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A Monte Carlo Study of the Robustness and Power Associated with Selected Tests of Variance Equality when Distributions are Non-Normal and Dissimilar in Form

A Monte Carlo Study of the Robustness and Power Associated with Selected Tests of Variance Equality when Distributions are Non-Normal and Dissimilar in Form

Date: August 1990
Creator: Hardy, James C. (James Clifford)
Description: When selecting a method for testing variance equality, a researcher should select a method which is robust to distribution non-normality and dissimilarity. The method should also possess sufficient power to ascertain departures from the equal variance hypothesis. This Monte Carlo study examined the robustness and power of five tests of variance equality under specific conditions. The tests examined included one procedure proposed by O'Brien (1978), two by O'Brien (1979), and two by Conover, Johnson, and Johnson (1981). Specific conditions included assorted combinations of the following factors: k=2 and k=3 groups, normal and non-normal distributional forms, similar and dissimilar distributional forms, and equal and unequal sample sizes. Under the k=2 group condition, a total of 180 combinations were examined. A total of 54 combinations were examined under the k=3 group condition. The Type I error rates and statistical power estimates were based upon 1000 replications in each combination examined. Results of this study suggest that when sample sizes are relatively large, all five procedures are robust to distribution non-normality and dissimilarity, as well as being sufficiently powerful.
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Economic Statistical Design of Inverse Gaussian Distribution Control Charts

Economic Statistical Design of Inverse Gaussian Distribution Control Charts

Date: August 1990
Creator: Grayson, James M. (James Morris)
Description: Statistical quality control (SQC) is one technique companies are using in the development of a Total Quality Management (TQM) culture. Shewhart control charts, a widely used SQC tool, rely on an underlying normal distribution of the data. Often data are skewed. The inverse Gaussian distribution is a probability distribution that is wellsuited to handling skewed data. This analysis develops models and a set of tools usable by practitioners for the constrained economic statistical design of control charts for inverse Gaussian distribution process centrality and process dispersion. The use of this methodology is illustrated by the design of an x-bar chart and a V chart for an inverse Gaussian distributed process.
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Assessment of the Effects of Communication Training on the Adult Elderly and the Assisting Adult Child

Assessment of the Effects of Communication Training on the Adult Elderly and the Assisting Adult Child

Date: August 1990
Creator: Goldstein, Roberta Eisman
Description: This study examined the effects of Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) on affection, communication, and relationship between elderly parents and their assisting adult children. Twenty-eight pairs of parents and children were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups. Subjects took Quinn's Family Life Questionnaire as pre-, post-, and follow-up tests. Parents and children in the treatment groups attended a four-session STEP workshop. No significant differences were found on the 2 x 2 analysis of variance for repeated measures for the parents or adult children. Quinn's affection and relationship variables approached significance for the parents over time. His variable affection approached significance for the children over time, irrespective of group. Agreement approached significance for children in the treatment group. The results for the parents regarding affection suggest that the study may have emphasized their feelings of trust. Although the data for relationship approached significance, it was negative, indicating that parents in the treatment group may have reduced their interaction with their assisting children perhaps because they were learning new communication skills. The data for the children regarding affection approached significance, but it was negative, suggesting they felt free to question their feelings about themselves and their parents. The results for ...
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The Role of Persons Other Than Professional Development Staff in the Solicitation of Major Gifts From Private Individuals for Senior Colleges and Universities

The Role of Persons Other Than Professional Development Staff in the Solicitation of Major Gifts From Private Individuals for Senior Colleges and Universities

