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  Access Rights: Public
  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Degree Discipline: Psychology
 Collection: UNT Theses and Dissertations
Ability of Offenders with Psychopathic Traits to Simulate Cognitive and Affective Empathy

Ability of Offenders with Psychopathic Traits to Simulate Cognitive and Affective Empathy

Date: August 2013
Creator: Robinson, Emily V.
Description: The accurate assessment of psychopathy constitutes a critical component of forensic assessments addressing offender populations. Among the core characteristics of psychopathy, the interpersonal component of deception and empathic deficits are prominently observed in offenders with psychopathic traits. Given the negative consequences of being classified as a psychopath, offenders may be likely to minimize their psychopathic traits. In particular, no research has investigated whether offenders with psychopathic traits are able to simulate empathy in an effort to mask their cognitive or affective empathy deficits (e.g., lack of remorse about offenses). The present study aims to contribute to the literature with regard to the simulation of empathy. Using a mixed between- and within-subjects design, 81 male detainees were placed into (a) a low psychopathy group, (b) a moderate psychopathy group, or (c) a high psychopathy group based on the Psychopathy Checklist – Revised. For the within-subjects component, all offenders answered empathy questionnaires under genuine and simulation conditions. Results indicate the sample possessed cognitive empathy, but did not display affective empathy under genuine instructions. Under simulation instructions, participants significantly increased their scores on several empathy measures. The implications of simulated empathy and comparisons between groups regarding simulation abilities are discussed.
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Internalizing-externalizing Psychopathology and Personality Pathology As Predictors of Treatment Rejection in Substance Users

Internalizing-externalizing Psychopathology and Personality Pathology As Predictors of Treatment Rejection in Substance Users

Date: August 2013
Creator: Lewis, Jonathan James
Description: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are often comorbid with other psychopathology such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and personality disorders. While some research suggests individuals with comorbid psychopathology are more likely to seek substance use treatment than those with independent disorders, other studies have also shown many individuals with dual diagnoses still never seek treatment. Moreover, few studies have tried to elucidate the underlying structure of SUD treatment rejection, and instead examined it in more simplistic terms. In addition, studies have tended to examine the impact of individual disorders on treatment rejection, but have not incorporated an empirically supported approach to conceptualizing psychopathology in terms of comorbidity between broad latent dimensions referred to as internalizing (e.g., depression, anxiety) and externalizing (e.g., antisocial personality disorder, polysubstance use) psychopathology. Modeling psychopathology in terms of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology is becoming a prominent approach to understanding mental disorders, yet little research to date has investigated the effects these broad dimensions have on SUD treatment rejection. The current study utilized latent variable modeling techniques to (1) determine the latent structure of SUD treatment rejection in a large U.S. sample, and investigate whether treatment rejection is a multidimensional construct; and (2), to explore the ability of ...
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Inhibition of Return in Schizophrenia

Inhibition of Return in Schizophrenia

Date: August 1996
Creator: Hinds, Jeffrey D. (Jeffrey Dale)
Description: The present study was designed to look at inhibition of return within a schizophrenic population for the first time. Inhibition of return is an attentional phenomenon that has been studied with a number of populations, and has been shown to be present in normal individuals. Based on the disattention hypothesis put forth by Cromwell and colleagues (e.g., Cromwell & Dokecki, 1968), it was hypothesized that patients with schizophrenia would show an impaired inhibition of return. Twenty-eight inpatients with schizophrenia, and 19 normal comparisons were evaluated on a visual inhibition of return task. Consistent with hypotheses, schizophrenia patients have significant impairments in inhibition of return compared to normal comparison participants. Further, the relative lack of inhibition of return in the schizophrenic group was found to be strongest to stimuli in the left visual field. These results provide initial support for a reconceptualization of the disattention hypothesis.
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The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory: a Predictive Validity Study with Criminal Offenders Mandated to Rehabilitative Treatment

The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory: a Predictive Validity Study with Criminal Offenders Mandated to Rehabilitative Treatment

Date: August 1996
Creator: Flores, Johnny Martin
Description: The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory was constructed to screen for substance abuse patterns despite non-admittance of respondents. Predictive validity studies of the SASSI are limited, and are not available for probationers. Participants were 147 male and 54 female probationers mandated to treatment. Overall differences among SASSI scales were significant for treatment compliance and outcome. Higher SASSI scales were found among those probationers who were compliant/successful. Individual scales were not significantly different, however, a trend was revealed; those respondents who scored higher tended to comply/succeed in treatment. The SASSI alone accurately classified 59.7% of respondents. In summary, the SASSI's use in predicting treatment outcome is limited and should be employed with concomitant data.
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Development and Validation of the Checklist for Differential Diagnosis of Attentional Problems

Development and Validation of the Checklist for Differential Diagnosis of Attentional Problems

