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A Tagmemic Analysis of Coherence in the Writing of Descriptive Texts by College Students
For this study an attempt was made to bridge the disciplines of linguistics and composition in order to examine factors contributing to textual coherence. Pairs of descriptive texts written by fifty college students were examined in order to identify the factors which differentiate quality and topic. Students were asked to compose a descriptive paragraph on the topic of fall. They were then encouraged to use their five senses, given leaves, and asked to compose a paragraph describing the leaves. The pairs of texts thus elicited were evaluated for preference by readers. The ANOVA revealed a significant difference (p=.001) between the two topics with fall texts preferred over the more specific leaves texts. Results suggest that encouraging students to use their five senses does not improve their writing. It may be more important to move through various levels of abstraction than to merely focus on sensory detail. The texts were also scored holistically by two trained evaluators. Results of this grading were used to choose five high- and five low-coherence texts on each of the two topics. These 20 texts were then analyzed in terms of the tagmemic referential hierarchy. A MANOVA was done to examine the dependent variables of Slot (location in time or space), Role (purpose or reason), and Cohesion (sociocultural context) in relation to quality and topic for these texts. Slot was found to be significant for both quality (p=.025) and topic (p=.004). Role was significant only for quality (p=.001). Cohesion was nonsignificant for either quality or topic. These results suggest that students should: (a) be encouraged to locate their texts in time and space in order to develop an adequate context for readers; (b) be encouraged to include purposes and reasons for the statements they make; and (c) be encouraged, where appropriate, to include a focus on humans and their activities (either literal or figurative) since such reference is a distinguishing feature of high-coherence texts.
Nonlinear Absorption Initiated Laser-Induced Damage in [Gamma]-Irradiated Fused Silica, Fluorozirconate Glass and Cubic Zirconia
The contributions of nonlinear absorption processes to laser-induced damage of three selected groups of transparent dielectrics were investigated. The studied materials were irradiated and non-irradiated fused silica, doped and undoped fluorozirconate glass and cubic zirconia stabilized with yttria. The laser-induced damage thresholds, prebreakdown transmission, and nonlinear absorption processes were studied for several specimens of each group. Experimental measurements were performed at wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm using nanosecond and picosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. In the irradiated fused silica and fluorozirconate glasses, we found that there is a correlation between the damage thresholds at wavelength λ and the linear absorption of the studied specimens at λ/2. In other words, the laser-induced breakdown is related to the probability of all possible two-photon transitions. The results are found to be in excellent agreement with a proposed two-photon-initiated electron avalanche breakdown model. In this model, the initial "seed" electrons for the formation of an avalanche are produced by two-photon excitations of E' centers and metallic impurity levels which are located within the bandgaps of irradiated Si02 and fluorozirconate glasses, respectively. Once the initial electrons are liberated in the conduction band, a highly absorbing plasma is formed by avalanche impact ionization. The resultant heating causes optical damage. In cubic zirconia, we present direct experimental evidence that significant energy is deposited in the samples at wavelength 532 nm prior to electron avalanche formation. The mechanism is found to be due to formation of color centers (F+ or F° centers) by the two-photon absorption process. The presence of these centers was directly shown by transmission measurements. The two-photon absorption (2PA) process was independently investigated and 2PA coefficients obtained. The accumulated effects of the induced centers on the nonlinear absorption measurements were also considered and the 2PA coefficients were measured using short pulses where this effect is negligible. At room temperature, the color centers slowly diffuse out of the irradiated region. The density of these centers was monitored as a function of time. The initial distribution of the centers was assumed to have a Gaussian profile. For this model the diffusion equation was solved exactly and the diffusion constant obtained.
Discrimination of Time-Compressed Speech Stimuli: a Comparison Study Using a Closed-Set Task With Older Adults
Use of time-compressed speech stimuli has been found to be clinically effective in differential diagnosis of lesions of the temporal lobe. However, notably absent from the literature is information concerning performance of adults on time-compressed closed-set speech discrimination tasks. The goal of this study mas to compare performance of 12 males and 12 females between age 50 and age 70 on a time-compressed closed-set speech discrimination test against the performance of 12 males and 12 females between age 10 and age 28 on the same task. The Word Intelligibility by Picture Identification test (WPI) was presented in both non-compressed and time-compressed conditions to all subjects. Previous research suggests that a difference in performance between age groups and between males and females in the older age group should be expected. Average results indicated negligible differences between age or gender groups under any of the conditions tested. Additionally, the test yielded perfect or near perfect scores for all subjects in the non-compressed condition. Lack of differentiation of results suggests that the Word Intelligibility by Picture Identification CUIPI) may be insensitive to the discrimination disorders expected in older adults, that the subjects included in the study were atypical of older adults in general and therefore such discrimination disorders did not exist in the sample, or that the subjects in the study uiere able to apply some type of compensatory strategies which resulted in the unexpected performance.
The Influence of Chinese Folk and Instrumental Music on Tcherepnin's "Chinese mikrokosmos": A Lecture Recital, Together with Three Recitals of Selected Works of J.S. Bach, W.A. Mozart, C. Debussy, S. Rachmaninoff, D. Shostakovich, and Others
One of the most important compositional theories of Alexander Tcherepnin (1899-1977), Russian-American composer and pianist, is the Eurasian ideology, which was a result of the influence of Eastern culture. Inspired by this theory, Tcherepnin not only extricated himself from his own compositional techniques, but also intensified his search for musical folklore. In April, 1934, he began a world tour which was to include China, Japan, Singapore, the Philippines, Egypt, and Palestine, to search for "musical folklore." He became so fascinated with the culture of ancient China that he cancelled the rest of his arrangements, and, except for visits to Japan, he remained in China for three years, until the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in July, 1937. During his three-year stay in China, Tcherepnin was greatly attracted to Chinese culture, and as a result, Chinese culture influenced his music to a significant degree. This essay examines the manner in which Tcherepnin's music was influenced by his experiences in China. In order to precisely analyze the close affiliation between Chinese musical elements and Tcherepnin's "Chinese Mikrokosmos," many original Chinese sources proved indispensable in this study. These sources include Chinese folk music, theater music, instrumental music, religious music, and Chinese periodicals and newspapers that reported Tcherepnin's activities in China (1934-7). The organization of this dissertation as follows: Chapter I provides a brief biographical sketch of Tcherepnin, traces his activities in China, and introduces one of his greatest "Chinese" compositions, "Chinese Mikrokosmos," which represents the fruits of his labors to scrutinize and absorb Chinese musical language. Chapters II and III are devoted to exploring how Chinese folk and instrumental music inspired Tcherepnin's "Chinese Mikrokosmos." Chapter IV summarizes this study.
Speech Recognition Using a Synthesized Codebook
Speech sounds generated by a simple waveform synthesizer were used to create a vector quantization codebook for use in speech recognition. Recognition was tested over the TI-20 isolated word data base using a conventional DTW matching algorithm. Input speech was band limited to 300 - 3300 Hz, then passed through the Scott Instruments Corp. Coretechs process, implemented on a VET3 speech terminal, to create the speech representation for matching. Synthesized sounds were processed in software by a VET3 signal processing emulation program. Emulation and recognition were performed on a DEC VAX 11/750. The experiments were organized in 2 series. A preliminary experiment, using no vector quantization, provided a baseline for comparison. The original codebook contained 109 vectors, all derived from 2 formant synthesized sounds. This codebook was decimated through the course of the first series of experiments, based on the number of times each vector was used in quantizing the training data for the previous experiment, in order to determine the smallest subset of vectors suitable for coding the speech data base. The second series of experiments altered several test conditions in order to evaluate the applicability of the minimal synthesized codebook to conventional codebook training. The baseline recognition rate was 97%. The recognition rate for synthesized codebooks was approximately 92% for sizes ranging from 109 to 16 vectors. Accuracy for smaller codebooks was slightly less than 90%. Error analysis showed that the primary loss in dropping below 16 vectors was in coding of voiced sounds with high frequency second formants. The 16 vector synthesized codebook was chosen as the seed for the second series of experiments. After one training iteration, and using a normalized distortion score, trained codebooks performed with an accuracy of 95.1%. When codebooks were trained and tested on different sets of speakers, accuracy was 94.9%, indicating that very little speaker dependence was introduced by the training.