Date: December 1989
Creator: Winfree, Walter R. (Walter Russell), 1947-
Description: The purposes of this study were to determine and describe the roles of persons other than professional development staff in the solicitation of major gifts from private individuals for selected senior colleges and universities as perceived by senior development officers. The activities of four groups of nondevelopment staff, trustees, president/chancellor, private citizens, and nondevelopment staff/faculty, were examined through the four steps of the major gift solicitation process: identification and rating, cultivation, the in person solicitation, and the thank-you process following the gift. The population encompassed all accredited, degree granting four year colleges and universities in the United States which solicit major gifts from private individuals. The sample consisted of the 223 schools which had received one or more gifts of one million dollars or more from private individuals as reported in Giving USA. Philanthronin Digest, or The Chronicle of Higher Education, between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 1987. The research instrument was a mailed questionnaire which was sent to the Chief Development Officer of the 223 schools in the sample. Replies were received from 162 institutions, for a response rate of 72.7%. Examination of the results of this study indicated that the services of nondevelopment personnel were used in ...
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Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Attitudes and Achievement of Fourth Grade Students in Reading and Mathematics

Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Attitudes and Achievement of Fourth Grade Students in Reading and Mathematics

Date: August 1985
Creator: Todd, Wilma Elizabeth
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of participation in a Computer-Assisted instructional program (CAI) on fourth grade student attitudes and achievement in reading and mathematics. This study, based on Campbell and Stanley's quasiexperimental design 10, utilized Diascriptive Reading software for the CAI mathematics group and Milliken Math Sequences software for the CAI mathematics group and was completed by 242 students. The time span between pretests and posttests was seven months. Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, Level 10, Form 7/8 was used for achievement testing and Estes Attitude Scale was used for attitude testing. Analysis of covariance was used to determine significance at the .05 level. The findings for this study were: 1. Reading Comprehension posttest scores were significantly higher for the control group than for the reading experimental group; 2. Reading Comprehension posttest scores were not significantly higher for boys than for girls within the reading experimental group; 3. Total math posttest scores were significantly higher for the mathematics experimental group than for the control group; 4. Concepts and Computation math subsets posttest scores were significantly higher for the mathematics experimental group than for the control group. There were no significant differences between the posttest scores ...
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The Association Between Selected Health Characteristics and Participation in Learning Projects by Retired Educators

The Association Between Selected Health Characteristics and Participation in Learning Projects by Retired Educators

Date: August 1985
Creator: Simmons, Anne Harris
Description: This study identified the number of learning projects undertaken by thirty-eight retired educators and examined the extent to which these experiences were associated with the body weight and the exercise patterns of the subjects. A list of 1091 names of retired educators was obtained and 400 names were randomly selected to receive a brief survey seeking responses to demographic, personal and miscellaneous questions relating to their efforts to continue to pursue learning. Interviews were arranged with thirty-eight subjects who met established criteria. The 19 8 3 Metropolitan Height and Weight Tables were used to estimate weight characteristics and a probe sheet was designed to identify the number of hours spent exercising in activities vigorous enough to increase heart beat. In-depth interviews were conducted by the investigator using the questions from Tough's Interview Schedule for Studying Some Basic Characteristics of Learning Projects, and the probe sheet designed by the investigator. The interviews focused on the efforts to continue learning during the past twelve months and on the participation in vigorous exercise during the past twelve months. Findings were analyzed by computing t-tests for independent means and the Pearson product moment method of correlation. Comparisons of the results from this study were ...
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The Relationship Between Mood Elevation and Attribution Change in the Reduction of Depression

The Relationship Between Mood Elevation and Attribution Change in the Reduction of Depression

Date: August 1985
Creator: Swenson, Carol
Description: This study investigated the relationship between the depressive attributional style described by Beck and Seligman and elevation of mood. It was proposed that mood elevation would reduce the level of depression and, in addition, would reduce the number of negative attributions. The reduction of negative attributions was assumed to be a more cognitively mediated process and was proposed to occur subsequent to mood change. These assumptions are contrary to the current cognitive theories of depression and attribution which view attributional style as a prerequisite to both the development and reduction of depression. Subjects were 30 undergraduate students between the ages of 19 and 40 years old who volunteered to participate in the study. They were screened on the basis of demonstrated depression (13 and above on the Beck Inventory) and susceptibility to hypnosis (high susceptibility on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility) . Subjects were randcmly assigned to one of three groups; (1) hypnosis with mood elevation, (2) hypnosis with relaxation, and (3) no treatment control. The results supported the hypothesis that mood elevation would reduce level of depression. The mood elevation group demonstrated a lowering of depression. The effects of the treatment procedure did not appear until the ...
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Effect of Task Appropriateness, Social Comparison, and Feedback on Female Goals, Performance, and Self-Confidence with a Motor Task

