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 Department: Department of Biological Sciences
The Last Laugh: Selected Edwardian Punch Cartoons of Edward Linley Sambourne

The Last Laugh: Selected Edwardian Punch Cartoons of Edward Linley Sambourne

Date: May 2001
Creator: Larson, Alison
Description: The illustrative work of Edward Linley Sambourne for Punch magazine during the period 1901-1910 addresses a myriad of political topics prevalent during the Edwardian period in British history. This thesis examines two of those topics - Women's Suffrage and Socialism - through their artistic treatment by one of Britain's most influential periodicals. Through a study of the historical context and iconography of selected cartoons-of-the-week, one is better equipped to understand and appreciate the meaning, message, and humor in the cartoons. Chapter 1 introduces the Sambourne, Punch magazine, and the Edwardian period in general. Chapters 2 and 3 discuss four Women's Suffrage cartoons and four Socialism cartoons respectively. Chapter 4 draws conclusions regarding Sambourne's techniques as a cartoonist as well as the relationship between the text and image in his illustrations.
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Head Trauma Release of Histamine from Dural Mast Cells Alters Blood-Brain Barrier: Attenuation with Zolantidine

Head Trauma Release of Histamine from Dural Mast Cells Alters Blood-Brain Barrier: Attenuation with Zolantidine

Date: December 2000
Creator: Laufer, Susan R.
Description: This study employed a new model of mild-to-moderate head trauma to specifically identify the role of dural mast cell (MC) histamine in trauma-induced increased permeability in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A single line was scored partially through the left dorsal parietal skull. Immediately following the trauma, degranulation was seen in 39% of the MCs on the left and in 2% on the right. After a 20 min survival period, left duras showed 55% with MC degranulation (fewer with complete degranulation) compared to 34% on the right. In the other experiments two parallel lines were scored following the injection of Evan's blue. Histamine assay showed histamine increased in the left cortex to 154% at 5 min, 174% at 10 min, and 151% at 20 min. Fluorescent quantitation of extravasated Evan's blue at 20 min following the trauma gave an increase of 1385% over the value measured for the right cortex. Zolantidine, a selective histamine H2 receptor antagonist, administered at 10- and 20- mg/kg 30 min before the trauma blocked 65% of the Evan's blue extravasation compared with the control and 2.5 mg group.
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Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Two Southwestern Reservoirs

Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Two Southwestern Reservoirs

Date: August 1973
Creator: Lawley, Gary G.
Description: This investigation has determined the presence of biological nitrogen fixation in two reservoirs in the southwestern United States: Lake Arlington and Lake Ray Hubbard. Subsequent tests have gathered baseline data on the effects of various biological, chemical, and physical parameters on in situ nitrogen fixation in these reservoirs. Of specific importance is the relationship between nitrogen fixation arid occasional blooms of blue-green algae which produce such problems as testes and odors in these water-supply impoundments.
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Assessing the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of MTBE and BTEX Compounds in Lake Lewisville, Texas February 1999 - February 2000

Assessing the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of MTBE and BTEX Compounds in Lake Lewisville, Texas February 1999 - February 2000

Date: August 2000
Creator: Lee, Anne W.
Description: The spatial and temporal distribution of Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE) and BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes) compounds were assessed in a multipurpose reservoir, Lake Lewisville, Texas between February 1999 and February 2000. Concentrations of MTBE ranged from 0.0 - 16.7 mg/L. Levels of MTBE in the lake were related to watercraft. BTEX concentrations were never detected above 2.0 mg/L during the sampling period. Finished drinking water from Denton and the Upper Trinity Regional Water District (UTRWD) Treatment Plants were also tested for MTBE and BTEX. MTBE and BTEX were not detected in UTRWD water samples. Denton's finished water samples never exceeded 2.2 mg/L for MTBE and BTEX was not detected except for one replicate of 1.1 mg/L toluene.
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Physical Map between Marker 8O7 and 146O17 on the Medicago truncatula Linkage Group 1 that Contains the NIP Gene

Physical Map between Marker 8O7 and 146O17 on the Medicago truncatula Linkage Group 1 that Contains the NIP Gene