Ability Grouping in College Beginning Media Writing Classes
The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that students of unequal writing ability are frequently placed in the same beginning media writing classes in college journalism. It is difficult for a teacher to be effective when the ability of the students ranges from those who cannot write clear complete sentences to others whose work already appears in newspapers and magazines. The purpose of this study is to determine whether students who are ability grouped into slow—average and advanced groups do the same, better, or worse than heterogeneously grouped students. In the spring semester of 1987, students in Journalism 1345, Media Writing laboratory, at the University of Texas at Arlington, were given a pretest to determine how well they wrote a simple news story and a simple feature story. On the basis of that test, which was graded by three raters, the students were placed in two separate ability groups in three classes. The fourth class contained students with heterogeneous abilities who were not placed in groups. At the end of the semester a posttest was given in news and feature writing. A two-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the posttest scores of sixty-seven students. There was no significant difference in the posttest scores of students who were grouped homogeneously and those who were grouped heterogeneously. The difference in the scores of heterogeneously grouped advanced students and homogeneously grouped advanced students was not significantly different from the difference between the posttest scores of heterogeneously grouped slow-average students and homogeneously grouped slow-average students.
Knowledge and Skills for the Adult Educator in Thailand
The purpose of this study was to identify and specify knowledge and skills needed by adult educators in Thailand. This study provided information for establishing a guide to be used in professional training and in graduate programs in adult education. A three round Delphi technique was used to develop the consensus of findings. The first round solicited open-ended responses from twenty panelists. One hundred and twenty-five knowledge and skill statements, the responses from the first round, were developed into a five-point rating scale questionnaire. This questionnaire was utilized in both Round II and III. Median, mode and interquartile ranges were applied to specify the consensus of the panel of experts. The one hundred and twenty-five knowledge and skill statements, seventy-five knowledge statements and fifty skill statements, were classified into four major categories: teaching, administration, research and general experience. The experts for the study consisted of eleven non-formal education officers and nine university professors in adult/continuing education and non-formal education. From seventy-five knowledge statements, sixteen were rated at the highest priority of importance. Forty-nine statements were rated at above average priority of importance and two statements were rated at average. Eight statements did not meet the interquartile range criterion as a consensus of the panelists. From fifty skill statements, fifteen statements were rated at the highest priority of importance; thirty statements were rated at above average; one statement was rated at average; and four statements failed to meet the interquartile range criterion.
An Examination of Two Significant Percussion Compositions: Karlheinz Stockhausen's Zyklus and Ingolf Dahl's Duettino Concertante, a Lecture Recital Together with Five Recitals of Selected Works of A. Ginastera, A. Wilder, W. Kraft, and Others
Zvklus (1959) by Karlheinz Stockhausen and Duettino Concertante (1966) by Ingolf Dahl represent two of the most significant percussion compositions that present the percussionist as soloist. The performer of these works, either unaccompanied or accompanied by a non-percussion instrument, is featured as executant, interpreter, and improvisor. They are regarded as classics in the medium of multiple percussion because of their frequency of performance and their profound effect on notation, musical composition, and the technical expectations of the percussionist. This paper examines these compositions and their historical significance to both percussion literature and the percussionist. Each of these compositions is analzyed by examining instrumentation, compositional procedures, and performance problems. Finally, the notational procedures and role of the performer in these compositions are compared. A discussion of the development of the percussion batterie, percussion ensemble, and the important early solo multiple percussion compositions provides historical perspective for these compositions. This perspective is enhanced by consideration of biography, influences, and stylistic development of each composer.
Venture Capital Investment and Protocol Analysis
This study used protocol analysis to identify key variables in the venture capital investment decision-making process. The study used a fictional business plan which was based on six actual business plans. This fictional business plan was presented to ten venture capitalists who were asked to review it to decide whether to interview the investee. The protocols obtained from these subjects were analyzed to determine patterns within the subjects' review. The sections of the business plan which were commonly reviewed first were the deal structure, the executive summary, and the management section. The management section was used by the greatest number of subjects. The market section was used the greatest number of times. The data were also organized by type of operators used in each subject's protocols. Information Search/Retrieval operators were most common, followed by Task Structuring/Set Goal operators. When classified into the four major categories of Task Structuring/Set Goal, Information Acquisition, Analytical/ Inferential, and Choice operators, Analytical/Inferential operators were used most frequently. Choice operators were least used. The phrases were analyzed by the relevant section in the business plan. The market received the greatest number of references, followed by references to the product and to management. However, when references to the income statement and balance sheet were combined as phrases relevant to the financial statements, the financial statements were referred to more frequently than the product or the people. The subjects appeared to use an unidentified choice program within which certain models could be identified as subroutines. The subjects used an elimination-by-aspects model to screen the business plan. If the business plan met the criteria within the elimination-by-aspects model of the subject, the subject used an additive/nonlinear model for the remainder of the review. The results of this study indicate that financial statements provide information important in the venture capital investment decision-making process. This finding is contrary to the advice usually given to potential venture capital investees.
A Study of the Responsibilities of Department Chairpersons in 5-A Public High Schools in Texas
This study identified and compared the perceptions of department chairpersons and their principals about what responsibilities should be assigned to chairpersons, what responsibilities are currently assigned to chairpersons, and the chairperson' perceived need for any additional training, administrative support, departmental support, or released time in order to fulfill responsibilities currently assigned. Principals and chairpersons from 132 of the 264 5-A public high schools in Texas were surveyed by means of a 61- item questionnaire. The questionnaire included responsibilities in ten areas: planning, evaluation, budgeting, personnel, curriculum and instruction, communications, scheduling, clerical activities, supervision, and advising. Chairpersons from English, Foreign Languages, Mathematics, Physical Education, Science, and Social Studies were included in the study. Data collected in the study were keypunched and computer-processed, generating frequencies, percentages, means, and appropriate chi-square tests of independence, and probability factors for determining significance. The following conclusions were drawn from the study. 1. There is substantial agreement between Texas principals and chairpersons about responsibilities that should and should not be assigned to chairpersons in the areas of planning, budgeting, communications, and advising. 2. There is moderate to substantial disagreement . between Texas principals and chairpersons about responsibilities that should and should not be assigned in the areas of evaluation, personnel, curriculum and instruction, and scheduling. 3. There is a general difference perceived by chairpersons in the study between what they think they should be doing as chairpersons and what they are currently assigned to do. 4. There is general agreement among chairpersons from different disciplines about responsibilities that should and should not be assigned to chairpersons in the areas of planning, budgeting, personnel, and advising. 5. Texas chairpersons perceive a greater need for administrative and departmental support than for additional training. 6. Texas department chairpersons perceive responsibilities in the area of evaluation as those for which they need the highest levels of support.
A Study of Student and Faculty Perceptions of Academic Advising at Ramkhamhaeng University
The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of academic advising needs by faculty advisors and students at Ramkhamhaeng University, Bangkok, Thailand, using the Academic Advising Needs Questionnaire developed by Thomas H. Burke. The assessment is based on age, sex, education level, academic rank, years of advising, and number of advisees. The questionnaire consisted of 15 items, using a four-point rating scale. The population consisted of a total of 280 faculty members and 700 resident students at all seven faculties at Ramkhamhaeng University, Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 230 faculty members or 82.14 percent of the sampling and a total of 561 students or 80.14 percent of the sampling participated in this study. The t-test, Spearman s Coefficient of Rank Correlation, and Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance W were used in the follow-up assessment, with the level of significance at .05. Data were collected by means of two Academic Advising Needs Questionnaires for this study. Questionnaires were distributed to faculty advisors and students. While students revealed some degree of need in all advising areas, the five highest ranked items were: (1) serve as a student's personal reference for prospective employers and/or graduate goals, (2) assist students in obtaining part-time work experiences (paid or unpaid) which complement their career and/or educational goals, (3) assist students with career/vocational planning, (4) help students explore possible graduate/professional school study, and (5) provide students with academic advice and suggestions for scholastic improvement. Faculty responses indicated student need in all advising areas; the five highest ranked items were: (1) assist students with career/vocational planning, (2) help students explore possible graduate/professional school study, (3) assist students in selecting a major, (4) inform students of the employment opportunities in the students' intended fields of study, and (5) assist students in obtaining part-time work experiences (paid or unpaid) which complement their career and/or educational goals.