Effect of Task Appropriateness, Social Comparison, and Feedback on Female Goals, Performance, and Self-Confidence with a Motor Task

Date: May 1990
Creator: Adler, William P.
Description: Lenney (1977) concluded that achievement gender differences were predicted by females' lower self confidence and expectancies in competitive situations, identifying three variables that mediated female self confidence in achievement situations, (1) task appropriateness. (2) social comparison, and (3) feedback. The present study manipulated all three mediating variables with 240 undergraduate 18-25 year old female subjects with the pursuit rotor task that requires tracking a moving (40 rpm's) white light with a hand-held stylus for 60 seconds. Response measurement was based upon time on target. Subjects were tested over five trials while setting goals for each trial. Females were randomly assigned to a male appropriate, female appropriate, or gender neutral task condition, a competition or alone condition, and to one of four feedback conditions (no feedback, feedback about own performance only, feedback about own performance that provided the perception that subject was performing better than an opponent and/or average on each trial, or feedback about own performance that provided the perception that subject was performing poorer than an opponent and/or average on each of the five trials). Results from the 2 (social comparison) X 3 (task appropriateness) X 4 (feedback) ANOVA were contradictory to previous findings (Corbin, 1981; Petruzzello & Corbin, ...
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Opioid/Adrenergic Interaction in Regulating Canine Cardiac Function

Opioid/Adrenergic Interaction in Regulating Canine Cardiac Function

Date: May 1990
Creator: Gu, Hong
Description: Opioid/adrenergic interactions were studied to evaluate two hypotheses: (1) naloxone potentiates the effect of epinephrine on cardiac contractility by increasing circulating epinephrine concentrations; and (2) endogenous and exogenous opioids alter left cardiac nerve stimulationinduced norepinephrine release and cardiac function. A canine isolated heart-lung preparation was used for the first study. Plasma epinephrine was determined and myocardial epinephrine uptake was calculated during intravenous epinephrine infusion. Naloxone (4 mg) was given and the epinephrine infusion was repeated. Naloxone increased cardiac contractility, coronary blood flow, and the coronary sinus epinephrine concentration. When coronary blood flow was subsequently held constant (100% above resting), naloxone increased only contractility. This result indicated that the previously observed increase in coronary sinus epinephrine was flow dependent. Corticosterone (an uptake II blocker) was employed as a positive control. Corticosterone increased the contractile response to epinephrine, but unlike naloxone, corticosterone was accompanied by a clear decrease in myocardial epinephrine uptake. The stereospecificity of the response to naloxone was investigated and (+) naloxone equaled or exceeded (-) naloxone in potentiating the inotropic effect of epinephrine. In the second study, the left cardiac nerve was isolated and electrically stimulated in intact dogs. Norepinephrine overflow gradually declined during successive control stimulations. Pretreatment with ...
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A Study of the Influences Upon Pre-Service Teachers' Pre-Planning, Lesson Planning, and Bases for Interactive Decision Making During Lesson Implementation

A Study of the Influences Upon Pre-Service Teachers' Pre-Planning, Lesson Planning, and Bases for Interactive Decision Making During Lesson Implementation

