated 71 usable responses. The purposes of this study were to: (a) determine the extent to which corporations use academic institutions for contract training, (b) determine the academic institutions in North Texas that training managers in the Dallas area believe are suitable contract training partners, (c) identify what subject areas are perceived as top educational priorities by training managers and are perceived to be suitable for contract training by academic institutions, (d) determine educational and training subjects for which corporations would be willing or prefer to utilize contract training by academic institutions, and (e) identify the subjects in which corporations currently use contract training by academic institutions.
The Assessment of Cognitive Development and Writing Aptitude Within Learning Communities
Learning communities have emerged as an efficient and effective paradigm for improving undergraduate education, especially for entering freshmen. The academy has become increasingly interested in learning outcomes and student retention, especially as they are related to the assessment of various approaches to educating the whole student. Learning community pedagogy has developed through rigorous research. However, little is known about the impact of this pedagogy upon college students' cognitive development and writing aptitude. Cognitive development theory has been most significantly influenced by the work of William G. Perry, Jr. Though no theory exists which would address the stages of writing development in university students, many composition theorists suggest a correlation between cognitive development and writing aptitude. This study measured cognitive development and writing aptitude in learning community students and non-learning community students, matching them for SAT scores, high school grade point averages, gender, and ethnicity. The research questions of interest were: 1) How does participation in a learning community affect students' cognitive development; and 2) How does participation in a learning community affect students' writing aptitude? The participants were pre- and post-assessed for cognitive development, using the Measure of Intellectual Development (MID). Additionally, participants were preand post-assessed for writing aptitude, using a diagnostic essay and exit exam. Results of this study indicate no statistically significant differences in cognitive development and writing aptitude for learning community students and non-learning community students as measured by the Measure of Intellectual Development (MID) and the diagnostic essay and exit exam. These findings may have been influenced by the small sample size. It is suggested that this research be replicated, ensuring a larger sample size, to determine the efficacy of this pedagogy on these variable sets.
A comparison of the Avowed Beliefs and Reported Practices of Two Groups of Southern Baptist Pastors Based upon Background in Higher Education
The purpose of this study was to compare the avowed beliefs and reported practices of Southern Baptist pastors based upon their level of attainment in higher education and their choice of theological seminary.
A Descriptive Study of Students Who Were Accepted for Admission at West Texas A&M University but Did Not Enroll
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Each year, institutions of higher education devote valuable financial and personnel resources in the hope of enhancing student recruitment and matriculation. The purpose of this study was to examine the demographic characteristics, the factors that influenced students’ decisions to apply for admission to a university, their educational intentions, and their reasons for not enrolling after they had been admitted. The subjects of the study were first-time freshmen accepted for admission to a mid-size, public, southwestern university who did not enroll for the fall 1997 semester. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing no-shows and enrolled students by gender, ethnicity, age, ACT/SAT score, and distance of their hometown from the university. There were more female no-shows, and more males enrolled than females; a greater percentage of no-shows reported the distance of their hometown to be more than 200 miles; and the mean test score for no-shows was higher. Factors important in the college selection process found to be statistically significant among the groups were: a greater percentage of Minorities than Caucasians reported the importance of the financial aid award or a scholarship offer; students living within 100 miles of the campus reported the proximity of the university as important, advice received from current or former students and high school counselors was more important to those living more than 100 miles from the campus. Cost of attendance and scholarships were important to students with the higher test scores. Statistically significant reasons cited by the no-shows for not enrolling were more Minorities than Caucasians reported financial difficulties and job demands; students living farther from the campus reported attending other universities while those living within 100 miles reported attending a community college. Recommendations the university studied could pursue include: developing a program to follow-up on the no-shows, directing more energy at recruiting students living within 200 miles of the university, and increasing the availability of scholarships.
The Relationships Among Field Dependence/Independence, GRE Scores, and GPA of Master's Students in Kinesiology, Health Promotion, and Recreation
The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the field dependence/independence preference (FD/FI) of selected master's students and their choice of academic discipline, 2) to determine the FD/FI of selected master's students and their areas of specialization within their discipline (kinesiology, health promotion, recreation), 3) to determine the relationship between FD/FI and GRE scores, and 4) to determine the relationship between FD/FI and cumulative GPA. The Witkin Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) was used to test for FD/FI.