Date: December 2007
Creator: Lee, Yi-Ching
Description: The Medicago truncatula NIP gene is located on M. truncatula Linkage Group 1. Informative recombinants showed crossovers that localize the NIP gene between markers 146O17 and 23C16D. Marker 164N9 co-segregates with the NIP gene, and the location of marker 164N9 is between markers 146O17 and 23C16D. Based upon data from the Medicago genome sequencing project, a subset of the model legume Medicago truncatula bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) were used to create a physical map on the DNA in this genetic internal. BACs near the potential NIP gene location near marker 164N9 were identified, and used in experiments to predict the physical map by a BAC-by-BAC strategy. Using marker 164N9 as a center point, and chromosome walking outward, the physical map toward markers 146O17 and 23C16D was built. The chromosome walk consisted of a virtual walk, made with existing sequence of BACs from the Medicago genome project, hybridizations to filters containing BAC DNA, and PCR reactions to confirm that predicted overlapping BACs contained DNA that yielded similar PCR products. In addition, the primers which are made for physical mapping via PCR could be good genetic markers helpful in discovering the location of the NIP gene. As a result of efforts repotted ...
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Chronic Hypoxia and Hyperoxia Modifies Morphology and Vegf Expression of the Lungs of the Developing Chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus)

Chronic Hypoxia and Hyperoxia Modifies Morphology and Vegf Expression of the Lungs of the Developing Chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus)

Date: December 2012
Creator: Lewallen, Melissa Anjanette
Description: This study determines effects of oxygen levels on morphology and VEGF expression of developing chicken lungs following incubation in normoxia (21% O2), hypoxia (15% O2) or hyperoxia (30% O2), until developmental days 16 or 18. Lung morphology was assessed using light microscopy, while VEGF expression was determined with ELISA. In hypoxia, the proportion of parabronchial tissue and parabronchi including lumina increased from day 16 to 18 (61 to 68% and 74.2 to 82.2%, respectively). Non-parabronchial tissue was higher in hypoxia than in hyperoxia on day 16 (26 to 20%). However, by day 18, there were no differences between groups. VEGF expression was 33% higher in hypoxia than in hyperoxia on day 16 (736 vs. 492 pg/ml). On day 18, VEGF expression was 43% higher in hyperoxia than in normoxia (673 to 381pg/ml), and remained elevated by 40% in hypoxia over normoxia (631 pg/ml). VEGF may be a mechanism by which parabronchial tissue is stimulated from day 16 to 18 following exposure to chronic hypoxia.
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Development of a Real-time Pcr Assay for the Detection of Campylobacter Jejuni and Campylobacter Coli.

Development of a Real-time Pcr Assay for the Detection of Campylobacter Jejuni and Campylobacter Coli.

Date: May 2009
Creator: Lewis, Sally
Description: Campylobacter organisms are the most commonly reported bacterial causes of foodborne infection in the world, with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli responsible for over 99% of reported infections. Traditionally, Campylobacter species detection is an arduous process, requiring a special incubation environment as well as specific growth media for an extended growth period. The development of a rapid and reliable diagnostic tool for the detection of Campylobacter species would be a valuable aid to the medical diagnostic decision process, especially to rule out Campylobacter infection during the enteric pre-surgical time period. Improved patient outcomes would result if this rapid assay could reduce the number of enteric surgeries. Assays performed during this dissertation project have demonstrated that both SYBR® green and hydrolysis probe assays targeting an 84 nucleotide portion of cadF, a fibronectin-binding gene of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, were able to detect from 101 to 108 copies of organism from stool specimens, did not detect nonspecific targets, and exhibited a coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.1% or less. Analytical validation of sensitivity, specificity and precision, successfully performed in these studies, warrants additional clinical validation of these assays.
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Quantitative Analysis of the Gabaergic System in Cat Primary Somatosensory Cortex and Its Relation to Receptive Field Properties

Quantitative Analysis of the Gabaergic System in Cat Primary Somatosensory Cortex and Its Relation to Receptive Field Properties

Date: May 1995
Creator: Li, Jianying
Description: Sensory neocortex contains a significant number of inhibitory neurons that use gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as their neurotransmitter. Functional roles for these neurons have been identified in physiological studies. For example, in primary somatosensory cortex (SI), blockade of GABAa receptors with bicuculline leads to expansion of receptive fields (RFs). The magnitude of RF enlargement varies between SIpopulations of GABAergic neurons were identified by labeling specific calcium binding proteins.
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Discovery and Characterization of Two Tn5 Generated pyrA Mutants in Pseudomonas putida and the Generation of Hfr Strains

Discovery and Characterization of Two Tn5 Generated pyrA Mutants in Pseudomonas putida and the Generation of Hfr Strains