Date: May 1990
Creator: Chang, Tony Hong-Jee
Description: The primary objective of this study was to describe the influences upon pre-service elementary teachers' preplanning, lesson planning, and bases for interactive decision making during their lesson implementation. Six female volunteer pre-service elementary teachers from the teacher preparation program at the University of North Texas planned and taught three separate lessons in one of the following content areas-social studies, language arts, mathematics, science, and safety, at six different schools in the north Texas area. Each element of the lesson plans (18 total) was classified for analysis. Following the presentation of each lesson, the pre-service teachers were asked to use the repertory-grid technique to sort out five decisions from a series of lesson-implementation decisions which had been observed and recorded by the investigator. Then the six pre-service teachers were interviewed by the investigator using the stimulated recall technique. During the interview, each decision was discussed with the pre-service teachers, who responded to seven structural questions that probed their concerns, attitude, type of concerns, and number of concerns. The six pre-service elementary teachers possessed some ability to direct students in their classroom learning using activities and instructional knowledge. This enabled them to notice individual student performance and that of students in the ...
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Perceptions of Managers in Kuwait on the Role of the Multinational Corporations in Change in Kuwait

Perceptions of Managers in Kuwait on the Role of the Multinational Corporations in Change in Kuwait

Date: May 1990
Creator: Al-Daeaj, Hamad S. (Hamad Saleh)
Description: The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptions of managers in Kuwait (both Kuwaiti and non- Kuwaiti) on the effects of multinational corporations (MNCs) in Kuwait and whether these effects were beneficial. The problem motivating this study is the effects that MNCs have on the social, cultural, political, legal, economic, business, and technological environments of their host countries, especially in developing nations. This study is based on a survey of the perceptions of 1,344 managers in Kuwait on the role of MNCs in changes in Kuwait. A review of the literature on MNCs and their relationships with their host countries is provided. This review focuses on four major environmental dimensions (Social-Cultural, Political-Legal, Business-Economic, and Technological) that are affected by MNCs. The factor analysis performed for this study supports this classification of the dimensions in the environment. An English questionnaire was developed from the list of major items in each of these dimensions. An Arabic version was developed using a "double-translation method." Both the English and Arabic versions of the questionnaire were pilot tested. The instrument proved to be reliable and valid. The study utilizes a 2 x 3 block design, categorizing subjects by nationality (Kuwaiti, other Arab, others) ...
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"Beowulf": Myth as a Structural and Thematic Key

"Beowulf": Myth as a Structural and Thematic Key

Date: May 1990
Creator: Aitches, Marian A. (Marian Annette)
Description: Very little of the huge corpus of Beowulf criticism has been directed at discovering the function and meaning of myth in the poem. Scholars have noted many mythological elements, but there has never been a satisfactory explanation of the poet's use of this material. A close analysis of Beowulf reveals that myth does, in fact, inform its structure, plot, characters and even imagery. More significant than the poet's use of myth, however, is the way he interlaces the historical and Christian elements with the mythological story to reflect his understanding of the cyclic nature of human existence. The examination in Chapter II of the religious component in eighth-century Anglo-Saxon culture demonstrates that the traditional Germanic religion or mythology was still very much alive. Thus the Beowulf poet was certainly aware of pre-Christian beliefs. Furthermore, he seems to have perceived basic similarities between the old and new religions, and this understanding is reflected in the poem. Chapter III discusses the way in which the characterization of the monsters is enriched by their mythological connotations. Chapter IV demonstrates that the poet also imbued the hero Beowulf with mythological significance. The discussion in Chapter V of themes and type-scenes reveals the origins of ...
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Developing and Administering a Nonmetropolitan Teachers Education Program in Northeastern Thailand

Developing and Administering a Nonmetropolitan Teachers Education Program in Northeastern Thailand