Higher Education in Haiti, 1958-1988: an Analysis of its Organization, Administration and Contributions to National Development
The problem of this study was the status of higher education in Haiti. The purposes were to analyze the organization, administration, and contributions of higher education to national development from 1958 to 1988 and to provide background information from foreign literature which might assist in the improvement Haiti's system of higher education. In an effort to locate information necessary to achieve these purposes, a computer search was conducted. A survey of available literature in French, Creole, and English and personal and telephone interviews were also conducted. The results of this study reveal that, in the past three decades, higher education in Haiti has merely functioned as a symbol of social prestige. Haiti's system of higher education exhibits no apparent direction, purpose, of long-term goals. With more than 90 percent of its professors part-time and ill-prepared, its curriculum unrelated to the needs of Haitian society, and its student body in revolt for the past three years, higher education in Haiti is urgently in need of radical reform. Any contribution made to national development by the system of higher education is weak at best. The small but oppressive elite group that dominates the economic and political realms in Haiti has proved to be a stumbling block to educational reform. The prospect of the establishment of an adequate system of education depends heavily on the establishment of a democratic government. The State University, which is the prominent instrument for higher education, must be reorganized and strengthened so that it can meet the basic academic standards of a university. This reorganization must include the redesign of the curriculum and the retraining of current professors. It is urgent that the qualitative aspects of higher education be given attention. Higher education should also develop a working relationship with industry in order to prepare individuals who are qualified to fulfill the country's technical needs.
Living-learning communities and ethnicity: A study on closing the achievement gap at Regional University
This quasi-experimental study examined the impact of living-learning communities on GPA and fall-to-fall retention rates for college freshmen at Regional University (RU). The specific focus of this study was the effect of these communities on students of different ethnic groups and on the potential of these communities to reduce the academic performance gap. RU was a small public university that offered both undergraduate and graduate degree programs. RU required all freshman students to live on campus in living-learning communities beginning with the 2007-2008 academic year. This study utilized the 343 student freshman cohort class of 2008 in the living-learning communities as the treatment group. This treatment group was compared against the 193 student freshman cohort class of 2008 living off campus and against the 643 student freshman cohort class of 2006 living on campus prior to the implementation of living-learning communities. In addition, the statistics were analyzed by ethnicity to examine the impact of these communities on White, Hispanic, African American, and Native American students and their ability to reduce the academic performance gap. The research revealed that the communities implemented at RU were not statistically significant at improving academic performance or at reducing the achievement gap. The results of this study were not consistent with the literature available on living-learning communities. Current research identifies six fundamental factors critical to the success of living-learning communities: positive working relationship between academic affairs and student affairs, involvement of faculty in the residence halls, appropriate funding, assessment strategies, university wide buy-in to implementing these communities, and commitment from institutional leadership. Examination of the inputs and processes on which these learning communities developed and operated indicated that the majority of these were not well developed to sustain these communities. The divergence of these findings from the literature may be attributed to key departures from the literature regarding the set-up and operation of these communities at RU.
Christian Higher Education at Dallas Theological Seminary: An Assessment of Doctor of Ministry Programs
This study involved non-experimental research to identify alumni perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of the Doctor of Ministry degree program at Dallas Theological Seminary. An international survey was conducted to collect data from 165 Doctor of Ministry degree holders from Dallas Theological Seminary; 131 usable questionnaires were returned. A response rate of 79.4 percent was achieved. The intent of the study was to ascertain (a) the extent to which D.Min. alumni perceive that the objectives and goals of Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary are being met, (b) alumni-perceived strengths of Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary, (c) alumni-perceived weaknesses of Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary, (d) compare the findings of this case study assessment with a 1987 national study of Doctor of Ministry programs, and (e) make recommendations for the improvement of D. Min programs at Dallas Theological Seminary. The pattern that emerged from the data indicates that the D.Min. alumni believe objectives and goals of the Doctor of Ministry program at Dallas Theological Seminary are being met. In the opinion of the alumni, Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary has its strengths. The overall opinion of the D.Min. faculty and curriculum are strong indicators of its strength. The D.Min. program has had a positive impact on the lives of its alumni and on their ministries. In the opinion of the alumni, Doctor of Ministry programs at Dallas Theological Seminary also has its weaknesses. A casual comparison of the findings of this case study assessment with a similar 1987 national study of Doctor of Ministry programs revealed more similarities than differences. The alumni provided a number of suggestions to be implemented into the Doctor of Ministry curriculum, structure, faculty, administration, overall image of the program, its purpose and objectives.