California-ko Ostatuak: a History of California's Basque Hotels
The history of California's Basque boardinghouses, or ostatuak, is the subject of this dissertation. To date, scholarly literature on ethnic boardinghouses is minimal and even less has been written on the Basque "hotels" of the American West. As a result, conclusions in this study rely upon interviews, census records, local directories, early maps, and newspapers. The first Basque boardinghouses in the United States appeared in California in the decade following the gold rush and tended to be outposts along travel routes used by Basque miners and sheepmen. As more Basques migrated to the United States, clusters of ostatuak sprang up in communities where Basque colonies had formed, particularly in Los Angeles and San Francisco during the late nineteenth century. In the years between 1890 and 1940, the ostatuak reached their zenith as Basques spread throughout the state and took their boardinghouses with them. This study outlines the earliest appearances of the Basque ostatuak, charts their expansion, and describes their present state of demise. The role of the ostatuak within Basque-American culture and a description of how they operated is another important aspect of this dissertation. Information from interviews supports the claim that the ostatua was the most important social institution among Americanuak during peak years of Basque immigration. Since a majority of the Basque sojourners who arrived before 1930 were unmarried, unable to speak English, and intended to return to the Old World within a decade of their arrival, the Basque-American often substituted his "hotel" contacts for his Old World family. At the ostatuak, he found a familiar language and cuisine, as well as an employment agency, a place to vacation, translating services, an occasional loan, explanations of his host culture, and new friends from old villages. This history of California's ostatuak is the first of its kind and encourages future research on Basque boardinghouses throughout the American West.
Validity of a Brief Self-Rating Visual Analogue Pain Questionnaire
It is believed by many researchers that little attention has been given to patients' perceptions of the impact of chronic pain on their lives. In recognition of this need, G. Frank Lawlis, C. Edward McCoy, and David K. Selby developed the Dallas Pain Questionnaire (DPQ) to assess the amount of chronic pain that affects four aspects (daily activities, work-leisure activities, anxiety-depression, and social interest) of the patients' lives. The present study, conducted to validate the DPQ's statistical properties, first reviews the literature addressing the various theories and varieties of pain, its opiates, and the two current approaches to quantify pain. This study included a total of 143 subjects. Clinical subjects were 104 inpatients in the Spinal and Chronic Pain Center at Medical Arts Hospital and 15 chronic pain outpatients released to work. Normal subjects consisted of staffing personnel (n = 13) and flight assistance employees (U = 11)- Both clinical and normal groups completed the DPQ. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was administered only to the clinical population. Results suggest that the DPQ is both externally reliable (stability reliability coefficient of .970) as well as an internally consistent instrument. Two factors emerged from factor structure analysis. Factor one (63.2% of variance) represents functional activities. Factor two (8.3% of variance) represents emotional capacities. A correlation analysis suggests the concurrent validity of the psychological and functional factors of the DPQ. A t-test demonstrated that chronic pain patients have significantly higher DPQ's scores than normals. Because these findings support its psychometric properties, the DPQ appears to have utility for clinical and research purposes. The findings, limitations, and implications of this study are detailed, as are suggestions for future research.
Frontier Defense in Texas: 1861-1865
The Texas Ranger tradition of over twenty-five years of frontier defense influenced the methods by which Texans provided for frontier defense, 1861-1865. The elements that guarded the Texas frontier during the war combined organizational policies that characterized previous Texas military experience and held the frontier together in marked contrast to its rapid collapse at the Confederacy's end. The first attempt to guard the Indian frontier during the Civil War was by the Texas Mounted Rifles, a regiment patterned after the Rangers, who replaced the United States troops forced out of the state by the Confederates. By the spring of 1862 the Frontier Regiment, a unit funded at state expense, replaced the Texas Mounted Rifles and assumed responsibility for frontier defense during 1862 and 1863. By mid-1863 the question of frontier defense for Texas was not so clearly defined as in the war's early days. Then, the Indian threat was the only responsibility, but the magnitude of Civil War widened the scope of frontier protection. From late 1863 until the war's end, frontier defense went hand in hand with protecting frontier Texans from a foe as deadly as Indians—themselves. The massed bands of deserters, Union sympathizers, and criminals that accumulated on the frontier came to dominate the activities of the ensuing organizations of frontier defense. Any treatment of frontier protection in Texas during the Civil War depends largely on the wealth of source material found in the Texas State Library. Of particular value is the extensive Adjutant General's Records, including the muster rolls for numerous companies organized for frontier defense. The Barker Texas History Center contains a number of valuable collections, particularly the Barry Papers and the Burleson Papers. The author found two collections to be most revealing on aspects of frontier defense, 1863-1865: the William Quayle Papers, University of Alabama, and the Bourland Papers, Library of Congress. As always, the Official Records is indispensible for any military analysis of the American Civil War.
Dispute Resolution Studies in the Institutions of Higher Learning: an Initial Investigative Study of Professors' Attitudes
Conflict is present in all human relationships and societies. Throughout history, fighting has been more notable than peacemaking. Only recently have conflict resolution studies entered the mainstream of academia. Since peace is no longer an option, but a necessity, educators must become actively engaged in promoting the importance of peacemaking skills among their students. In 1986, the National Institute for Dispute Resolution funded a study of conflict resolution in higher education. Results disclosed a proliferation of courses but little about their quality. The present study evaluates the status of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in the curricula of three major universities in North Texas and compares it with results from four other universities which were reported to have the heaviest concentration of ADR courses. A questionnaire was constructed to collect data in the following areas: place, significance of ADR in contemporary curricula, important factors determining attitudes toward ADR, and expectations/aspirations of faculty concerning teaching of ADR. Using a Likert scale, attitudes toward ADR were measured through regression analysis. Four of seven independent variables (age, sex, political orientation, and ADR training) were significant at jd = .05. Forty ADR-related courses were identified in seven universities. The concentration of ADR courses was management (35%), law (28%), sociology (23%), business (8%), and political science (8%). No courses were identified by anthropology departments. Results also reveal that the older, liberal, female, and ADR-ski lied individuals exhibit more favorable attitudes towards ADR. The study concludes that (a) concentrated efforts should be increased to teach and train educators in ADR, (b) mediation centers should be created on university campuses, and (c) an ADR communications network and data bank should be established among universities in order to allow faculty, students, practitioners, and administrators to share information. A partial list of organizations involved in peace issues and resources for establishment of campus and community-based peace mediation centers are also provided.
A Comparison of the Transcription Techniques of Godowsky and Liszt as Exemplified in Their Transcriptions of Three Schubert Lieder
This investigation sought to compare the transcription techniques of two pianist-composers, Godowsky and Liszt, using three Schubert lieder as examples. The lieder were "Das Wandern" from Die Schöne Müllerin, "Gute Nacht" from Winterreise, and "Liebesbotschaft" from Schwanengesang. They were compared using four criteria: tonality, counterpoint, timbral effects, and harmony. Liszt, following a practice common in the nineteenth century, was primarily concerned with bringing new music into the home of the domestic pianist. The piano transcription was the most widely used and successful medium for accomplishing this. Liszt also frequently transcribed pieces of a particular composer in order to promulgate them by featuring them in his recitals. The Schubert lieder fall into this category. Liszt did not drastically alter the original in these compositions. Indeed, in the cases of "Liebesbotschaft" and "Das Wandern," very little alteration beyond the incorporation of the melody into the piano accompaniment, occurs.Godowsky, in contrast, viewed the transcription as a vehicle for composing a new piece. He intended to improve upon the original by adding his own inspiration to it. Godowsky was particularly ingenious in adding counterpoint, often chromatic, to the original. Examples of Godowsky's use of counterpoint can be found in "Das Wandern" and "Gute Nacht." While Liszt strove to remain faithful to Schubert's intentions, Godowsky exercised his ingenuity at will, being only loosely concerned with the texture and atmosphere of the lieder. "Gute Nacht" and "Liebesbotschaft" are two examples that show how far afield Godowsky could stray from the original by the addition of chromatic voicing and counterpoint. Godowsky*s compositions can be viewed as perhaps the final statement on the possibilities of piano writing in the traditional sense. As such these works deserve to be investigated and performed.