Date: December 1989
Creator: Naowarath Yamsaengsung
Description: The primary purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of the rural teachers preparation program in specific curriculum components, field experience and training, and preparation. A secondary purpose is to determine the need for these components and a limited evaluation of other delivery systems for rural teaching in eight nonmetropolitan teachers colleges in Northeast Thailand. The questionnaire of the Rural Education Association (REA) developed by Barbara Jean Jones was employed to collect data from a random sampling of 352 teachers college instructors and administrators and randomly selected 352 elementary school teachers and administrators. Analysis of data from 508 respondents, were analyzed by using the descriptive statistic and t-test, revealed that: (a) the REA model components were available and are essential for teachers preparation program at Thai teachers colleges in the Northeast, (b) public relations and educational technology including computer literacy components should be developed to meet the public need, (c) teachers college faculty members should receive special training for preparing students to teach in a rural environment, (d) teachers colleges should provide a teacher training site in the provinces, (e) teaching in a rural and an urban environment are significantly different, and (f) there is a need for ...
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Narcissism: Reality Testing and the Effect of Negative Feedback

Narcissism: Reality Testing and the Effect of Negative Feedback

Date: August 1990
Creator: Gabriel, Marsha T. (Marsha Thompson)
Description: A number of clinicians have reported that narcissists show grandiosity in self-concept, and rage after receiving disconfirming feedback. This is the first empirical study to test these claims. Subjects with differing levels of narcissism and self-esteem were compared on distortion in self-perception and emotional reaction to negative feedback. Ninety-six college students predicted their levels of intelligence, attractiveness, and interpersonal understanding (empathy) as compared to their peers. Objective measures of these characteristics were obtained, and subjects' predictions, with their actual scores held constant, provided measures of reality distortion in selfperception. Subjects were given feedback comparing their predictions to objective measures at the end of the experiment, and reaction to feedback was assessed by comparing subjects' pre- and post-feedback scores on the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist-Revised (Zuckerman & Lubin, 1985). Narcissists were expected to react to negative feedback with greater hostility than nonnarcissists. Narcissists evidenced significant distortion in perceptions of their own intelligence, attractiveness, and interpersonal understanding. This finding provided empirical evidence supporting the clinical phenomenon of grandiosity. Narcissists did not react with greater hostility after negative feedback, but as compared to nonnarcissists, they did react with less depression following negative feedback. This supported Kernberg's (1980) assertion that narcissists do not react ...
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Adlerian Counseling and the Early Recollections of Children

Adlerian Counseling and the Early Recollections of Children

Date: May 1990
Creator: Statton, Jane Ellis Porter
Description: This investigation used a descriptive approach to explore and evaluate early recollection changes of children in Adlerian counseling. The study addressed seven research questions regarding early recollection change for children in Adlerian counseling as compared with children not in Adlerian counseling. The treatment group was engaged in Adlerian counseling for 10 weeks. The investigator conducted pre-counseling and post-counseling interviews to collect six total early recollections from 9 subjects. The comparison group was not engaged in treatment for counseling. The investigator conducted interviews at an interval of 10 weeks to collect six total early recollections from 9 subjects. The Manaster-Perryraan Manifest Content Early Recollection Scoring Manual was used for analysis of early recollection content. Following training sesions, raters scored absence or presence of content variables in early recollections. Tables were employed to reveal findings of early recollection content change as addressed by the seven research questions of this study. A descriptive evaluation of' the data indicated that the treatment group manifested greater change in early recollection content as compared to the comparison group in six of seven research questions. On the basis of these findings, this study concluded that early recollections of children are a valid source of potential in measuring ...
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Literature of Conscience: The Novels of John Nichols