The Leadership Path of R. Jan LeCroy
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Recent studies reveal that a considerable number of U.S. community college leaders will be retiring in the next several years. The concern is that with the large turnover, history, culture, and important lessons of leadership will be lost. The current research on the lives of presidents, their career paths, and experiences in community college leadership centers on approaches to the study of leadership at the macro level. Limited research exists in the published literature that reports and analyzes the development of individuals as community college leaders at the micro level. This results in a gap regarding understanding leadership development and strategies to prepare leaders. This study addresses this gap by providing a critical description of the leadership development of one individual who became a community college chancellor and who the literature on the community context indicates contributed to the local and national context for community colleges. Biography is gaining prominence as a legitimate and viable tool in the study of leadership. Few biographical studies currently exist which focus on leadership development in context at the micro level. This dissertation is a biographical, qualitative study of the leadership path and legacy of R. Jan LeCroy, a community college leader. The study combined two viable approaches to biographical inquiry: a scholarly chronicle and the realist approach. Data included the use of primary and secondary sources and included interviews, document analysis, and archival data such as newspaper articles, memos, and minutes of meetings. The data were analyzed and the findings discussed using the theoretical framework of Gronn's (1993) career model of leadership, Vaughan's (1986) study of the career paths of presidents, and Sullivan's (2001) study of four distinct generations of community college leaders. The leadership path of R. Jan LeCroy paralleled the four stages in Gronn's (1993) career model of leadership; he shared characteristics of the presidents surveyed in Vaughan's (1986) study; and he fit the profile of the second generation of community college leaders as described by Sullivan (2001).
Perceptions of Faculty Development: A Study of a North Texas Community College
This dissertation study deems faculty development critical to meeting challenges associated with retirement, potential professor shortages, increasing adjunct populations, unprepared faculty, and accreditation standards in the community college. The study centers on seeking a current, in-depth understanding of faculty development at Metro Community College (a pseudonym). The participants in this qualitative study consisted of adjunct and full-time faculty members and administrators who communicated their perceptions of faculty development. The analysis discovered faculty member types (progressive and hobbyist adjunct and proactive, active, and reactive full-time faculty) who invest themselves in development differently depending on their position and inclination to participate. Faculty members generally indicated a desire for collegiality and collaboration, self-direction, and individualized approaches to development whereas administrators exhibited a greater interest in meeting accreditation standards and ensuring institutional recognition. The study also discovered a need to consider development initiatives for adjunct faculty members. The dissertation proposes an improved partnership between the adjunct and full-time faculty and the administration.
Student Outcomes in Selected Distance Learning and Traditional Courses for the Dallas County Community College District: A Pilot Study
The study compared outcomes for distance learning courses with those of traditional courses offered by the seven campuses of Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD). The course outcomes were defined as completion rate, dropout rate and success rate. Eleven courses offered during the fall 2003 semester were selected for the study. The methods of instruction employed for each course were traditional classroom lecture/discussion and distance learning formats of Internet, TeleCourse and TeleCourse Plus. Internet courses are delivered on-line, using Internet access and a browser, TeleCourse uses one-way videos or public broadcasting, and TeleCourse Plus is a hybrid between Internet and TeleCourse courses. Seven of the courses selected were part of the core curriculum approved by Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) while four other courses were completely transferable. Two types of specific data were extracted: course data and individual student data. Course data included method of instruction, length of course, instructor's load, enrollment, number of withdrawals, and grade distribution. In addition, course requirements including the use of email, videos and Internet, orientation and testing on campus were added as variables. The student data included demographic variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, family status, employment and academic variables including number of credit hours completed, previous distance learning courses, grade point average (GPA), grades, placement scores, previous degrees held, withdrawal history, and financial aid. The theoretical framework for ensuring sound statistical analysis was Astin's student engagement model. The results showed that significant differences exist due to the three distance learning methods of instruction for all course outcomes studied. Completion and success rates are higher for traditional courses and dropout rate is higher for distance learning ones. The outcomes for Internet courses are closer to the rates of traditional courses. Student factors that relate to performance in distance learning courses are GPA, credit hours completed, and family status, whereas those which do not relate to performance in the same classes are semester load, age, TASP reading scores, previous distance learning courses, income, and number of dependents. Course characteristics have a significant effect upon success rate, but no effect upon completion and dropout rates.