An Empirical Investigation of the Structural Form and Measurement Validity of the Hill Inventory
This research began with the Hill Inventory. Cognitive style preference variables were classified as one of following four types: Theoretical Codes, Qualitative Codes, Social-Cultural Codes or Reasoning Modalities. A consumer behavior perspective was then used to form an alternative structure for the Hill Inventory variables. The following three constructs were proposed: Evaluation Codes, Perceptual Codes, and Reasoning Modalities. The purpose of this research was to assess the structural form and measurement validity of the Hill Inventory. Specific steps taken to accomplish this objective included: developing confirmatory factor and structural equation models; using the LISREL software package to analyze the model specifications; and assessing the validity of the questions used to measure the variables. A descriptive research design was used to compare the model specifications. The research instrument consisted of eight statements for each of twenty-eight variables for a total of 224 questions. Five-point response choices were described by the words: often, sometimes, unsure, rarely, or never. The sample consisted of 285 student subjects in marketing classes at a large university. Data analysis began by comparing the distributions of the data to a normal case. Parameter estimates, root mean square residuals and squared multiple correlations then were obtained using the LISREL VI software package. The chi-square statistic was used to test the hypotheses. This statistic was supplemented by the Tucker-Lewis index which used a null model for comparisons. The final step in data analysis was to assess the reliability of the measurements. This study affected the potential usage of the Hill Inventory for consumer behavior research. The major conclusion was that the measurement of the variables must be improved before model parameters can be tested. Specific question sets on the inventory were identified that were most in need of revision.
A Path Analysis of a Job Burnout Model Among Firefighers
The purpose of this study was to propose an exploratory causal model that examines the influence of several antecedent variables on burnout. The antecedent variables included age, marital status, education, tenure, Type A personality, Jungian types, death anxiety, leadership style, job satisfaction, stress, coping efficacy, and marital satisfaction. The validity of the causal model was tested by using path analysis. Subjects were 100 male firefighters who completed self-report measures of the predictor variables. Instruments included the Jenkins Activity Survey, Myers- Briggs Type Indicator, Collett-Lester Attitudes Toward Death Scale, Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire, Job Descriptive Index, Perceived Job Stress, The Coping Inventory, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Perceived work stress made the only direct contribution to the variance in burnout. Direct paths were found to stress from job satisfaction, Type A personality, and single marital status. Job satisfaction was directly related to leadership (consideration) and the Jungian Introversion, Feeling, and Perceiving preferences. Direct paths were found to marital satisfaction from death anxiety, leadership (consideration), and leadership (structure). Leadership (consideration) was directly related to structure. From the above results, it can be concluded that perception of stress is an important factor in predicting burnout. Other factors are important contributors to stress and have indirect effects on burnout. Implications for the prevention and treatment of job burnout are discussed.
Derivation of Probability Density Functions for the Relative Differences in the Standard and Poor's 100 Stock Index Over Various Intervals of Time
In this study a two-part mixed probability density function was derived which described the relative changes in the Standard and Poor's 100 Stock Index over various intervals of time. The density function is a mixture of two different halves of normal distributions. Optimal values for the standard deviations for the two halves and the mean are given. Also, a general form of the function is given which uses linear regression models to estimate the standard deviations and the means. The density functions allow stock market participants trading index options and futures contracts on the S & P 100 Stock Index to determine probabilities of success or failure of trades involving price movements of certain magnitudes in given lengths of time.
The Decline of the Country-House Poem in England: A Study in the History of Ideas
This study discusses the evolution of the English country-house poem from its inception by Ben Jonson in "To Penshurst" to the present. It shows that in addition to stylistic and thematic borrowings primarily from Horace and Martial, traditional English values associated with the great hall and comitatus ideal helped define features of the English country-house poem, to which Jonson added the metonymical use of architecture. In the Jonsonian country-house poem, the country estate, exemplified by Penshurst, is a microcosm of the ideal English social organization characterized by interdependence, simplicity, service, hospitality, and balance between the active and contemplative life. Those poems which depart from the Jonsonian ideal are characterized by disequilibrium between the active and contemplative life, resulting in the predominance of artifice, subordination of nature, and isolation of art from the community, as exemplified by Thomas Carew's "To Saxham" and Richard Lovelace's "Amyntor's Grove." Architectural features of the English country house are examined to explain the absence of the Jonsonian country-house poem in the eighteenth century. The building tradition praised by Jonson gradually gave way to aesthetic considerations fostered by the professional architect and Palladian architecture, architectural patronage by the middle class, and change in identity of the country house as center of an interdependent community. The country-house poem was revived by W. B. Yeats in his poems in praise of Coole Park. In them Yeats reaffirms Jonsonian values. In contrast to the poems of Yeats, the country-house poems of Sacheverell Sitwell and John Hollander convey a sense of irretrievable loss of the Jonsonian ideal and isolation of the poet. Changing social patterns, ethical values, and aesthetics threaten the survival of the country-house poem, although the ideal continues to reflect a basic longing of humanity for a pastoral retreat where life is simple and innocent.
Computer Realization of Human Music Cognition
This study models the human process of music cognition on the digital computer. The definition of music cognition is derived from the work in music cognition done by the researchers Carol Krumhansl and Edward Kessler, and by Mari Jones, as well as from the music theories of Heinrich Schenker. The computer implementation functions in three stages. First, it translates a musical "performance" in the form of MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) messages into LISP structures. Second, the various parameters of the performance are examined separately a la Jones's joint accent structure, quantified according to psychological findings, and adjusted to a common scale. The findings of Krumhansl and Kessler are used to evaluate the consonance of each note with respect to the key of the piece and with respect to the immediately sounding harmony. This process yields a multidimensional set of points, each of which is a cognitive evaluation of a single musical event within the context of the piece of music within which it occurred. This set of points forms a metric space in multi-dimensional Euclidean space. The third phase of the analysis maps the set of points into a topology-preserving data structure for a Schenkerian-like middleground structural analysis. This process yields a hierarchical stratification of all the musical events (notes) in a piece of music. It has been applied to several pieces of music with surprising results. In each case, the analysis obtained very closely resembles a structural analysis which would be supplied by a human theorist. The results obtained invite us to take another look at the representation of knowledge and perception from another perspective, that of a set of points in a topological space, and to ask if such a representation might not be useful in other domains. It also leads us to ask if such a representation might not be useful in combination with the more traditional rule-based representations by helping to eliminate unwanted levels of detail in a cognitive-perceptual system.
Alternate Substrates and Isotope Effects as a Probe of the Malic Enzyme Reaction
Dissociation constants for alternate dirmcleotide substrates and competitive inhibitors suggest that the dinucleotide binding site of the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme is hydrophobic in the vicinity of the nicotinamide ring. Changes in the divalent metal ion activator from Mg^2+ to Mn^2+ or Cd^2+ results in a decrease in the dinucleotide affinity and an increase in the affinity for malate. Primary deuterium and 13-C isotope effects obtained with the different metal ions suggest either a change in the transition state structure for the hydride transfer or decarboxylation steps or both. Deuterium isotope effects are finite whether reactants are maintained at saturating or limiting concentrations with all the metal ions and dinucleotide substrates used. With Cd^2+ as the divalent metal ion, inactivation of the enzyme occurs whether enzyme alone is present or is turning over. Upon inactivation only Cd^2+ ions are bound to the enzyme which becomes denatured. Modification of the enzyme to give an SCN-enzyme decreases the ability of Cd^2+ to cause inactivation. The modified enzyme generally exhibits increases in K_NAD and K_i_metai and decreases in V_max as the metal size increases from Mg^2+ to Mn^2+ or Cd^2+, indicative of crowding in the site. In all cases, affinity for malate greatly decreases, suggesting that malate does not bind optimally to the modified enzyme. For the native enzyme, primary deuterium isotope effects increase with a concomitant decrease in the 13-C effects when NAD is replaced by an alternate dinucleotide substrate different in redox potential. This suggests that when the alternate dinucleotides are used, a switch in the rate limitation of the chemical steps occurs with hydride transfer more rate limiting than decarboxylation. Deuteration of malate decreases the 13-C effect with NAD for the native enzyme, but an increase in 13-C effect is obtained with alternate dinucleotides. These suggest the presence of a secondary 13-C effect in the hydride transfer step. This phenomenon is also applicable to the modified enzyme with NAD as the substrate.