Literature of Conscience: The Novels of John Nichols

Date: May 1990
Creator: Ward, Dorothy Patricia
Description: This dissertation presents a thematic study of the novels of John Nichols. Intended as an introduction to his major works of fiction, this study discusses the central themes and prominent characteristics of his seven novels and considers the impact of the Southwest on his work. Chapter One presents biographical information about Nichols, focusing on his political awakening and subsequent move to Taos, New Mexico. A visit to Guatemala, after the publication of The Sterile Cuckoo. his first novel, brought Nichols to a realization that America was not a benevolent world power. He began to consider capitalism a voracious, destructive economic system, a view which informed the subjects and themes of his five novels written after The Wizard of Loneliness. In 1969, Nichols left New York City, moving to Taos, New Mexico, an area with a history of physical and economic aggression against its predominantly Native American and Hispanic population. The five polemical novels, all set in northern New Mexico, were written after this move. Chapters Two through Four discuss Nichols's seven novels, analyzing theme and reviewing critical response. /V Chapter Two discusses The Sterile Cuckoo (1965) and The Wizard of Loneliness (1966), novels written prior to Nichols's political awakening. Both ...
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References to Trumpet Music in the Battle Chansons of Clement Janequin

References to Trumpet Music in the Battle Chansons of Clement Janequin

Date: May 1990
Creator: South, James, 1957-
Description: This paper is an examination of the battle chansons of Clement Janequin for references to Renaissance trumpet music. The following issues are addressed: dating the early use of the clarino register; the history and evolution of the courtly trumpet ensemble; and the transition from the shorter trumpet of the Middle Ages to the longer instrument of the middle Renaissance and Baroque eras. Because the earliest Janequin battle chanson predates all known written trumpet sources by over fifty years, musical evidence gleaned from these battle chansons can help to establish the existence and character of trumpet performance practices in the first third of the sixteenth century. The first chapter summarizes all of the known primary sources of information on Renaissance trumpet performance, and identifies important issues worthy of further investigation. The second chapter examines trumpet music and trumpet style in the Renaissance, including trumpet ensemble performance, military trumpet calls, and the imitation of trumpet style in purely vocal music, and contains eight musical examples. The third chapter discusses the battle chansons of Janequin and their influence on other sixteenth-century works. Chapter £our analyzes the battle works of Janequin for allusions to trumpet music and includes eleven musical examples. The fifth and ...
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Solo Trombone Performances at the Gewandhaus in the Nineteenth Century: a Lecture Recital, Together with Three Recitals of Selected Works of G. Jacobs, S. Sulek, E. Bloch, C. Wagenseil, W. Ross, G. Pergolesi, T. George, F. Hidas, J. Albrechtsberger and Others

Solo Trombone Performances at the Gewandhaus in the Nineteenth Century: a Lecture Recital, Together with Three Recitals of Selected Works of G. Jacobs, S. Sulek, E. Bloch, C. Wagenseil, W. Ross, G. Pergolesi, T. George, F. Hidas, J. Albrechtsberger and Others

Date: May 1989
Creator: Lewis, Michael E. (Michael Edward), 1952-
Description: This study investigates and documents tenor/bass trombone solo performances at the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, East Germany, between 1821 and 1876. Included is the discussion of a newly discovered composition, the Concertino fur Bassposaune und Orchester, by Carl Heinrlch Meyer, which is the earliest concerto for the tenor/bass trombone. Its performance at the Gewandhaus in 1821 marked the beginning of the solo tradition for the tenor/bass trombone, and the Leipzig Gewandhaus became one of the leading centers of solo trombone performance for the next fifty years. The study includes background information on the rise of the virtuoso soloist in nineteenth-century Germany. It specifically focuses on Friedrlch August Belcke and Carl Traugott Queisser and their performances at the Gewandhaus. All solo trombone performances at the Gewandhaus in the nineteenth century have been documented, and specific information has been provided regarding the soloists, dates of performances and repertoire performed on the concerts. The paper includes a discussion of performance reviews from the Allgemeine Musfkalische Zeitung. The conclusion discusses the importance of solo trombone performance at the Gewandhaus, and the reason for its sudden decline after 1876.
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Judgment of Contingency and the Cognitive Functioning of Clinical Depressives