Date: August 1994
Creator: Liljestrand, Laura Gail
Description: A pyrA mutation in Pseudomonas putida was isolated using transposon mutagenesis for the first time. Transposon Tn5 was used to inactivate the pyrA gene for carbamoylphosphate synthetase in these mutants. Accordingly, these mutants were defective in pyrimidine and arginine biosynthesis. The suicide vector, pM075, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was used to introduce the transposon into the cells. Tn5 was subsequently used to supply homology so that the plasmid pM075 could be introduced in its entirety into the Pseudomonas putida chromosome at the locus of the Tn5 insertion in the pyrA gene. Consequently, these strains exhibited high frequency of recombination and were capable of chromosome mobilization.
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Effects of a Methylcholanthrene-Induced Lymphosarcoma on the Blood of DBA/1J Mice

Effects of a Methylcholanthrene-Induced Lymphosarcoma on the Blood of DBA/1J Mice

Date: May 1972
Creator: Lindsey, Jerri Kay
Description: This investigation was concerned with characterizing a tumor line induced and maintained in this laboratory. Various chemical assays, cell counts, and electron microscopy were the methods employed to characterize the blood of mice bearing the tumor at days 3, 6, 9, and 12 after injection of the 1.2 x 10^8 tumor cells.
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Effects of a Methylcholanthrene-Induced Lymphosarcoma on Various Tissues of DBA/1J and Swiss White Mice

Effects of a Methylcholanthrene-Induced Lymphosarcoma on Various Tissues of DBA/1J and Swiss White Mice

Date: May 1973
Creator: Lindsey, Terri Jay
Description: This investigation was concerned with characterizing effects of this tumor line on lipid metabolism in DBA/lJ mice and serum protein levels and cellular changes in DBA/lJ and Swiss white mice. Total lipids, lipid phosphorus, neutral lipids, and changes in fatty acids were determined in liver, spleen, skin, and tumor of DBA/lJ mice bearing the lymphosarcoma at various days after injection of tumor cells.
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Regulatory Divergence of Aspartate Transcarbamoylase from the Pseudomonads

Regulatory Divergence of Aspartate Transcarbamoylase from the Pseudomonads

Date: December 1996
Creator: Linscott, Andrea J. (Andrea Jane)
Description: Aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) was purified from 16 selected bacterial species including existing Pseudomonas species and former species reassigned to new genera. An enormous diversity was seen among the 16 enzymes with each class of ATCase being represented. The smallest class, class C, with a catalytically active homotrimer, at 100 kDa, was found in Bacillus and other Gram positive bacteria. In this report, the ATCases from the Gram negatives, Shewanella putrefaciens and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were added to class C membership. The enteric bacteria typify class B ATCases at 310 kDa, with a dodecameric structure composed of two catalytic trimers coupled to three regulatory dimers. A key feature of class B ATCases is the dissociability of the holoenzyme into regulatory and catalytic subunits which were enzymatically active. In this report, the ATCase from Pseudomonas indigofera was added to class B ATCases. The largest class, at 480 kDa, class A, contains the fluorescent Pseudomonas including most members of the 16S rRNA homology group I. Two polypeptides are produced from overlapping pyrBC' genes. The former, pyrB, encodes a 34 kDa catalytic polypeptide while pyrC' encodes a 45 kDa dihydroorotase-like polypeptide. Two non active trimers are made from six 34 kDa chains which are cemented ...
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Genetic Analysis of Development and Behavior in Hypoxia and Cellular Characterization of Anoxia Induced Meiotic Prophase Arrest in Caenorhabditis Elegans

Genetic Analysis of Development and Behavior in Hypoxia and Cellular Characterization of Anoxia Induced Meiotic Prophase Arrest in Caenorhabditis Elegans