Development of a Database Guide for Institutional Research in a Theological Seminary
This study sought to create a guideline to assist theological seminaries build a longitudinal database for institutional research. The study used the National Center for Higher Education Management (NCHEMS) data element dictionary as the base document for the study.
Occupational therapy academic program faculty attitudes toward tenure as measured by the Tenure Attitude Scale
This study explored attitudes of occupational therapy faculty toward tenure and selected alternatives to tenure. A survey method was employed, and the Tenure Attitude Survey Instrument, (TASI), was created for use in the study. Additionally, a questionnaire sought information regarding respondents' rank, tenure and administrative status, institutional type, and years in academia. Participants were accredited occupational therapy professional program faculty who identified their primary work setting as "Academic" on the 2000-2001 American Occupational Therapy Association membership survey. Factor analysis of 577 surveys examined the structure of scores on the TASI, and the instrument consisted of 4 scales, and 18 items, as follows: Scale One: Attitude toward academic freedom and job security protection, 7 items; Scale Two: Attitude toward tenure in general, 6 items; Scale Three: Attitude toward stop-the-tenure clock provisions, 2 items; and Scale Four: Attitude toward post-tenure review, 3 items. Cronbach's alpha was conducted, as follows: TASI overall alpha = .7915; Scale 1 alpha = .7884; Scale 2 alpha = .8420; Scale 3 alpha = .7020; Scale 4 alpha = .4229. Proportional analysis showed that most respondents were full time faculty (88.1%); taught full time at public institutions (52.8%); were tenured or tenure-track (55.5%); had no administrative duties (70.5%); with a rank of instructor or lecturer (17.5%), or assistant professor (45.7%). Time in academia ranged from 1-40 years, with a mean of 11.27 years, median of 9.25 years, and mode of 4 years. Attitudes toward, and support for, the continuation of tenure and for selected proposed alternatives to tenure were analyzed according to the following: faculty rank, administrative status, and tenure status. Respondents held generally favorable attitudes toward tenure as measured by Scales 1 and 2 of the TASI, and the best predictors of faculty attitude toward tenure were tenure status and rank. Due to low reliability scores on Scales 3 and 4, no conclusions can be drawn regarding respondents' attitudes toward alternatives to tenure.
Educationally At-risk College Students From Single-parent and Two-parent Households: an Analysis of Differences Employing Cooperative Institutional Research Program Data.
Using factors of low income, parents' levels of education, and family composition as determinants of educationally at-risk status, study investigated differences between first generation, undergraduate college students from families in lowest quintile of income in the U.S, One group consisted of students from single-parent households and the other of students from two-parent households. Data were from CIRP 2003 College Student Survey (CSS) and its matched data from the Freshman Survey (Student Information Form - SIF). Differences examined included student inputs, involvements, outcomes, and collegiate environments. Included is portrait of low income, first generation college students who successfully navigated U.S. higher education. The number of cases dropped from 15,601 matched SIF/CSS cases to 308 cases of low income, first generation college students (175 from single-parent households and 133 from two-parent households). Most of the 308 attended private, 4-year colleges. Data yielded more similarities than differences between groups. Statistically significant differences (p < .05) existed in 9 of 100 variables including race/ ethnicity, whether or not English was first language, and concern for ability to finance education as freshman. Data were not generalizable to all low income, first generation college students because of lack of public, 4-year and 2-year colleges and universities in dataset. Graduating seniors' average expected debt in June 2003 was $23,824 for students from single-parent households and $19,867 for those from two-parent households. 32% from single-parent households and 22% from two-parent households expected more than $25,000 of debt. Variables used on SIF proved effective tools to develop derived variables to identify low income, first generation college students from single-parent and two-parent households within CIRP database. Methodology to develop derived variables is explained.