Date: May 1999
Creator: Taylor, Cindy J.
Description: The current study discussed the development and validation of the Checklist for Differential Diagnosis of Attentional Problems (CDDAP), a tool for use with adults seeking diagnosis and treatment of an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Normative data are provided on three subject groups (ADHD adults, controls, and adults with other psychiatric disorders). Convergent validity was established with the SCL-90, and criterion validity established through comparing scaled scores with final diagnoses. Overall, this measure was accurate at differentiating adults with ADHD from controls and adults with other psychiatric disorders. Results indicated that the CDDAP was also able to identify other psychiatric disorders with 71 to 92% accuracy, depending on the disorder.
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Depression in Sixth-Grade Early Adolescents: Effects of Intimate Support, Relationship Conflict, and Self-Efficacy

Depression in Sixth-Grade Early Adolescents: Effects of Intimate Support, Relationship Conflict, and Self-Efficacy

Date: August 1996
Creator: Goodness, Kelly R.
Description: Depressive symptomology was examined in this study as a function of conflict and intimate support with parents, friends, and siblings among a non-clinical sample of 223 predominately white sixth-grade early adolescents. Moreover, sixth-graders' depressive symptomology was examined as a function of conflict management self-efficacy and intimate support self-efficacy. The purpose of the present study was twofold: 1) to explore the effects of intimate support and conflict in family and friend relationships on sixth-grade early adolescent depressive symptomology, 2) to determine whether poor conflict management skills self-efficacy and poor intimate support self-efficacy are linked with depressive symptomology in sixth-grade early adolescents. Friend relationship qualities had little impact on depression in sixth-graders. However, the presence of conflict and deficits in family intimate support, especially from parents, was associated with increased depression. Increased levels of depression also corresponded with lower ratings of conflict management self-efficacy and intimate support self-efficacy. Moreover, relationship difficulties combined with self-efficacy deficits to affect depression.
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Distorted Time Perception as an Underlying Factor of Psychosis Proneness and Dissociation

Distorted Time Perception as an Underlying Factor of Psychosis Proneness and Dissociation

Date: August 1995
Creator: Koehler, Gregory C. (Gregory Charles)
Description: Distortions in the perception of time historically have been associated with dissociation and psychosis in clinical populations. However, the relations among dissociation, psychosis, and time perception in sub-clinical populations have not been investigated. In the present study, college undergraduates scoring either normally or deviantly high on the Per-Mag were given a Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and a computerized time-estimation/production task. Participants scoring high on the Per-Mag obtained higher scores on the DES than participants scoring low on the Per- Mag. Per-Mag scores also correlated positively with DES scores across 608 total participants screened. The relation between dissociative and psychotic symptomatology is discussed considering dichotomous versus continuous conceptualizations of psychopathology. The effects of intelligence, social desirability, malingering, gender, and post-traumatic stress on the measures used are also discussed.
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Cluster Analysis of the MMPI-2 in a Chronic Low-Back Pain Population

Cluster Analysis of the MMPI-2 in a Chronic Low-Back Pain Population

Date: December 1997
Creator: DeBeus, Roger J. (Roger John)
Description: The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most frequently used psychological measure in the assessment of chronic pain. Since the introduction of the MMPI-2 in 1989 only two published studies have focused on cluster analysis of chronic pain patients. This study investigated MMPI-2 cluster solutions of chronic low-back pain patients. Data was collected from 2,051 chronic low-back pain patients from a multidisciplinary pain clinic in the southwestern United States. A hierarchical clustering procedure was performed on K-corrected T-scores of the MMPI-2 using the three validity and ten clinical scales. Four relatively homogeneous subgroups were identified for each sex with the MMPI-2. In general, these results replicated the findings of previous researchers using both the MMPI and MMPI-2.
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Training Condom Use Skills for Sexually Active College Students

Training Condom Use Skills for Sexually Active College Students

Date: December 1994
Creator: Smith, Teresa E. (Teresa Elizabeth)
Description: Eighty-nine single, sexually active, heterosexual college students (ages 17-24) participated in one of two intervention conditions. Experimental groups were taught skills specific to condom use and sexual communication via a multimedia presentation. Control groups viewed a video on an unrelated topic. Individuals in the experimental conditions were expected to show higher levels of self-efficacy, greater knowledge concerning diseases, and improved attitudes about condoms immediately following the intervention. They were also expected to report safer sexual practices at the one month follow-up. Findings reveal that improved attitude and knowledge scores did not translate into behavioral changes.
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Think-Assess-Design: a Model for Redesigning Traditional Organizations Into Empowered Work Environments

Think-Assess-Design: a Model for Redesigning Traditional Organizations Into Empowered Work Environments

Date: May 1996
Creator: Richardson, Sandra Kay
Description: "Think-Assess-Design" is a model for guiding traditional organizations through the steps necessary to redesign themselves into a more empowered, team-based work environment. Three broad steps—think, assess, and design—provided the framework for organizational change in this case study.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries
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