Date: August 2011
Creator: Little, Brent Ashley
Description: It was hypothesized that chronic hypoxia will affect various biological processes including developmental trajectory and behavior. To test this hypothesis, embryos were raised to adulthood in severe hypoxic environments (0.5% O2 or 1% O2, 22°C) and analyzed for survival rate, developmental progression, and altered behaviors. Wildtype hermaphrodites survive chronic hypoxia yet developmental trajectory is slowed. The hermaphrodites raised in chronic hypoxia had different phenotypes in comparison to the normoxic controls. First, hermaphrodites exposed to chronic hypoxia produced a significantly lower number of embryos and had a slight increase in male progeny. This suggests that chronic hypoxia exposure during development affects the germline. Second, animals raised in chronic hypoxia from embryos to young adults have a slight increase in lifespan when re-exposed to a normoxic environment, indicating that chronic hypoxia does not negatively decrease lifespan. Finally, hermaphrodites that were raised in hypoxia will lay the majority of their eggs on the area of the agar plate where the bacterial lawn is not present. This is in contrast to animals in normoxia, which lay the majority of their eggs on the bacterial lawn. One hypothesis for this hypoxia-induced egg-laying behavior is that the animal can sense microenvironments in hypoxia. To examine if ...
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Attenuation of Escherichia Coli Aspartate Transcarbamoylase Expressed in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Mutant and Wild Type Strains

Attenuation of Escherichia Coli Aspartate Transcarbamoylase Expressed in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Mutant and Wild Type Strains

Date: December 1994
Creator: Liu, Haiyan, 1966-
Description: No apparent repression of pyr gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is observed upon addition of exogenous pyrimidines to the growth medium. Upon introduction of the subcloned Escherichia coli pyrBI genes for aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) into a P. aeruginosa pyrB mutant strain, repression was observed in response to exogenously fed pyrimidine compounds. The results proved that it is possible to bring about changes in pyrimidine nucleotide pool levels and changes in transcriptional regulation of gene expression as a result. Thus, the lack of regulatory control in P. aeruginosa pyr gene expression is not due to an inability to take up and incorporate pyrimidine compounds into metabolic pools, or to an inability of the RNA polymerase to respond to regulatory sequences in the DNA but is probably due to a lack of specific regulatory signals in the promoter of the genes themselves.
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Cloning of Carbonic Anhydrase from Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

Cloning of Carbonic Anhydrase from Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

Date: December 1998
Creator: Local, Andrea
Description: Carbonic anhydrase is a ubiquitous zinc-metalloenzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of carbon dioxide and carbonate and has been found to play a wide range of roles in animals, plants and bacteria. Cotton genomic and cDNA libraries were screened for the plastidial isoform of carbonic anhydrase. The nucleotide sequences of two 1.2 Kb partial cDNA clones were determined. These clones exhibit high homology to carbonic anhydrases from other dicot plants and possess all the expected peptide motifs. For example, serine and threonine rich chloroplastic targeting peptide and conserved zinc binding residues are both present. These clones were utilized to isolate two carbonic anhydrase genes that were shown to encode different isoforms by PCR and RFLP analysis.
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Molecular Basis of Plant Defense Against Aphids: Role of the Arabidopsis Thaliana PAD4 and MPL1 Genes

Molecular Basis of Plant Defense Against Aphids: Role of the Arabidopsis Thaliana PAD4 and MPL1 Genes

Date: August 2011
Creator: Louis, Joe
Description: Myzus persicae (Sülzer), commonly known as green peach aphid (GPA), utilizes its slender stylet to penetrate the plant tissues intercellularly and consume copious amounts of photoassimilates present in the phloem sap causing extensive damage to host plants. The compatible interaction between GPA and Arabidopsis thaliana enabled us to characterize plant response to aphid infestation. Upon GPA infestation, Arabidopsis PAD4 (PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4) gene modulates premature leaf senescence, which is involved in the programmed degradation of cellular components and the export of nutrients out of the senescing leaf. Senescence mechanism is utilized by plants to limit aphid growth. In addition, PAD4 provides antixenosis (deters insect settling and feeding) and antibiosis (impair aphid fecundity) against GPA and adversely impact sieve element availability to GPA. Basal expression of PAD4 contributes to antibiosis, and the GPA-induced expression of PAD4 contributes to antixenosis. Mutation in the Arabidopsis stearoyl-ACP desaturase encoding SSI2 (suppressor of SALICYLIC ACID [SA] insensitivity2) gene that results in an accelerated cell death phenotype and dwarfing, also conferred heightened antibiosis to GPA. Results of this study indicate that PAD4 is required for the ssi2-mediated enhanced antibiosis to GPA. The PAD4 protein contains conserved Ser, Asp and His residues that form the catalytic triad of ...
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Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine on Mouse Lumbar Motor Activity During Postnatal Development

Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine on Mouse Lumbar Motor Activity During Postnatal Development

