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Tribhuvan University and its Educational Activities in Nepal
The purpose of this study was to discuss the role of Tribhuvan University in the development of higher education in Nepal by examining the university's historical development and educational activities. Despite negligence and opposition to public higher education by the rulers of Nepal before 1951, Nepalese higher education began with the establishment of Trichandra College in 1918. From 1951 until the establishment of Tribhuvan University in 1959, several public as well as private colleges were also established. The establishment of the university in 1959 marked the beginning of the government-controlled system of higher education in Nepal. As the first and only national institution of higher education, Tribhuvan University has played a significant role in developing a system of higher education in the country. During its first ten years, Tribhuvan University did not operate as a comprehensive institute of higher education. The Tribhuvan University Act of 1971, however, altered the structure, organization, and functions of the university and gave it additional roles and responsibilitites. By the mid-1980s, Tribhuvan University had increased its number of colleges from 49 (1970) to more than 128. Moreover, these colleges have expanded their programs and levels of education. This dissertation's six chapters describe the demographic, cultural, and historical setting of Nepal, the educational activities of Nepal before the establishment of Tribhuvan University, and the university's educational activities from its establishment in 1959 through the mid-1980s. The study shows that the university, in a 26-year period, had expanded it activities significantly and had proven its role as an important factor in the development of higher education in Nepal. The study also indicates that various governmental and non-governmental agencies have been actively involved in determining the educational activities of Tribhuvan University in Nepal.
Cross-Cultural Validity of the Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence
The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which a non-verbal test of intelligence, the Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence (TONI), may be used for assessing intellectual abilities of children in India. This investigation is considered important since current instruments used in India were developed several years ago and do not adequately reflect present standards of performance. Further, current instruments do not demonstrate adequate validity, as procedures for development and cultural transport were frequently not in adherence to recommended guidelines for such practice. Data were collected from 91 normally achieving and 18 mentally retarded Indian children, currently enrolled in elementary schools. Data from an American comparison group were procured from the authors of the TONI. Subjects were matched on age, grade, and area of residence. Subjects were also from comparative socioeconomic backgrounds. Literature review of the theoretical framework supporting cross-cultural measurement of intellectual ability, a summary of major instruments developed for cross-cultural use, non-verbal measures of intellectual ability in India, and issues in cross-cultural research are discussed, with recommended methodology for test transport. Major findings are: (a) the factor scales derived from the Indian and American normally achieving groups indicate significant differences; (b) items 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 22 are biased against the Indian group, though overall item characteristic curves are not significantly different; (c) mean raw scores on the TONI are significantly different between second and third grade Indian subjects; and (d) mean TONI Quotients are significantly different between normally achieving and mentally retarded Indian subjects. It is evident that deletion of biased items and rescaling would be necessary for the TONI to be valid in the Indian context. However, because it does discriminate between subjects at different levels of ability, adaptation for use in India is justified. It may prove to be a more current and parsimonious method of assessing intellectual abilities in Indian children than instruments presently in use.
Institutionalization of Ethics: a Cross-Cultural Perspective
Business ethics is a much debated issue in contemporary America. As many ethical improprieties gained widespread attention, organizations tried to control the damage by institutionalizing ethics through a variety of structures, policies, and procedures. Although the institutionalization of ethics has become popular in corporate America, there is a lack of research in this area. The relationship between the cultural dimensions of individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity/femininity and the perceptions of managers regarding the institutionalization of ethics is investigated in this study. This research also examined whether managers' level of cognitive moral development and locus of control influenced their perceptions. Data collection was performed through a mail survey of managers in the U.S. and India. Out of the 174 managers of American multinationals who responded to the survey, 86 were Americans and 88 were Indians. Results revealed that managers' perceptions were influenced by the four cultural dimensions. Managerial perceptions regarding the effectiveness of codes of ethics and the influence of referent groups varied according to their nationality. But, managers from both countries found implicit forms of institutionalizing ethics, such as organizational systems, culture, and leadership to be more effective in raising the ethical climate of organizations than explicit forms such as codes of ethics, ethics officers, and ethics ombudspeople. The results did not support the influence of moral reasoning level and locus of control type on managerial perceptions. The results suggested that in order for ethics institutionalization efforts to be successful, there must be a fit or compatibility between the implicit and explicit forms of institutionalizing ethics. The significance of this study rests on the fact that it enriched our understanding of how national culture affects managerial perceptions regarding the institutionalization of ethics. This is the first comparative study between U.S. managers and Indian managers that examines the variables, both explicit and implicit, which influence how ethical values are cultivated and perpetuated in organizations.