Judgment of Contingency and the Cognitive Functioning of Clinical Depressives

Date: August 1990
Creator: Cobbs, David Lee
Description: Twenty-four psychiatric staff, 24 clinically depressed inpatients, and 24 nondepresssed schizophrenic patients at a state psychiatric facility completed five tasks under either reward or punishment conditions. Each task consisted of 30 trials of pressing or not pressing a button to make a light appear. Monetary reinforcement was contingent on light onset for the final ten trials of each task. Cash incentives for judgment of control accuracy were added for Tasks 3, 4, and 5. Cognitive functioning was evaluated on each task by measuring expectancy, judgment of control, evaluation of performance, and attribution. Mood and self- esteem were measured before and after the procedure. No significant differences were observed across mood groups for expectancy of control or judgment of control accuracy. Subject groups also did not differ in the attributions they made or in how successful they judged their performances to be. They set realistic, attainable criteria for success which were consistent with relevant conditional probabilities. Subjects in reward gave themselves more credit for task performance than subjects in punishment gave themselves blame for comparable performances. Punishment subjects demonstrated more stable, external attributions than those in reward. Across tasks, subjects overestimated when actual control was low and underestimated when actual control ...
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Racial Residential Segregation: Tracking Three Decades in a Single City

Racial Residential Segregation: Tracking Three Decades in a Single City

Date: August 1990
Creator: Clark, Marjorie, 1921-
Description: This study evaluated the relative association of socioeconomic, minority group and housing characteristics of census tracts with the racial composition of residential areas within one southwestern city between 1950 and 1980. The unit of analysis was the census tract; the data were taken from the U.S. Census of Population and Housing 1950-1980 for the Fort Worth, Texas SMSAs. The Index of Dissimilarity compared racial segregation in the Fort Worth urbanized area for blacks with all others (1950-1980) and for Spanish and non-black minorities with all others (1960-1980). The data show little change in the extent of residential segregation over 30 years. The multiple regression showed that the degree of segregation in census tracts became increasingly predictable based on past minority concentration in the same neighborhood. Lagged social status and minority group variables significantly predicted the percent of the population that was black or Spanish in census tracts ten years later. Beta weights for percent black or percent Spanish were always the strongest in each tract regression and largely determined the level of segregation that existed in tracts ten years later. This paper asserts that social status characteristics must approach more equal levels between minority and majority groups before integrated neighborhoods ...
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Selected Vocal Exercises and Their Relationship to Specific Laryngeal Conditions: a Description of Seven Case Studies

Selected Vocal Exercises and Their Relationship to Specific Laryngeal Conditions: a Description of Seven Case Studies

Date: May 1990
Creator: Mathis, Barbara
Description: Good vocal health is a vital concern for those people who use the voice in a professional capacity, such as teachers, singers, actors, clergymen, and lawyers. Research in the area of vocal health reveals the need to determine if specific exercises are beneficial to the voice and if exercises used to train the singing voice might be beneficial to alleviate pathological and/or dysfunctional voice disorders. The purpose of this study was to describe the response of a variety of pathological voices to a selected set of singing exercises. Subjects were selected from the private practice of cooperating physicians who felt that the vocal instruction and exercise program might be helpful to the teachers, students, professional "pop" singers, and housewife-singers who were diagnosed to have muscle tension dysphonia, nodules, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, or iatrogenic dysphonia. Instrumentation for assessing conditions before, during, and after exercise included a brief case history, subject interviews, attending physicians' medical charts, flexible fiberoptic video nasolaryngoscopy, video cassette recorder and video tape segments, three physician/observers, and a specific diagnostic procedure which provided a method of assessing organic, functional, and perceptual variables. For the exercise program the researcher chose seven vocalises from the routine designed by Allan R. ...
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Relaxation and Cognitive Therapy: Effects upon Patients' Abilities to Cope with a Stressful Medical Procedure

Relaxation and Cognitive Therapy: Effects upon Patients' Abilities to Cope with a Stressful Medical Procedure