Date: December 1998
Creator: Lowe-Chatham, Janice E. (Janice Elaine)
Description: The lumbar motor activity in isolated spinal cords of 72 postnatal Balb/C mice aged 2, 5, 10 and 21 days (PN2-21) was electroneurographically recorded (ENG) via bilateral ventral roots following treatment with three different concentrations (25, 100 and 200 pM) of the neurotransmitter, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), i.e., serotonin, to determine its effects on spinal pattern generation.
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Museum education: Creation, implementation, and evaluation of a web-based Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Museum education: Creation, implementation, and evaluation of a web-based Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum

Date: December 2010
Creator: Lundeen, Melissa
Description: Evaluation of museum audiences both in their physical and web-based spaces is a necessary component of museum education. For smaller museums without the personnel or knowledge to create a website and evaluate the on-line audience, using a web-based learning tool may be able to help these museums properly maintain an online site. A web-based Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum (WBEFNHM) was created during the 2008 fall semester at the University of North Texas. The site included photographs and information from specimens housed within the physical Elm Fork Natural Heritage Museum. The site was available to three non-science majors' biology laboratory courses, and three science majors' biology laboratory courses during the 2009 spring and fall semesters. Student use of the WBEFNHM was tracked and found no significant difference between the amount of time science majors and non-majors spent on the site. This evaluation helps in understanding future use of an online EFNHM.
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A laboratory course in experimental genetics for the biology major.

A laboratory course in experimental genetics for the biology major.

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Lux, Melissa McNeil
Description: This manual has been designed for a class of twenty- four students concurrently enrolled in the lecture course. The laboratory aids in the learning process and fosters an interest in the science of genetics. This manual and the experiments contained within are both informative and fun. The manual correlates with and expands upon the genetics course. Each investigation, with the exception of the Drosophila melanogaster project, can be completed in a 3-4 hour timeframe. This manual provides a “hands on” experience of theories simply discussed in the lecture course. This manual is intended to be a one-source manual where each investigation is designed to include an adequate introduction. Special attention has been given for each investigation with both the student and instructor in mind.
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Water Quality Mapping on Lake Texoma USA

Water Quality Mapping on Lake Texoma USA

Date: December 2002
Creator: Mabe, Jeffrey A.
Description: The primary objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a system capable of rapid, continuous collection of water quality and locational data on Lake Texoma. Secondary objectives included developing monthly distribution maps for chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and specific conductivity in Lake Texoma and investigating the spatial and temporal relationships between these common water quality indicators. A modified YSI multiprobe was used to develop a system capable of surveying the lake within 4 days with samples at 330 to 400 meter intervals. Data generated with this system compared favorably with previous studies of Lake Texoma. Two sets of raster format maps were developed for the monthly distributions of chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and specific conductivity across the lake. Spatial and temporal relationships generally took the form of decreasing gradients running from the lake arms towards the Main Lake Zone in the case of chlorophyll-a and turbidity. Or, in the case of specific conductivity, a decreasing gradient from the Red River arm to the Washita River arm. All three water quality indicators were strongly influenced by river discharge levels.
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Mutation of Polaris, an Intraflagellar Transport Protein, Shortens Neuronal Cilia

Mutation of Polaris, an Intraflagellar Transport Protein, Shortens Neuronal Cilia

Date: August 2005
Creator: Mahato, Deependra
Description: Primary cilia are non-motile organelles having 9+0 microtubules that project from the basal body of the cell. While the main purpose of motile cilia in mammalian cells is to move fluid or mucus over the cell surface, the purpose of primary cilia has remained elusive for the most part. Primary cilia are shortened in the kidney tubules of Tg737orpk mice, which have polycystic kidney disease due to ciliary defects. The product of the Tg737 gene is polaris, which is directly involved in a microtubule-dependent transport process called intraflagellar transport (IFT). In order to determine the importance of polaris in the development of neuronal cilia, cilium length and numerical density of cilia were quantitatively assessed in six different brain regions on postnatal days 14 and 31 in Tg737orpk mutant and wildtype mice. Our results indicate that the polaris mutation leads to shortening of cilia as well as decreased percentage of ciliated neurons in all brain regions that were quantitatively assessed. Maintainance of cilia was especially affected in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Furthermore, the polaris mutation curtailed cilium length more severely on postnatal day 31 than postnatal day 14. These data suggests that even after ciliogenesis, intraflagellar transport is necessary ...
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Evaluation of City of Denton Sub-Watershed by Benthic Macroinvertebrate Field Experimental Approach