Perceptions of assurance service services performed by certified public accountants: Accounting education assessment applications
The overall purpose of this study was to examine how Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) perceive the potential use of assurance services to assess quality in accounting education programs. Survey questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 250 CPAs in the north central Texas area. The questionnaire was designed to obtain demographic information and information relating to the respondents' perceptions of quality assessment of accounting education programs. An analysis of the results of this study suggest the following: CPAs consider (1) certain established criteria, such as SAT scores and faculty-to-student ratios, as effective measures for assessing quality attributes in accounting education programs and (2) traditional measures currently used for quality assessment in accounting education programs as only moderately effective by CPAs. CPAs are apparently seeking increased involvement with accounting education quality assessment and formulation of educational standards. They view the potential application of assurance services to accounting education quality as a way to offer a wider range of services to the public. CPAs perceive assurance services as a type of quality assessment that can be used to complement, but not replace, some of the more effective traditional methods, and as a way of enhancing the quality assessment process for accounting education.
Moving toward the 21st Century: American Association of Colleges of Nursing Guidelines and Baccalaureate Nursing Education
This study investigated current use of American Association of Colleges of Nursing guidelines in preparing the baccalaureate nurse graduate to practice nursing in the community health sector of the healthcare delivery system and use of community based healthcare delivery sites by baccalaureate programs located in non-urbanized and urbanized areas. The extent of guidelines adoption, plans by colleges not currently using them to do so in the future, and impact of accreditation visits on the adoption of the guidelines were also explored. A qualitative survey design was used to describe the use of AACN guidelines in the development of baccalaureate nursing education.
Analyzing the Financial Condition of Higher Education Institutions Using Financial Ratio Analysis.
The problem concerned the financial indicators used to evaluate the financial condition of the six sister higher education institutions under the authority of the Board of Regents of Oklahoma Colleges. The purposes were to determine the financial ratios that best indicate financial condition; to calculate those financial ratios for the six designated Oklahoma higher education institutions; and to evaluate and compare the financial condition of the six institutions. This study attempted to further the use of financial ratio analysis as an objective addition to subjective studies that examine an institution's definition of its mission, objectives, and goals and its own assessment of the degree to which its resources allow it to attain those goals. The data were obtained from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System; the financial reports were audited by independent certified public accountants and presented to the Board of Regents of Oklahoma Colleges; and John Minter Associates, Inc., provided the national norms. The set of financial ratios identified provides a means to study a single higher education institution through trend analysis and in comparison to national norms. It also works well with a sample of homogeneous institutions with interinstitutional comparison. The techniques are intended to provide a general profile of an institution’s financial health. Cause-and-effect ratio analysis has been proposed as another technique to aid administrators in determining changes in their financial statements and what may have caused them. The study identified a set of financial ratios that summarize the financial condition of a higher education institution. The ratios helped to analyze the financial solvency and viability of the six Oklahoma higher education institutions and focused on the ability of the institutions to meet current and future financial requirements. The importance of financial statement analysis should not be underestimated. The understandable format of financial ratios allows virtually any stakeholder to acquire a basic comprehension of the most critical financial policies of institutions and their financial condition.
