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Effect of Rater Training and Scale Type on Leniency and Halo Error in Student Ratings of Faculty

Effect of Rater Training and Scale Type on Leniency and Halo Error in Student Ratings of Faculty

Date: May 1987
Creator: Cook, Stuart S. (Stuart Sheldon)
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine if leniency and halo error in student ratings could be reduced by training the student raters and by using a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) rather than a Likert scale. Two hypotheses were proposed. First, the ratings collected from the trained raters would contain less halo and leniency error than those collected from the untrained raters. Second, within the group of trained raters the BARS would contain less halo and leniency error than the Likert instrument.
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A Comparison of Profiles of Success in Two Instructional Methods

A Comparison of Profiles of Success in Two Instructional Methods

Date: August 1987
Creator: Williams, John David, 1948-
Description: The problem of this study was to isolate predictors of academic success in both self-paced classes and lecture classes in Introductory Accounting. The purposes of the study were to determine if learning style, locus of control, reading ability, age, sex, accounting work experience, and prior accounting academic experience are predictors of success in Introductory Accounting classes taught using self-paced methods of instruction and lecture methods of instruction. Another purpose was to determine if there is a difference in the set of predictors of success in the two instructional methods and to provide some direction as to determinants of success which may be addressed by counselors in advising students. The data were collected from 463 students at a suburban community college in the Southwest. Each of the variables was analyzed by a stepwise multiple regression analysis and a backward elimination regression for students grouped according to instructional method. A two-way multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine whether the distribution of scores on the potential predictor variables were equivalent for students in the two teaching methods and for successful completers of the course and noncompleters. Consideration of the data findings of this study permitted the following conclusions: 1. Age and ...
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Aerobic Conditioning: Effects on Locus of Control, Mood States, and General Well-Being

Aerobic Conditioning: Effects on Locus of Control, Mood States, and General Well-Being

Date: December 1987
Creator: Bertschler, John Joseph, 1948-
Description: This study was conducted to examine the sequelae of cardiovascular conditioning on locus of control, short-term mood, and psychological well-being. A pre-post test design, with control group, was used to measure the effects of a one month program of aerobic conditioning on adult volunteers. This study also sought to examine ways in which fitness changes covaried with psychological changes, and to describe patterns of change taking place during aerobic conditioning.
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Dispersion of the Nonlinear Refractive Index of CS₂ in the Spectral Range of 9-11 μm

Dispersion of the Nonlinear Refractive Index of CS₂ in the Spectral Range of 9-11 μm

Date: May 1987
Creator: Mohebi, Mehrdad
Description: The nonlinear refractive index (n2) of room temperature liquid CS2 in the wavelength range of 9 to 11 micrometers is measured. A line tunable hybrid C02 TEA laser and amplifier system is used for the experiments. In these measurements the well known photoacoustic method is utilized to observe the onset of whole beam self-focusing. The photoacoustic signal in a CS2 cell, much longer than the confocal parameter, is monitored. The departure of the acoustic signal from linear growth marks the critical power for the onset of nonlinearity. It is experimentally verified that the phenomenon is power dependent as expected from self-focusing theory. The value of n2 is then calculated from the theoretical model of self focusing. Measurements of the on-axis irradiance transmitted through the nonlinear material as well as the measurements of beam distortion are used to verify the validity of the photoacoustic method. In all the measurements the on-axis intensity was smaller than the calculated threshold intensity for stimulated Brillouin scattering. The back reflection was monitored to make sure that stimulated Brillouin scattering was not playing a role in the phenomenon.
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Object Relations Correlates on the MMPI

Object Relations Correlates on the MMPI

Date: August 1987
Creator: Rebillet, Susan Bates
Description: This study was undertaken to help determine the usefulness of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) for providing information regarding a person's object relations. Subjects were 136 college students (56 males, 80 females) ranging in age from 18 to 48. Subjects were administered the Rorschach, the Self Object Scale (SOS), and the MMPI. The Rorschach was scored using Blatt, Brenneis, Schimek, and Glick's (1976a) manual for scoring the level of object relations (Developmental Analysis of the Concept of the Object Scale-DACOS), the SOS scored as Blatt, Chevron, Quinlan, and Wein's manual (1981) directs, and the MMPI scored in the standardized manner using college-age norms. MANOVA's on the SOS and the DACOS resulted in significant effects for sex on MMPI scales 6, 7, and 8. Sex differences on MMPI scales 6 and 4 were obtained for high/low level of object relations on the DACOS. Pearson correlations showed positive correlations for males between level of object relations on the SOS and MMPI scale 5, and negative correlations on MMPI scale 5 for females. For males positive correlations between the DACOS and MMPI scale 4 and negative correlations on MMPI scale 10 were noted. These results were discussed as pertaining to the socialization ...
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L- and M-Shell X-Ray Production Cross Sections of Neodymium Gadolinium, Holmium, Ytterbium, Gold and Lead by 25-MeV Carbon and 32-MeV Oxygen Ions

L- and M-Shell X-Ray Production Cross Sections of Neodymium Gadolinium, Holmium, Ytterbium, Gold and Lead by 25-MeV Carbon and 32-MeV Oxygen Ions