Impact of the Policies of the National Government on the Organization of Business and Management Styles in India
The purpose of this investigation is to explore the policies of the government of British India and of the independent Republic of India relative to their impact on organizational structure, management practices and styles, and management education in business organizations in India. The British, who were responsible for the growth of some of the organized industries in India, also gave the country, among other things, a modern educational system. They left India, however, with a limited industrial base. There was a serious shortage of professional managers to meet the demands of growing industry. Upon independence, the national government through its policies encouraged the development of business and industries and brought awareness among business managers of the importance of management education.
The Sino-Indian Border Confrontation of 1962
This thesis presents a brief history of the Sino-Indian relations, and describes the issues leading up to the border dispute between China and India in 1962.
The Origin and Development of the Caste System in India
This thesis presents a study of the origin and development of the caste system in India.
Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission
The objective of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) under the brand 'Solar India' is to establish India as a global leader in solar energy, by creating the policy conditions for its diffusion across the country as quickly as possible. The scope of these guidelines is to select new projects and provide the necessary policy framework for development of projects under the "bundling scheme" for Phase I of the JNNSM.
Renewables 2010: Global Status Report
This report describes economic trends in building the capacity of renewable energy in several countries.
Tunza: The UNEP Magazine for Youth, Volume 1, Number 2, 2003
Tunza is a UNEP magazine for and by young people. This issue is devoted to recycling and ecological footprints.
Tunza: The UNEP Magazine for Youth, Volume 1, Number 1, 2003
Tunza is a magazine published by the UN Environment Programme about environmental issues from a youth perspective. This issue is about freshwater resources.
UNEP Year Book 2009: New Science in Our Changing Environment
This publication provides an overview of global and regional environmental issues policy decisions during 2009.
UNEP Year Book 2008: An Overview of Our Changing Environment
This publication is an overview of global and regional environmental issues and policy decisions actions during 2008.
GEO Year Book 2007: An Overview of Our Changing Environment
This publication is an overview of major global environmental issues and policy decisions during the course of 2007.
Tunza: The UNEP Magazine for Youth, Volume 4, Number 4, 2007
Tunza is a UNEP magazine for and by young people. This issue is devoted to the relationship between gender and the environment.
Our Planet : Green Economy - The New Big Deal
Our Planet is a periodical magazine published by the United Nations Environment Programme. This issue is devoted to so called "Green Economy" measures such as large public transportation plans, tree planting programs, and government policies that provide incentives for improving energy efficiency.
Our Planet : Sustainable Transport - on the right track
Our Planet is a periodical magazine published by the United Nations Environment Programme. This issue is devoted to policies meant to reduce the carbon emissions from cars, trucks, and planes by converting fleets to cleaner, renewable fuels, and by moving government subsidies from highway infrastructure to public transportation.
Our Planet : Renewable Energy - Generating power, jobs and development
Our Planet is a periodical magazine published by the United Nations Environment Programme. This issue is devoted the use of renewable energy in climate strategy and economic growth.
Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2010: Analysis of Trends and Issues in the Finacning
This report shows that in spite of the global economic downturn, investment in sustainable energy is still strong.
Tunza: The UNEP Magazine for Youth, Volume 4, Number 3, 2007
Tunza is a UNEP magazine for and by young people. This issue is devoted to the value of forest ecosystems.
Our Planet : Climate Change - Copenhagen: seal the deal
Our Planet is a periodical magazine published by the United Nations Environment Programme. This issue is devoted to the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, know as the Copenhagen Summit, which sought an international agreement on climate change mitigation.
Tunza: The UNEP Magazine for Youth, Volume 6, Number 4, 2009
Tunza is a UNEP magazine for and by young people. This issue is covers globalization and the international impact of environmental policies.
Tunza: The UNEP Magazine for Youth, Volume 7, Number 1, 2009
Tunza is a UNEP magazine for and by young people. This issue is about environmental policies and practices that reduce one's carbon footprint, and protect threatened species.
Tunza: The UNEP Magazine for Youth, Volume 6, Number 2, 2008
Tunza is a UNEP magazine for and by young people. This issue is devoted to sustainable food production and consumption.