Evaluation Practices of Community College Faculty Development Programs
The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the current state of community college faculty development program evaluation and identify possible influences on evaluation practices. Data from 184 survey responses and the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) were analyzed to answer three research questions. Multiple regression was used to determine if a relationship existed between the dependent/outcome variable (evaluation utilization score) and the independent/predictor variable (accrediting agency affiliation: MSCHE, NEASC, NCA, NWCCU, SACS, and WASC) and/or control variables (institution locale, student FTE, expenses per student FTE, percent spent on instruction, and percent of full-time faculty). Results were not statistically significant, F (12, 163) = 1.176, p = .305. The mean evaluation scores were similar for all six accrediting agencies ranging from 60-69. The rural variable was statistically significant with p = .003 and alpha = .05, but it only accounted for 3.6% of the variance explained. Logistic regression was used to determine if a relationship existed between the dependent/outcome variable (use of evaluation) and the above-specified independent/predictor variable and/or control variables for six faculty development program activities. Results revealed that significant predictor variables for the use of evaluation vary based on the faculty development program activity. Statistically significant predictors were identified for two of the six activities. The percent spent on instruction variable was statistically significant for financial support for attending professional conferences (p = .02; alpha = .05). The NCA affiliation and student FTE variables were statistically significant for orientation for new faculty (p = .007; alpha = .05 and p = .027; alpha = .05 respectively). The analysis of the evaluation methods was conducted using descriptive statistics and frequencies. The most frequently used evaluation methods were questionnaire and verbal feedback. NCA was identified as having the greatest number of institutions using the most frequently used evaluation methods for four of the activities. SACS was identified as having the largest number of institutions using the greatest number of evaluation methods for five of the activities. It was discovered that accrediting agencies with policies regarding faculty development program evaluation practices were not more likely to have higher evaluation utilization scores or utilize evaluation methods more frequently than accrediting agencies without such policies. The study revealed that among community college faculty development programs evaluation practice similarities were more prevalent than differences regardless of accrediting agency affiliation. As a result of this discovery, future research should extend beyond the accrediting agency affiliation emphasis and explore additional influences on institutional decision making processes regarding community college faculty development program evaluation practices.
Gender Differences Associated with Enrollment in the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science
This study sought to determine if different factors had influenced females and males to select engineering/science-related studies at the Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science (TAMS). The data were collected in the fall semester in 1997 at TAMS located on the University of North Texas campus from a survey of factors reported in the literature that had influenced students to enroll in engineering/science-related curriculum.
Assessment of the Current Status of Informatics in Colombia's Universities and Society
This study tries to delineate the paradigms of opinion among Colombian Computer Industrialists with respect to the role of informatics in national development especially (1) their estimation of the performance of the informatics in the modernization process, (2) the perceptions on which this attitude was based, (3) their ability to integrate the informatics instruction into the development process, (4) their ability to establish the need of doctoral programs in informatics into the development process, and (5) their ability to recognize the importance of the network communication as a medium of knowledge exchange among higher education institutions.
Policies and Practices of University Presses in Texas
The purposes of this study were: (a) to present a brief history of university press publishing in Texas, (b) to describe operating policies and practices of these presses, (c) to compare these policies and practices with commonly accepted principles of publishing policy, and (d) to provide a view of the future of university press publishing in Texas.
Identifying Determinants of Quality for Public Two-Year Colleges
The purpose of this study was to identify a set of determinants of quality for public two-year colleges. To identify specific measures of quality for public two-year colleges, 61 variables of quality were selected from recent research on quality in higher education and consolidated on the Inventory of Determinants of Quality (IDQ). This instrument was mailed to a random sample of two-year college presidents, two-year college faculty members, four-year college deans, and community business leaders. Of the 476 surveys mailed, 315 were returned. The ANOVA procedure identified 24 IDQ items which the four study groups agreed were important to determining quality at public two-year colleges and 6 IDQ items which were less important. The study groups differed significantly in rating the remaining 31 IDQ items as determinants of quality for public two-year colleges. The majority of items found to be important to determining quality at public two-year colleges were related to student outcomes and academic standards. Items related to faculty characteristics, such as research productivity, were found to be less important. Four-year college deans differed significantly from the other three study groups on 13 IDQ items. The major differences were on items related specifically to two-year colleges such as diverse instructional delivery systems and the relationship between the two-year college and its local community. The results of the study led to two major conclusions regarding the determination of quality of public two—year colleges. First, a different set of criteria must be used for measuring quality at two-year colleges. Second, outcome measures must be an integral part of any two-year college evaluation system. Further research is recommended to determine the degree to which the items identified as determinants of quality for two-year colleges should be measured.