Date: August 1987
Creator: Andrews, Mike C., 1949-
Description: L- and M-shell x-ray production cross sections have been measured for thin solid targets of neodymium, gadolinium, holmium, ytterbium, gold, and lead by 25 MeV 12/6C^q+ (q=4,5,6) and by 32 MeV 16/8O^q+ (q=5,7,8). The cross sections were determined from measurements made with thin targets (< 2.5 μg/cm2). For projectiles with one or two K-shell vacancies, the target x-ray production cross sections were found to be enhanced over those for projectiles without a K-shell vacancy. The sum of direct ionization to the continuum (DI) plus electron capture (EC) to the L, M, N... shells and EC to the K-shell of the projectile have been extracted from the data. The results are compared to the predictions of first Born theories, i.e., plane wave Born approximation for DI and Oppenheimer-Brinkman-Kramers formula of Nikolaev for EC and to the ECPSSR approach that accounts for Energy loss and Coulomb deflection of the projectile as well as for Relativistic and Perturbed Stationary States of inner shell electrons.
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The Value Systems of Incarcerated Embezzlers: The Implications for Sociological Practice and Value Clarification Programs for Correctional Institutions

The Value Systems of Incarcerated Embezzlers: The Implications for Sociological Practice and Value Clarification Programs for Correctional Institutions

Date: August 1987
Creator: Welch, Michael (Michael Francis)
Description: An empirical investigation at a southwestern minimum security federal correctional institution was designed to assess the value systems of incarcerated embezzlers (N = 31) as they compared to a matched offender control group (N = 31). Based on their responses on the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS). no statistically significant differences between these groups were found. Therefore, this finding suggested that these embezzlers possessed similar value systems held by those inmates convicted of other crimes. When the responses of the embezzler sample were combined with their matched offender control group, a few differences were revealed between the combined inmate group and the general population norms (National Opinion Research Center [NORC]; Rokeach, 1968, 1973). Simple comparisons of the composite medians of the male inmate group and the NORC showed differences on the following survey items: "a world at peace," "equality," and "national security." Among the items which demonstrated differences between the female prison group and the NORC were "an exciting life," "wisdom," "independent," "intellectual," "logical," "a world at peace," and "national security." The findings provided partial support for Cochrane's (1971) conclusions that prisoners are self-centered, and place low importance on those values which do not have immediate or personal relevance. However, because ...
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An Investigation of Asymmetrical Power Relationships Existing in Auditor-Client Relationship During Auditor Changes

An Investigation of Asymmetrical Power Relationships Existing in Auditor-Client Relationship During Auditor Changes

Date: August 1987
Creator: Sriram, Srinivasan
Description: In recent years, considerable interest has been stimulated concerning potential conflicts of interest between a company's management and their independent auditors. Many researchers examined the association between corporations who changed their present auditors, and factors such as auditor's opinion on the financial statements, management changes, mergers, financial distress, etc. Some of these research efforts resulted in findings that were inconsistent with each other. The current research was therefore undertaken with the objective of developing a theoretical model of auditor change process and to explain the justification for considering certain specific factors that may be present in an auditor-client relationship. The research design and the methodology for analyses were developed on the basis of the theory on power conflicts found in political science literature and by the use of Wrong's power model on authority relationship. Sources of power such as the size of an audit firm, size of a corporation, the stock exchange membership, the ability of an auditor to qualify the opinion on the financial statements, the ability of the management of a corporation to terminate the audit contract following the issue of a qualified opinion, and change of a corporation's CEO were identified and converted into independent variables. Data ...
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The Impact of a Nursing Program on Stress, Physical Illness, Anxiety, and Self-Concept of Participants in a Community College Nursing Program

The Impact of a Nursing Program on Stress, Physical Illness, Anxiety, and Self-Concept of Participants in a Community College Nursing Program

Date: May 1987
Creator: Gray, Sylvia Jane
Description: This research study was designed to investigate the relationship between participation in a nursing education program and the factors of stress, physical illness, anxiety, and self-concept experienced by the participants. Also, the study examined the relationship between age of participants and these same factors. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine if beginning and ending nursing students differ in stress, physical illness, anxiety, and self-concept, (2) to examine the relationship between age of nursing students and stress, physical illness, anxiety, and self-concept, (3) to provide information that may help develop a theoretical base concerning stressful life events and illness in nursing students, and (4) to provide information that may be beneficial with regard to future research involving stress, physical illness, anxiety, self-concept, and age in nursing students.
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Roles of Calcium Ions and Cyclic AMP in Olfactory Transduction

Roles of Calcium Ions and Cyclic AMP in Olfactory Transduction

Date: December 1986
Creator: Winegar, Bruce D. (Bruce David)
Description: The roles of Ca2 + and cAMP in olfactory transduction were explored using agents which affect calcium channels and second messenger systems. These agents were applied at certain calculated final concentrations onto olfactory epithelia of urethane-anesthetized frogs (Sana PiPlens) by two-sec aerosol spray. During extracellular recording, saturated vapors of isoamyl acetate were delivered every 100 sec in 0.3 sec pulses to produce an electroolfactogram (EOG). Inorganic cations that block inward calcium currents inhibit EOG responses with the following rank order: (La3+) > (Zn2+, Cd2+) > (Al3+, Ca2+, Sr2+) > (Co2+). Application of 7.5 mM La3+ eradicates £0G's, while Ba2+ (which can carry more current that Ca2+) initially produces significant enhancement (F=43.04, p<0.001, df=19). Magnesium ion has no effect on EOG's at 7.5 mM, while 1.5 X 10"4M Ca2+ is significantly inhibitory (F=5.74; p=0.0355; df=12). Control aerosol sprays of distilled water depress EOG's by an average of 5%. The organic calcium channel antagonists diltiazem and verapamil inhibit EOG's by 17% and 36X, respectively, at a concentration of 1.5 X 10~*M. Verapamil produces significant inhibition (F=17.17; p=0.002; df=ll) at 1.5 X 10" 5 M, while the 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists, nicardipine and nifedipine, do not inhibit beyond 1% DMSO controls. Several calmodulin ...
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