Analysis of Acid Gas Emissions in the Combustion of the Binder Enhanced d-RDF by Ion Chromatography
Waste-to-energy has become an attractive alternative to landfills. One concern in this development is the release of pollutants in the combustion process. The binder enhanced d-RDF pellets satisfy the requirements of environmental acceptance, chemical/biological stability, and being storeable. The acid gas emissions of combusting d-RDF pellets with sulfur-rich coal were analyzed by ion chromatography and decreased when d-RDF pellets were utilized. The results imply the possibility of using d-RDF pellets to substitute for sulfur-rich coal as fuel, and also substantiate the effectiveness of a binder, calcium hydroxide, in decreasing emissions of SOx. In order to perform the analysis of the combustion sample, sampling and sample pretreatment methods prior to the IC analysis and the first derivative detection mode in IC are investigated as well. At least two trapping reagents are necessary for collecting acid gases: one for hydrogen halides, and the other for NOx and SOx. Factors affecting the absorption of acid gases are studied, and the strength of an oxidizing agent is the main factor affecting the collection of NOx and SOx. The absorption preference series of acid gases are determined and the absorption models of acid gases in trapping reagents are derived from the analytical results. To prevent the back-flushing of trapping reagents between impingers when leak-checking, a design for the sampling train is suggested, which can be adopted in sample collections. Several reducing agents are studied for pretreating the sample collected in alkali-permanganate media. Besides the recommendation of the hydrogen peroxide solution in EPA method, methanol and formic acid are worth considering as alternate reducing agents in the pretreatment of alkaline-permanganate media prior to IC analysis. The first derivative conductivity detection mode is developed and used in IC system. It is efficient for the detection and quantification of overlapping peaks as well as being applicable for non-overlapping peaks.
Cognitive Level Demands of Test Items in State-Adopted Computer Science Textbooks
Test items supplied with seven textbooks approved for use in Computer Science I and II curricula in Texas public schools were categorized by Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Eating was done by a panel of ten judges selected from a group of participants at a taxonomy workshop. The selection criterion was demonstration of at least 80 percent competency in item classification. Judges received a small stipend for completing the rating task. Of 2020 possible items, 998 were randomly selected for analysis. Equal percentages of items from each text were then randomly assigned to each rater. All statistical analyses were computed using SPSS/PC+ (version 2.1). In both courses, CLD frequencies decreased through the three lower levels. The percentage of questions falling in these levels was approximately 83 percent for both courses. However, the higher-level course contained almost 10 percent more Knowledge level questions than did the lower course. At the higher taxonomic levels, the decline was roughly five percent per level in CS I but erratic in CS II. Analysis by book also revealed wide differences within each course.
A Stylistic Analysis of Charles Martin Loeffler's Deux Rapsodies for Oboe, Viola and Piano, L'étang and La cornemuse, After Poems by Maurice Rollinat: A Lecture Recital, Together with Three Recitals of Selected Works by E. Rubbra, D. Beaty, B. Britten, W.A. Mozart, and Others
At the turn of this century, Charles Martin Loeffler (1861-1935) was considered to be among the finest of the handful of well-known American composers of the time. His music was often performed by major symphony orchestras, chamber groups and solo artists. Deux rapsodies for Oboe, Viola and Piano: L'Etang and La Cornemuse, after poems by Maurice Rollinat (1846-1903), show Loeffler's affinity for programmatic concepts. These works, completed in 1901, are revisions of settings of 1898 for low voice, clarinet, viola and piano, and are now, unfortunately, out of print; but the oboe, viola and piano setting has been published (originally as Deux rapsodies by G. Schirmer, 1905; the latest edition, Two Rhapsodies, is by McGinnis and Marx, N.Y., 1979) and recorded several times. Loeffler has reflected Rollinat's poetry in his settings by means of melodic, rhythmic and harmonic devices unique to his style. Formal and articulative devices also tend to point to his dependence on the poetry as a source of inspiration and as means for defining the final musical product. Indeed, the music seems incapable of existence independent of its source in the richly imagistic poetry of Rollinat.
An Analysis of the Perceptions of Physics Teaching Effectiveness as Viewed by Students and Physics Instructors in Universities in Thailand
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of the physics instructors, major-physics students, and nonmajor-physics students regarding actual teaching performance and effective teaching performance. The sample consisted of a total of 56 physics instructors, 120 major-physics students, and 120 nonmajor-physics students at eight public universities in Thailand. A total of 53 physics instructors or 94.64 percent, 101 major-physics students or 84.17 percent, and 107 nonmajor-physics students or 89.17 percent responded in this study. Multivariate analysis of variance, univariate analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and multiple regression were used in the follow-up assessment, with the .05 level of significance. The physics instructors, major-physics students, and nonmajor-physics students perceived actual teaching performance in class to be significantly different from effective teaching performance. The three groups rated actual teaching performance on every factor to be less than sffective teaching. There was a significant difference between the physics instructors' perceptions and the major-physics students' perceptions regarding actual teaching performance, and also there was a significant difference between the physics instructors' perceptions and the nonmajor-physics students' perceptions regarding actual teaching performance. However, there was no significant difference between major-and nonmajor-physics students' perceptions regarding actual teaching performance. There was no significant difference among the perceptions of the physics instructors, major-physics students, and nonmajor-physics students regarding effective teaching performance. The variables of sex and the highest degree were the significant predictors of the physics instructors' perceptions regarding actual teaching performance. The variable of GPA was the significant predictor of the nonmajor-physics students' perceptions regarding actual teaching performance.
An Analysis of Achievement Test Scores to Determine the Effectiveness of a Remedial English Program in a Small University
Freshmen at Sul Ross State University are required to take tests which are used for placement purposes. One of the tests given is the Nelson-Denny Reading Test which measures comprehension, vocabulary, and reading rate. The scores are used with American College Test or Standard Achievement Test scores to place students in either remedial or regular freshman English. Remedial students, who score below the tenth-grade competency level, are placed in English 1300. Regular students are placed in English 1301 or 1302. Twelve studies were found which had been done in this area since 1980. One was directly related to this study. The Anglo and Hispanic population of the freshman class of 1987 was tested. Blacks were not included as they comprised less than 9 percent of the freshman class. There were 69 students in the experimental group and 162 in the control group. A pretest-posttest design was used. A three-way analysis of variance set up data for statistical testing. The Alpha level was set at .05. The findings indicate a significant difference for Hypothesis 1, which predicted no significant difference in the posttest performance of students required to take English 1300 and the pretest performance of students who were not. Therefore it was rejected. Because statistical testing yielded no significant difference for Hypothesis 2 — there will be no significant difference in posttest performance of Hispanic and Anglo students who were enrolled in English 1300, and Hypothesis 3—there will be no significant difference in the posttest performance of males and females who enrolled in English 1300, they were retained. Results indicate that while there is a significant difference between the means of the remedial students' posttest scores and means of the regular students' pretest scores, the program raises the performance of remedial students to a level accepted by Sul Ross State University. Therefore, the program is considered successful.