A National Overview of Intercollegiate Athletics at Public Community Colleges
This dissertation explores the topic of intercollegiate athletics at public community colleges in the United States. This study is national in scope and includes members of the three major community college athletic associations: the National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA), Commission on Athletics (COA), and the Northwest Athletic Association for Community Colleges (NWAACC). Community colleges that were not members of any of these organizations are also included. The sources of data are the Institutional Postsecondary Educational Data System (IPEDS) surveys as well as Equity in Athletic Disclosure Act (EADA) survey data and the Katsinas Community College Classification Scheme. The population for this study was the 567 public community colleges which submitted IPEDS data in 2001 and 2002 and EADA data in 2002. The geographic classification scheme for public community colleges used in this study revealed differences in the role of athletics in rural, suburban, and urban colleges. Rural community colleges place a larger emphasis on intercollegiate athletics. Urban colleges had a lesser emphasis on intercollegiate athletics. Topics that are examined include the extent of college sponsorship of athletics, athletic associations, student participation, sport sponsorship, athletically-related aid, divisions of competition, athletic revenues and expenses, state reimbursement, recruitment expenses, and staffing requirements. The dissertation includes six findings and four conclusions. There are fifteen recommendations for further research and eight recommendations for practice. Maps showing the locations of teams for each men's and women's sport played in the NJCAA, COA, and NWAACC are included in an appendix.
The Influence of Classroom Community and Self-Directed Learning Readiness on Community College Student Successful Course Completion in Online Courses
The relationships between community college students’ sense of community, student self-directed learning readiness, and successful completion of online courses were investigated using a correlational research design. Rovai’s Classroom Community Scale was used to measure classroom community, and the Fisher Self-directed Learning Readiness Scale was used to measure self-directed learning readiness, including three subscales of self-management, desire for learning, and self-control. The study participants were 205 students (49 males, 156 females; 131 White, 39 Black, 15 Asian, 10 Latino, 10 Multi-racial, 1 Native American) taking online courses during a summer term at a Texas community college. The research hypotheses were tested using Pearson r correlation coefficients between each of the seven independent variables (student learning, connectedness, classroom community, self-management, desire for learning, self-control, and self-directed learning readiness) and student successful course completion data. Contrary to prior study results, no association was found between students’ sense of community in online courses and student successful course completion. Although statistically significant differences were found between successful course completion and self-management (r = .258), desire for learning (r = .162), and self-directed learning readiness (r = .184), effect sizes were small suggesting a lack of practical significance. Possible reasons for the outcome of this study differing from prior research include relatively shorter semester length (summer term) during which data were collected and relatively smaller sample size.
Importance and Responsibility of Student Development Goals Among Chief Academic and Chief Student Affairs Officers
The purpose of the study was to determine if there were significant differences in the perceived importance and responsibility of student development goals between chief academic officers (CAOs) and chief student affairs officers (CSAOs). The population for this study consisted of CAOs and CSAOs at liberal arts institutions located in 15 southern states.
Changes in Social Distance Among American Undergraduate Students Participating in a Study Abroad Program in China
As the world becomes increasingly interdependent, mutual understanding becomes increasingly important. Therefore, it is essential that people strive for reductions in social distance on an international level. Study abroad is one of the ways to approach internationalization and promote understanding among different peoples and cultures. Prior research has been done on the degrees of social distance between people from different cultures; however, little research has been done regarding changes that cultural immersion produces among those who reside in different cultures. Studies about study abroad programs have focused on cultural sensitivity and adaptability, yet few have combined the study abroad experience with the perceptions of self and other cultural groups. This study presents a framework for understanding people through intercultural activities. It studied social distance and attitude changes brought about in social distance as an artifact of cultural immersion. The study took place both in China and in the United States. It focused on the social distance among American undergraduate students who participated in a China Study Abroad program sponsored by the University of North Texas. The study measured before and after social distance of a group of American students who studied abroad in China. The study abroad program itself was the intervention and lasted for three weeks. A mixed methods research design was used in the study. Social distance data were collected before and after students studied abroad in China. Both inferential statistics and descriptive statistics were used. Qualitative data were also collected and analyzed in the study. Most of the sample population were close to the Chinese people to begin with. Some participants positively changed their social distance and attitudes towards the Chinese people after the study abroad program, even though the changes were not statistically significant. This study merits replication among randomly selected samples. Study abroad programs should be promoted and supported. More research needs to be done that explores the quality of cultural immersion study abroad programs. Studies also need to be done to examine attitude changes among peoples in host countries.