Date: August 1990
Creator: Catalanello, Michael S.
Description: This investigation evaluated the efficacy of relaxation training and cognitive therapy separately and in combination in enhancing the coping skills of patients during epidural steroid injections. Subjects consisted of 80 back pain patients. They were randomly assigned to four groups to receive either relaxation training, cognitive therapy, relaxation and cognitive therapy, or attention control treatment. All subjects were provided preparatory information describing the procedure for the epidural injection and typical physical sensations experienced by patients undergoing the procedure. Relaxation training consisted of Jacobsonian progressive relaxation instructions which were modelled by the trainer. Cognitive therapy consisted of instructions and a work sheet designed to assist subjects in designing positive (rational) self statements concerning the injection procedure. Attention control procedures involved instructions and written exercises of equal duration to the relaxation and cognitive treatments but containing no instructions for the control of anxiety and pain. The three experimental groups exhibited significantly fewer "ae1f-distress" verbalizations during the injection. On other dependent measures, namely, the remaining catagories of pain verbalizations, gross body movements, heart rate, and independent ratings of anxiety there were no significant differences among experimental and control groups. Results are discussed in terms of spontaneous use of coping skills, habituation, individual differences ...
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Differences in School Districts' Decision-Making Processes Before and After Tax Limitation Elections: A Case Study

Differences in School Districts' Decision-Making Processes Before and After Tax Limitation Elections: A Case Study

Date: May 1990
Creator: Travis, Rosemary Fechner
Description: Using a case study approach, this investigation focused on the decision-making processes involved in developing budgets in two Texas school districts following a tax limitation, or rollback, election. Factors influencing the decision-making processes included the rollback election's outcome in each district, the participants, the perceptions participants held of themselves, the perceptions participants held of others in the district and community, the decisions made, and the factors influencing participants' decisions. Two Texas school districts were selected as subjects of this study which used qualitative data collection methods. In one school district, the rollback election passed. In the other, it failed. Data collection included observations of school board meetings and budget workshops. Structured interviews of school board members and administrators, pro- and antirollback proponents, and newspaper editors were conducted. Questions focused on the budgetary decision-making processes before and after the rollback elections. They also solicited information fromsubjects regarding rollback elections, the factors precipitating the rollback elections and the impact of the rollback election campaign upon each school district. Document analyses were triangulated with the observations and interviews to identify the factors influencing the budgetary decision-making process. Following the rollback elections, school officials in both districts adopted a conservative approach to budgetary decision-making. ...
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Analysis of a Human Transfer RNA Gene Cluster and Characterization of the Transcription Unit and Two Processed Pseudogenes of Chimpanzee Triosephosphate Isomerase

Analysis of a Human Transfer RNA Gene Cluster and Characterization of the Transcription Unit and Two Processed Pseudogenes of Chimpanzee Triosephosphate Isomerase

Date: August 1990
Creator: Craig, Leonard C. (Leonard Callaway)
Description: An 18.5-kb human DNA segment was selected from a human XCharon-4A library by hybridization to mammalian valine tRNAiAc and found to encompass a cluster of three tRNA genes. Two valine tRNA genes with anticodons of AAC and CAC, encoding the major and minor cytoplasmic valine tRNA isoacceptors, respectively, and a lysine tRNAcuu gene were identified by Southern blot hybridization and DNA sequence analysis of a 7.1-kb region of the human DNA insert. At least nine Alu family members were found interspersed throughout the human DNA fragment. The tRNA genes are accurately transcribed by RNA polymerase III in a HeLa cell extract, since the RNase Ti fingerprints of the mature-sized tRNA transcription products are consistent with the DNA sequences of the structural genes. Three members of the chimpanzee triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene family, the functional transcription unit and two processed pseudogenes, were characterized by genomic blotting and DNA sequence analysis. The bona fide TPI gene spans 3.5 kb with seven exons and six introns, and is the first complete hominoid TPI gene sequenced. The gene exhibits a very high identity with the human and rhesus TPI genes. In particular, the polypeptides of 248 amino acids encoded by the chimpanzee and human ...
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