The Effect of Remediation on Students Who Have Failed the TEAMS Minimum Competency Test
This qualitative case study provided a narrative portrait of 12 students in the 11th grade in one north Texas district who failed the initial administration of the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) exit-level test. It also presented an account of their perceptions of the test and their efforts to overcome this educational hurdle. The following conclusions were drawn from the study. Limited English proficiency (LEP) students had difficulty mastering the language arts section of the test. A majority of the students reported that TEAMS failure had no social impact. Most of the students declined district-offered remediation. Students tended to perceive the test as a personal challenge. Those students who attended remedial tutoring sessions performed better on the following retest than those who declined remediation. Hispanic and Asian students expressed additional study as being the key to passing the test. Black students felt that the key to passing was to spend sufficient time while taking the test. Those students who were more verbal during their interviews tended to be more successul in passing the language arts section of the TEAMS. The following recommendations were made from the study: (a) students who fail the TEAMS by minimal margins should be encouraged to take remediation; (b) an intensive remedial English course for LEP students should be offered; (c) "high interest" TEAMS mini-lessons should be presented daily for several weeks as a lead-up to the TEAMS; (d) a TEAMS ex it-level orientation program which stresses the importance of the test for the student's future should be implemented; and (e) additional research should be conducted on older students' verbal responses to see if a rich language approach in English classes including listening, reading, writing, and speaking will develop higher level language skills.
Children's Perceived Contingencies of Teacher Reinforcements, Perceptions of Competence, and Academic Performance
There are two principal definitions of response-reinforcer contingency in the current literature which Scott and Piatt (1985) have labeled the phi coefficient and Rescorla index. For both definitions, contingencies are sensitive to two conditional probabilities of reinforcement, that given the occurrence and that given the non-occurrence of the criterion response. However, phi coefficient is sensitive also to the probability of the criterion response. In order to examine the relationship between children's perceived contingencies of teacher reinforcements, as defined by the phi coefficient and Rescorla index, and the children's perceptions of competence and measures of their academic performances, 119 5th grade children (54 boys and 65 girls) were studied. Two variables derived specifically from the phi coefficient, the probability of children's responses and the probability of teacher reinforcements, were also examined in their relationship to perceived contingencies and academic performance. In general, children's perceptions of teachers as both contingently rewarding and punishing, as defined by the phi coefficient and Rescorla index, were predictive of good academic performance by the children and teachers rating them as academically competent. Childrens' perceptions of their academic competence were also predictive of their academic performances and teacher ratings. The children's perceptions of academic competence were related to their reporting themselves as likely to produce positive achievement behavior but unlikely to produce negative achievement behavior. No significant relationship was found between the children's perceived contingencies of teacher reinforcements and their perceptions of their own academic competence. These results were discussed as supporting Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Thus, expectations of reinforcement contingency and expectations of personal competence jointly determine actual competence. The contingency findings support the utility of the Children's Perceived Contingencies of Reinforcements Questionnaire as a measure of contingency in the applied setting.
Comparison of Methods for Computation and Cumulation of Effect Sizes in Meta-Analysis
This study examined the statistical consequences of employing various methods of computing and cumulating effect sizes in meta-analysis. Six methods of computing effect size, and three techniques for combining study outcomes, were compared. Effect size metrics were calculated with one-group and pooled standardizing denominators, corrected for bias and for unreliability of measurement, and weighted by sample size and by sample variance. Cumulating techniques employed as units of analysis the effect size, the study, and an average study effect. In order to determine whether outcomes might vary with the size of the meta-analysis, mean effect sizes were also compared for two smaller subsets of studies. An existing meta-analysis of 60 studies examining the effectiveness of computer-based instruction was used as a data base for this investigation. Recomputation of the original study data under the six different effect size formulas showed no significant difference among the metrics. Maintaining the independence of the data by using only one effect size per study, whether a single or averaged effect, produced a higher mean effect size than averaging all effect sizes together, although the difference did not reach statistical significance. The sampling distribution of effect size means approached that of the population of 60 studies for subsets consisting of 40 studies, but not for subsets of 20 studies. Results of this study indicated that the researcher may choose any of the methods for effect size calculation or cumulation without fear of biasing the outcome of the metaanalysis. If weighted effect sizes are to be used, care must be taken to avoid giving undue influence to studies which may have large sample sizes, but not necessarily be the most meaningful, theoretically representative, or elegantly designed. It is important for the researcher to locate all relevant studies on the topic under investigation, since selective or even random sampling may bias the results of small meta-analyses.
A National Study of Retention Efforts at Institutions of Higher Education with Baccalaureate Degree Nursing Programs
This study is concerned with the problem of determining the status of.specific student retention efforts at the departmental and institutional levels in institutions of higher education offering baccalaureate degrees in nursing. The purposes of the study include (1) the determination of the percentages of those institutions which have specific programs to increase student retention in place and functioning at the various administrative levels, (2) the determination of those aspects of the many possible retention efforts that are being utilized, (3) identification of those retention efforts which may be most effective, and (4) comparison of retention rates between those institutions with organized retention programs and those without these programs. The population of the study is composed of all 430 of the National League for Nursing (NLN) accredited, Registered Nurse Baccalaureate Degree programs in the United States. The specially designed survey instrument produced a 62 percent response return. Response frequencies and percentages were calculated to show the relative success rates of various retention efforts. In addition, the data were subjected to several statistical procedures to determine if there were statistically significant differences between the various types and levels of retention efforts. The findings indicate that the presence of an organized and functioning program to increase student retention does produce a statistically significant increase in the mean retention rate for those institutions with such programs as compared with those institutions without organized retention programs. This significant increase was constant across the three types or levels of retention programs surveyed (departmental level only, university level only, both university and departmental levels). The majority of the respondents (55.5 percent) do have retention programs in place and functioning at some level in their institutions. Of the six major areas of retention efforts listed on the questionnaire, the area dealing the "Administrative Activities" to increase student retention was present most often among that group of respondents with the highest retention rates.
An Analysis of the Peer Relationships of Gifted and Gifted-Creative Primary Students
The purpose of this study was to compare the peer relationships of highly gifted and highly gifted-highly creative primary students in a gifted classroom of a public school. The study was conducted using thirty-one highly gifted first, second, and third graders who had scores of 140 or better on the WISC-R, WPPSI, or Otis-Lennon. At the beginning of the school year, the Creativity Assessment Packet was administered to the class. The top 20 percent scorers in the class (termed gifted-creative) and those who scored in the bottom 20 percent of the class (termed gifted) on the CAP were targeted for observation. In addition, a sociogram was administered to each student individually for the purpose of determining each child's social status. A bivariate correlation coefficient was employed to express the degree of any relationship between creativity scores and rankings on the class sociogram. Observational anecdotes were used in the discussion of the sociometric results. The following findings resulted from the study. The gifted-creative students, as a group, ranked higher on a class sociogram on measures of friendship and choice of academic work partners than did the gifted group. On sociometric measures of choice of creative work partners, there was no significant difference. During observations, the gifted students displayed approximately the same amount of positive verbal behaviors as the gifted-creative students. The gifted students did exhibit more isolated behavior, especially during academic tasks, than.did their gifted creative counterparts. The gifted-creative group displayed much more verbal and physical aggression than the gifted group. This report concludes that in the gifted classroom under investigation, gifted-creative and gifted pupils differ in their peer relationships thus supporting findings documented in past research. However, information from the sociogram seemed to suggest that the gifted-creative students, as a group, achieved higher social status within this gifted classroom than the gifted students.
The Attitudes of International Students Toward University Withdrawal
The purpose of this study was to determine if significant differences existed in attitudes of international students concerning college withdrawal. Data collection involved 200 freshmen international students from two universities in Texas. Two questionnaires were distributed to the students to determine attitudes toward college withdrawal. The instrument used to score the attitudes was the Purdue Master Attitude Scale. The analysis of variance was used for the statistical evaluation. The statistics indicated there was no significant differences between the students tested in the study and that the students had favorable attitudes toward college and unfavorable attitudes toward college withdrawal. Based on the findings of this study, universities should devise an extensive counseling and orientation program in order to provide students opportunities to complete their college education.