For-profit higher education programs in the United States.
This study examined the extent of research and teaching on higher education programs in the United States that focuses on for-profit higher education. This descriptive study used a 30-item questionnaire to gather the information reported here. This survey instrument was sent to the entire population of interest. This population was made up of all of the programs in higher education that are listed in the ASHE Higher Education Program Directory, which is produced by the Association for the Study of Higher Education. The results of this research show that little research and teaching is being done that has a primary focus on for-profit higher education. Recommendations on how to address this are provided.
Baptist Pastoral Leadership: An Analysis for Curriculum Development
Through a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews, practitioner opinion was gathered regarding how Christian institutions of higher education, primarily Baptist seminaries, may better utilize formal and continuing education to prepare clergy for pastoral leadership. The sample of ten subjects for this study, drawn from the 550 active senior pastors in the Dallas Baptist Association and the Kauf-Van Baptist Association, was selected based on a maximum variation sampling method. The intention was to provide a better understanding of the leadership skills required by senior pastors, to help develop pastoral ministries curriculum and to assess the potential effectiveness of continuing education for pastoral leadership. The subjects indicated that the formal degree program of their seminary did equip them with the basic knowledge needed for pastoral leadership but it did not provide them in sufficiency with the necessary, practical skills for pastoral leadership. The pattern that emerged from the data indicates that, overall, seminaries are providing a quality education in preparing pastors for the ministry in their formal degree plans. However, seminaries may have opportunities to be of further service and to gain a competitive advantage vis a vis other seminaries by enhancing and expanding their continuing education programs.
The Association between Bible Literacy and Religiosity
The purposes of this study were to estimate: (a) the extent of biblical literacy among convenience samples of adults from randomly selected religious and non-religious groups, (b) the extent to which American adults are religious, and (c) the association between religiosity and biblical literacy.
Enrollment Management in Higher Education : From Theory to Practice
This study investigated enrollment management practices found in higher education. The research identified enrollment management and retention practices described in the higher education literature. These suggested practices were incorporated into a sixty-six question survey that was distributed to a random sample of colleges and universities taken from the 1999 US News and World Report of college rankings. The survey data were used to identify which of the suggested enrollment management practices were of greatest utility. First, the sixty-six items were grouped into 14 categories of enrollment management strategies. Second, the institutional responses for each category were averaged and then correlated with each institution's graduation rate. Finally, each institution's "yes" responses for the entire survey were totaled and correlated with each institution's graduation rate. This study developed a list of the 26 most frequently used enrollment management practices in higher education, and as well, identified the 10 least used enrollment management practices. Given the results of this study graduation rate is not a sufficient criterion to assess enrollment management practices at a college or university. Enrollment management strategies contribute to many institutional and student outcomes; thus, multiple indicators are required to accurately evaluate enrollment management practices.
Perceptions of Parents of Postsecondary Education Students Concerning Parental Notification and Underage Alcohol Offenses
Since the inception of the Higher Education Reauthorization Act of 1998 by the United States Congress, there has been limited research conducted on parental notification policies on campuses of Higher Education concerning alcohol and drug offenses committed by students. This study surveyed parents of incoming freshmen at the University of North Texas regarding their perceptions of Parental Notification policies and their perceptions of underage alcohol offenses by gender, age, ethnicity, and parental status. The relationship between parental notification and underage alcohol offenses was also examined. This study, conducted in the summer of 2002, at the University of North Texas had 539 respondents. An instrument developed to determine parental perceptions of underage alcohol use and parental notification consisted of 20 dichotomous questions. Chi-square tests of independence were used to analyze the data because it could calculate the relationships between two sets of nominal data. Data show that most parents want to be notified in all situations involving underage alcohol offenses and their offspring. Generally, parents do not believe their offspring will use alcohol underage as they enter college and that they are not binge drinkers. Females want to be notified about their student's underage alcohol offenses at a higher rate than males. Males want to be notified at a higher rate than females if using alcohol jeopardizes housing or enrollment in school for their student. Native Americans have great concern for their students in all areas of alcohol use and binge drinking. Parents should stay actively involved in the lives of their offspring as they attend institutions of higher education as well as stay involved with the University community in which their student attends.