Evaluation of City of Denton Sub-Watershed by Benthic Macroinvertebrate Field Experimental Approach

Access: Use of this item is restricted to the UNT Community.
Date: August 2006
Creator: Mahato, Mahendra
Description: In this study, two different field experiments were designed to assess the relative influence of urbanization on benthic communities. During spring and summer, four urban and one reference sites from Denton County, Texas were selected for benthic macroinvertebrate evaluation. Statistically significant differences in colonized benthic macroinvertebrate taxa on artificial substrates were observed among the four urban sites and the reference site. Oligochaetes and chironomids were the dominant taxa at all sites. Identification of chironomid larvae at the subfamily and genus level to detect differences between sites had higher statistical power than the evaluation based on total chironomids. At the reference site, Caenis, Cladotanytarsus, Orthocladius, and Ceratopogonidae were the dominant taxa, while the urban sites were dominated by Dero, Physella, Ancylidae, Chironomus, Dicrotendipes, Glyptotendipes, Polypedilum, Pseudochironomus, Stenochironomus, and Tanytarsus. These differences may have been dependent upon differences in hydrologic regime and water quality between sites. Significant differences (ANOVA, p < 0.01) in water quality parameters (alkalinity, hardness, nitrates, phosphates, chlorides, sulfates, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and triazine) were found among water samples collected from the reference and urban sites. During the transfer period, most of the Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera taxa and a few other taxa disappeared from artificial substrates that were colonized ...
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New Descriptions, Intraspecific Variation and Systematic Importance of Drumming Behavior in Selected North American Plecoptera

New Descriptions, Intraspecific Variation and Systematic Importance of Drumming Behavior in Selected North American Plecoptera

Date: December 1986
Creator: Maketon, Monchan
Description: Drumming behavior is described for the first time in 33 North American Plecoptera species, and signals of an additional five species, Pteronarcys pictetii, Acroneuria abnormis, Paragnetina media, Clioperla clio and Isogenoides zionensis, are further detailed. An out-group comparison of behavioral characters in all 104 world species whose drumming is known showed that the behavior is more advanced in the Arctoperlaria Group Systellognatha than in the Group Euholognatha. In general, tapping, monophasy, touching, sequenced exchange and less than 50 taps/answer are ancestral states, and rubbing, grouping, phasing, tremulation, interspersed exchange and equal or more than 50 taps/answer are derived states. There has been some co-evolution between abdominal structure and drumming behavior. Scanning Electron Micrographs of 30 species showed that the primitive state of tapping is ascociated with three classes of abdominal structure: (1) absence of derived structures, (2) lobes or vesicles, and (3) hammers. The derived behavior of rubbing, however, occurs only in species with derived structures, and is predominant in species having vesicles and hammers. Drumming can be used as a line of evidence to aid in defining genera and species, since the behavior has a variable degree of specificity or exclusiveness in all species, particularly in groups of species ...
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BK1 and DCD1 Act Synergistically in Subsidiary Cell Formation in Zea Mays

BK1 and DCD1 Act Synergistically in Subsidiary Cell Formation in Zea Mays

Date: August 2014
Creator: Malhotra, Divya
Description: Subsidiary mother cell (SMC) divisions during stomatal complex formation in Zea mays are asymmetric generating a small subsidiary cell (SC) and a larger epidermal cell. Mutants with a high number of abnormally shaped subsidiary cells include the brick1 (brk1) and discordia1 (dcd1) mutants. BRK1 is homologous to HSPC300, an ARP2/3 complex activator, and is involved in actin nucleation while DCD1 is a regulatory subunit of the PP2A phosphatase needed for microtubule generation (Frank and Smith, 2002; Wright et al. 2009). Possible causes of the abnormal SCs in brk1 mutants include a failure of the SMC nucleus to polarize in advance of mitosis, no actin patch, and transverse and/or no PPBs (Gallagher and Smith, 2000; Panteris et al 2006). The abnormal subsidiary mother cell division in dcd1 is due to correctly localized, but disorganized preprophase bands (PPBs; Wright et al. 2009). The observation that brk1 has defects in PPB formation and that the dcd1 phenotype is enhanced by the application of actin inhibitors led us to examine the dcd1; brk1 double mutant (Gallagher and Smith, 1999). We found that dcd1; brk1 double mutants demonstrate a higher percentage of aberrant SCs than the single mutants combined suggesting that these two mutations have ...
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