The Wang Institute of Graduate Studies: A Historical Perspective
The Wang Institute of Graduate Studies was an independent, non-profit corporate college located Tyngsboro, Massachusetts originated through the benevolence of An Wang. This study focuses on the problems in education and industry that acted as the impetus for this institute and develops a historical perspective of Wang Institute from its inception in 1979 until its end in August, 1987. The study describes the philosophy, organizational structure, curriculum, faculty, and students of Wang Institute. Wang Institute of Graduate Studies no longer exists. The facility used by Wang Institute of Graduate Studies is now known as Wang Institute of Boston University.
The Departing Experience: a Qualitative Study of Personal Accounts by Women Who Are Former Athletic Directors of Intercollegiate Athletic Programs for Women
What happened to women who are former athletic directors of intercollegiate athletic programs during each of the four stages of the departing experience was the problem of this study. A qualitative design using personal interviews for data collection and ethnoscientific explanation for analysis of the data were used to study thirty-one women who were athletic directors between 1975 and 1986. Analytical tasks performed for each of the four levels of analysis helped answer research questions directed toward finding patterns among women in the following areas: what happened to them within and throughout the four stages of the departing experience, reasons they left the position of athletic director, and satisfaction in their subsequent job. Analysis of the data established that the departing experience occurred in four stages. How the subjects responded to the way that opportunities for female student-athletes were offered during each st3ge of the departing experience determined whether they were in positive or negative circumstances. Sixteen subjects either were in positive circumstances throughout the departing experience or ended it in positive circumstances. Fifteen subjects were either in negative circumstances throughout the departing experience or ended it in negative circumstances. The ability to reevaluate their beliefs and values, adapt to changes in their programs, make rational decisions, and influence others to support their decisions determined whether they were in positive or negative circumstances in each stage of the departing experience. In general, the findings of this study support literature on women in administrative positions and literature on the effects of job loss and job change.
Intra-Industry Effects of the Ten Largest United States Bank Failures: Evidence from the Capital Markets
This study examines the differential effect of each of the ten largest bank failures on shareholders' wealth of non-failed banks over the period from 1973 through 1984. It examines how contagion and information effects of major bank failures have changed over time. FDIC policy for settling failures has important implications for system stability, and has changed over time. This study's purpose is to provide empirical evidence on the effects of FDIC policy. The FDIC's handling of the Penn Square failure signaled a policy shift and offers a unique opportunity to examine changes in market reactions to large bank failures. The literature on the capital market effects of major bank failures provides limited evidence on the impact of bank failures and related FDIC policy. Most fail to discriminate between contagion and information effects, and conduct analysis on one (or a few) bank failure(s) in the mid-1970s using traditional event study methodology. This study considers multivariate regression (MVRM) an appropriate methodology for bank failures which are likely to have simultaneous impact on non-failed banks. MVRM, which accounts for contemporaneous cross-sectional dependence of residuals, has three advantages over standard residual analysis: no "event clustering" problem, multiple hypotheses tests, and computational efficiency. This study uses daily stock-return data for fifty-one non-failed commercial banks. For each bank failure, the non-failed banksare grouped into three portfolios: "information-related," "large," and "small." The impact on each portfolio is tested for an average effect and joint hypotheses on excess return. This study offers evidence on no contagion effects and lack of information effects before Penn Square, strong information effects since Penn Square, contagion effects in post-Penn Square failures, and capital market discipline on large banks since Penn Square. There has been a change in the nature of the impact of bank failures since Penn Square.
The Effect of Comparative Well-Being on the Perceived Risk Construct: a Study of the Purchase of Apparel
The purpose of this research was to examine how the intervening variable of comparative well-being (which is how persons view their age, financial resources, and health compared to others of their own age) will enhance the significance of the relationship between selected demographic and psychographic variables and perceived risk. Specifically, the research investigated the structural relationship between comparative well-being in four different statistical models: (1) as an independent predictor of perceived risk; (2) as an intensifier of the psychographic and demographic predictors of perceived risk; (3) as a covariate of perceived risk; and (4) finally, as a jointly dependent variable with perceived risk. This approach was pursued in an effort to enhance the traditional marketing use of demographic and psychographic variables in predictingconsumer buying behavior. The data for this study were gathered as part of a national consumer-panel mail survey utilizing approximately 3,000 households. The research instrument was a self-administered questionnaire which collected demographic, psychographic, and perceived risk information from purchasers of apparel wear. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation analysis, factor analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The findings have identified the importance of how consumers position themselves in society, based on their locus of external involvement (community and social activity) and how satisfactory their position is in their social structure as measured by comparative well-being (perceived age, income, and health). The research results challenge the value of using only age and income as predictor variables for perceived risk, in that no significant relationships were found between age, income, and perceived risk. However, comparative well-being was found to intensify these relationships, in addition to functioning as an independent variable and a covariate in the perceived risk relationship. Also, it was found that respondents with higher degrees of comparative well-being perceived less risk, whereas, more socially active respondents were high-risk perceivers.
Spółka Nakładowa Młodych Kompozytorów Polskich (1905-1912) and the Myth of Young Poland in Music
This study deals with the four-composer Polish musical association, Young Polish Composers' Publishing Company, which became commonly known as the group Poland in Music. Young Poland in Music is considered by Polish and non-Polish music historians to be the signal inaugurator of modernism in Polish music. However, despite this most important attribution, the past eighty-odd years have witnessed considerable confusion over the perceptions of: 1) exactly who constituted the publishing company, 2) why it was founded, 3) what the intentions of its members were, and 4) the general reception its members' music received. This paper addresses and resolves this multiple confusion. Chapter I presents an introductory survey of the political, socio/cultural, and musical developments of Poland between 1772 and c1900, the period of the Polish Partitions through the beginnings of the "Young Poland" era. Chapter II presents a discussion of the facts surrounding the founding of the publishing company, as well as a discussion of the eighty-odd years of historical misinterpretations that have developed about the composers' company and its relationship to "Young Poland in Music." Chapter III discusses the interpersonal relationships of the composers and other persons directly involved with them and their company, and the impact that these relationships had on the publishing company. Additionally, the chapter brings into focus the specific relationships between the musicologist, Adolf Chybiński, the company, and its individual members. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the actual publishing activities of the company. Chapter IV examines the three concerts sponsored by the company and their critical receptions in Warsaw and Berlin through the surviving reviews and comments of leading contemporary music critics, the concert participants, the composers' close colleagues, and the composers themselves. Finally, Chapter V contains a brief discussion of the music presented on the three concerts, characterizing the works within the context of their initial critical reception.
Siblings of Autistic Children: a Supportive Intervention Program Assessing Self-Report and Parent Measures of Coping
This research project was designed to demonstrate the usefulness of a supportive intervention program for 17 nine to 14 year old siblings of autistic children. Current clinical practice has begun most recently to include the siblings of handicapped children in treatment services as a preventive measure to help maximize families' coping abilities and to increase the chances that they will be strengthened by their unique circumstances. Although research evidence suggests that most siblings are not at risk for serious psychopathology, it seems reasonable to assume that few remain unaffected by living with a handicapped brother or sister. Siblings report that they have increased responsibilities, many unanswered questions, and parents who typically are caught up in the stresses of caring for a handicapped child and have limited time to attend to their needs. It was hypothesized that an intervention program providing information about the handicapping condition, autism, and offering support through participation in a discussion group with other siblings of autistic children would effect improved coping in the participants. Three time-limited interventions (information plus support, information plus activity, and activity control) were compared under controlled conditions. Sibling coping was measured by a) a battery of self-report and parent ratings of behavior and attitudes, b) clinical observations, and c) sibling and parent anecdotal accounts. Descriptive behavioral and attitudinal data on the total sibling sample indicated more deviant individual profiles than would be expected in the normal population. Consistent with previous research and clinical practice with this subject population, children who were identified with problems were those generally thought to be at greatest risk such as older female and younger male siblings who have assumed extensive caretaking responsibilities for the autistic child. Specific group changes following intervention were confounded by individual subject reactions to the various procedures. Qualitative aspects of the siblings' participation were discussed in terms of implications for future clinical intervention and research with this sibling population.