Our Planet, Volume 17, Number 1 : Deserts and Drylands
Our Planet is a periodical magazine published by the United Nations Environment Programme. This issue is devoted to desertification.
Our Planet, Volume 17, Number 2 : Climate Change and Economic Development
Our Planet is a periodical magazine published by the United Nations Environment Programme. This issue is devoted to environmental factors in the Caribbean Sea, and international policies and agreements between Caribbean nations to mitigate and manage common problems.
Dead Planet, Living Planet: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Restoration for Sustainable Development
This report discusses some vital services that natural ecosystems contribute to human health and development.
Freshwater Under Threat: South Asia
This report focuses on three major South Asian river basins: the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin, the Helmand River Basin, and the Indus River Basin. The authors use a composite Water Vulnerability Index based on development pressures, ecology, and other factors, to demonstrate the vulnerability of the river basins.
Clearing the Waters: A focus on water quality solutions
This report discusses global water issues and offers a variety of proposals for countering the degradation of freshwater ecosystems for the benefit of public health and the environment.
Global Carbon Finance: A quantitative modelling framework to explore scenarios of the Global Deal on Climate Change
According to the abstract, the purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative research methodology for analyzing the costs of dealing with climate change.
Capability and cost assessment of the major forest nations to measure and monitor their forest carbon
According to the Executive Summary, the aims and objective of this report are to provide an assessment of national capacity and capability in 25 tropical countries for measuring and monitoring forest as a requirement for reporting on REDD under IPCC guidelines. This paper was commissioned by the United Kingdom Office of Climate Change as background work to its report 'Climate Change: Financing Global Forests' (the Eliasch Review).
Policies to Change the World: Energy Sufficiency - Eight Policies towards the Sustainable Use of Energy
This booklet discusses how energy sufficiency is the best solution for reducing energy consumption and waste. It presents policies for reducing global energy consumption such as energy auditing, phasing out incandescent light bulbs, combined heat/cooling energy and power, carbon-negative cooking, smart metering, area road pricing, and other measures.
UGEC Viewpoints, No. 2, September 2009
Urbanization is a global phenomenon that has transformed and continues to alter landscapes and the ways in which societies function and develop. For this issue of UGEC Viewpoints, the editors collected case-studies presented at the Open Meeting that span across regions and themes: from Australia and the United States, as well as the less developed nations in Africa, megacities of Asia such as Dhaka, Bangladesh and Delhi, India, vulnerable coastal areas of the Yucatan Peninsula, and the largest rainforest in the world, the Brazilian Amazon. Currently, more than half of the world's population lives in cities; the United Nations projects that by 2030 the world will advance to the 60% urbanization threshold. Rapid urbanization effects will not only be present within the immediate locations (cities and their metropolitan areas), but will be experienced regionally and globally. The UGEC project seeks to better understand these implications and the complex dynamic systems of urban areas that affect and are affected by global environmental change (e.g., climate change, natural disasters, loss of biodiversity, freshwater ecosystem decline, desertification, and land degradation). Several commonalities are readily identifiable in the authors' research, some of which include an attention to the roles of the governance structures within cities; the functioning of ecosystem services, water, food, and sanitation service provision; as well as the role of research in assisting the successful development of sustainable urban plans and policies.
Towards Sustainable Global Health
Global health has in recent years drawn increasing scientific, political and popular attention not only due to global epidemics themselves,but also because of the social activities and environmental conditions that shape health threats and influence those who are affected. The study dealswith the issue of 'Sustainable Global Health'which has evolved from the realization that there will be no alleviation of poverty without success in control of serious public health threats, no economic prosperity and sustainability without a healthy workforce, and no social stability and peace as long as people have to suffer from insufficient health services, from malnutrition, from HIV/AIDS pandemics, or from lack of safe water. The study addresses a broad range of issues related to human health at regional and global levels. It includes the theme of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) as a tool for the private sector to exercise responsibility and interest in using the workplaces as a route and as means for education, and for a wide participation of every citizen in securing his or her individual health and well-being. Highlighted throughout the study are integrated approaches towards sustainable health.These approaches shed light on both the importance of multilevel health governance and the understanding of human health as an issue of human security in responding to health threats. Furthermore,the study emphasizes the links between the phenomena of global environmental change, which often further increases pressure on health systems, and the crucial role urban areas play in this realm.