Research Productivity of Doctorally Prepared Nurses
The purpose of this study is to determine the possible relationship between post-doctoral research productivity of doctorally prepared nurses and instructional experiences of doctoral study, conditions of employment and other factors that may be related to research productivity. The design of the study is causal comparative.
Family Stress Factors Across Three Family Types
This study investigated the difference in stress levels of stress factors according to the structure or type of family. The relatedness of the ranking of stress factors within and across three family types and the relationship between level of stress and number of years in current family type were also examined. Important aspects of this study were using three family types, using families seeking counseling as the subjects, and investigating numerous stress factors across family types. These research techniques avoided the limitations of previous research which investigated only one family type, thus isolating special stress issues for a certain family type where those special issues actually might not differentiate among family types. Also, considering numerous stress factors at one time, rather than only a few factors, indicated relative levels of stress as well as absolute stresses that families are likely to experience. Targeting families who had sought counseling should give counselors a more realistic view of clients and their problems.
Differences in the Actual and Ideal Roles of Secondary School Counselors in Region X Schools as Perceived by Counselors, Principals, and Counselor Educators
There has been extensive criticism of schools for allowing counselors to be used for duties that lie beyond defined counselor roles. The purpose of this study was to determine if counselors are still being misused today as they have allegedly been in the past. The problem was divided into nine questions in order to ascertain differences in actual and ideal roles of secondary school counselors as perceived by counselors, principals and counselor educators. The study was limited to secondary schools in the Region X Education Service Center in Texas. The study included brief definitions of roles and an extensive review of literature. Twenty-three schools from the Region X Education Service Center in Texas were chosen using a random, stratified selection process. A counselor and the principal from each of these schools were interviewed using a Q sort. Three counselor educators were randomly selected to participate from each of three universities in the area. The Q-sort technique was used in order to determine differences in actual and ideal perceptions of the counselor's role as held by counselors, principals, and counselor educators. Cohen's equation for Q sorts was used to establish correlations between the different perceptions. A t distribution for correlation was used to determine significance. There was a significant positive correlation for these groups concerning their perceptions of secondary school counselors' roles: 1. Counselors' actual and counselors' ideal. 2. Principals' actual and principals' ideal. 3. Counselor educators' actual and counselors* ideal. 4. Counselors' and principals' actual. 5. Principals' and counselor educators' actual. 6. Counselors' and counselor educators' actual. 7. Counselors' and principals' ideal. 8. Counselors' and counselor educators' ideal. 9. Principals' and counselor educators' ideal. The Q-sort questions were also analyzed to determine which roles were ranked by these three groups to be most and least important.
The Relationship of Teacher Temperament to Effectiveness in the Classroom
The purposes of this study were (I) to determine the relationship of teacher temperament to effectiveness in the classroom and (2) to determine the relationship of the teacher's temperament to the teacher's sex, to the grade level taught, to the area taught (special education or regular education), and to the subject taught. It was hypothesized that (I) there is no significant relationship between the teacher's temperament and his effectiveness in the classroom, (2) there is no significant relationship between the teacher's temperament and sex, (3) there is no significant relationship between the teacher's temperament and the grade level he teaches (elementary or secondary), (4) there is no significant relationship in the teacher's temperament and the area he teaches (special education or regular education), and (5) there is no significant relationship between the teacher's temperament and the subject he teaches.
The Music for Solo Clarinet by Arnold Cooke: The Influence of Paul Hindemith and a Comparison of the Music for Solo Clarinet by Both Composers: A Lecture Recital, Together with Three Recitals of Selected Works by C. Nielsen, J. Françaix, and Others
This dissertation is an analytical comparison of the works for solo clarinet by Paul Hindemith and his student Arnold Cooke. A total of seven compositions are studied and analyzed for style, covering aspects of melody, harmony, rhythm, form, and texture. From this data, conclusions concerning the accessibility of Cooke's music for solo clarinet to the player and listener are made. Although Hindemith's music for solo clarinet is more often played, it is this author's conclusion that Cooke's works are more satisfactory in their accessibility and ease of performance.
Application of Information Theory Concepts in the Investigation of the Growth Pattern of Production, Distribution and Velocity of Information
The objective of this research is the investigation of the patterns of information growth to test whether there has been an "information explosion." To tackle the main problem, there are three issues which need to be addressed: (1) the concept of information dimensionality; (2) determination of common parameters to measure the amount of information within each dimension; and (3) a working definition of "explosiveness. "
The Relationship of Locus of Control Orientation to the Academic Achievement of Doctoral Students
This study sought to determine the extent a relationship exists between locus of control and the rate of completion for proposal and dissertation defense among doctoral students. Levenson's Internal, Powerful Others, and Chance scales were utilized to identify locus of control orientation. Findings indicated that: (1) a majority, 102, scored highest on the Internal scale; (2) Internal scale scores above the median related to increased probability of a proposal and dissertation defense and to reduced time in reaching those points; (3) no significant difference was found between male and female defensive externals in completing the proposal or dissertation defense; and (4) females tended to score higher than males on the Internal scale. Among conclusions drawn are: (1) Internal scale scores above the median relate to a reduced length of time to complete the proposal and dissertation defense; and (2) few doctoral candidates scoring higher on the Powerful Others or Chance scales were identified in this doctoral program after the point of qualifying examinations.
Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Attributes of Never-Married Singles
The purpose of this exploratory study was to compare various attributes of never-married single men and women to married men and women. The Taylor-Johnson Temperament Analysis, the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B) Scale, and the Personal Skills Map were completed by 138 never-married singles and 139 married volunteers, both male and female. Volunteers were predominantly Caucasian, Protestant, active in their churches, and college educated. Ages ranged from 30 to 39 years. Married volunteers were married only once for five years or more. A step-wise discriminant analysis was run on each of the three instruments to determine which variables were significant across groupings. Summary conclusions were made showing that never-married men and women were more socially energetic but less expressive and responsive than were married men and women. Single men, as compared to married men, were also more passive and saw themselves in a less favorable light. Single women, when compared to married women, were also more dominant. Single women, when compared to single men, were more relaxed and more assertive, but more critical and punitive. An implication for counselors is that never-married single people may need help with relating at a deeper level of vulnerability and personableness. Single men may need help in interpersonal assertiveness as well as in personal openness and transparency. Single women may need help in resolving some of their hostilities. Further research is needed to explore the possible factors contributing to the guardedness of singles, the passivity of men, and the hostility of women. More work needs to be done in the area of causality.
Teaching Design in the Year 2000: A Modified Delphi Study of the Perceptions of Design Educators
The problem of this study is to predict how basic design will be taught in the year 2000 in the United States of America according to the perceptions of design educators who were polled using a Delphi exercise. Basic design is an introductory course in design disciplines covering fundamental principles, components, and applications of design. This study has a twofold purpose. The first is to predict how basic design will be taught in the year 2000 to allow design educators to better prepare for the future. The second is to provide a basis for further research that might address specific areas in the future of teaching design.
The Effects of Increased Equipment Speed on Online Database Searching Practices
This study reports changes in online database searching at North Texas State University when equipment speed was increased. Data were from database vendor invoices and price and sale data of online equipment. The hypotheses examined the relationship between the decrease in the cost of online equipment and the change to faster online equipment and the change in the number of databases that changed for online types. The change in equipment was related to changes in the number of offline prints per hour, the average time per search, the average number of descriptors per search, the number of searches per month, and the rank order of database use over the studied period. The increase in the number of databases with billed types was related to the number of online billed types produced. The number of prints was related to the number of billed types. Time spent online was examined for annual seasonal cycles. The major statistical tool was time-series analysis, although other methods were applied.
A Comparison of Recall by University Bible Students After Discussion and After Self-Study
Recall of expository prose after one of two learning techniques was determined. Pearson correlation did not discover a significant difference between the recall writings of the examinees who studied by discussion and those who studied by underlining. The significance of the difference between two proportions found that the group which underlined recalled significantly better than the group which discussed what they had read. This highly significant difference was almost identical when all synonyms from the Turbo Lightning computer program were considered correct recall and analyzed by the significance of the difference between two proportions.