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José Antonio Gómez´s Versos Para Órgano (Section I): a Practical Guide for Performance
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José Antonio Gómez is an important figure in Mexican music history and his works are considered representative of the beginning of Mexico´s Independent era. Some musicians are familiar with Gómez´s choral output but his organ music is rarely considered. Due to the lack of an edition of Gómez´s Versets for Organ, a practical guide was found needed to aid its performance. This study is based on performance, analysis, and direct work on the only known source for it. The first chapter, Introduction, presents the argument for an edited version of the first part of the manuscript as a performance guide. The second provides biographical information on the composer. The third chapter discusses the background for the original performance of the Versets for Organ. Chapter 4 provides performance considerations for the works. The edition of the manuscript is included in chapter 5.
Exploring Aspects of Korean Traditional Music in Young Jo Lee's Piano Honza Nori
Since the 1960s, several gifted Korean composers, including perhaps most notably Young Jo Lee (b. 1943), have been internationally acclaimed for their work. In Western countries, however, there has been a scarcity of academic studies examining the artistry of the music of these Korean composers. Nonetheless, as one of today's most recognized composers in Korea, Young Jo Lee has been invited to numerous international concerts, conferences, and festivals where his works have been played and discussed. A salient feature of his compositions is the fusion of Korean traditional music and the elements of Western compositions, such as in, for one distinctive example, his piano composition, Piano Honza Nori. This musical study describes and analyzes how Lee integrates Korean traditional elements with Western musical ideas in Piano Honza Nori. Results of this study will contribute to the limited literature on the analysis of contemporary piano composition that integrates Korean traditional elements.
A Performance Guide to Arvo Pärt's Concerto Piccolo Über B-A-C-H for Trumpet, Strings, Harpsichord, and Piano
Arvo Pärt's Concerto Piccolo über B-A-C-H for trumpet, strings, harpsichord, and piano is a brief yet challenging work in the trumpet repertoire. A carefully articulated performance guide is necessary to aid trumpeters in overcoming the numerous musical challenges presented in this piece. Currently, there is no resource that helps in solving performance choices and difficulties in this work. This first section of this document provides historical and contextual information on Arvo Pärt, his compositional output during his experimental period, and subsequently, Concerto Piccolo. The second section includes a performance analysis of the work, while the third gives trumpet players pedagogical suggestions and practical exercises for proper preparation of Concerto Piccolo. This guide presents performers with relevant background, analytical, and pedagogical information required for an informed and high-level performance.
Innovations in Musical Texture and Aural Perspective: Steven Mackey's See Ya Thursday for Solo Marimba
This dissertation and accompanying lecture recital explore the unique textural features in the works of Steven Mackey as exhibited in See Ya Thursday (1993).A rigorous formal, harmonic, and motivic analysis will highlight the compositional characteristics of textural structure and aural perspective that exist in the work. Illumination of these compositional elements can help to identify and minimize the technical complexities that exist within this piece for the performer. In addition, this document provides brief biographical information on Steven Mackey and his works, and on See Ya Thursday as it relates to other pieces in the advanced marimba literature. Finally, it is the aim of the author to add a resource to the relatively limited amount of research on Steven Mackey with this analysis of See Ya Thursday.
The Integration of Western Techniques with East Asian Philosophies in Isang Yun's Quartett Für Horn, Trompete, Posaune Und Klavier
Korean composer Isang Yun (1917-1995) was one of the few successful Asian avant-garde composers to blend philosophical elements from East Asia with Western techniques such as the twelve-tone method, Hauptton, Hauptklang, and Umspielung. In addition to the integration of Western and Eastern influences, a significant feature of Yun´s compositional language, found throughout his oeuvre, is the application of East Asian philosophical tenets into his works. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop a greater understanding of Isang Yun's life and music, more specifically the Quartett für Horn, Trompete, Posaune und Klavier. The dissertation is divided into five chapters. The first chapter of the dissertation presents introductory data, including the purpose and significance of the study. The second chapter provides pertinent biographical facts about Isang Yun and his works, obtained through research of authoritative books, journal articles, and interviews. The third chapter offers references to traditional Korean brass instruments in terms of their historical background, structure, and timbre. In addition, it also focuses on the processes by which Yun incorporated the compositional techniques of Hauptton, Hauptklang, and Umspielung to the work and their relation to Tao philosophy. The fourth chapter consists of an analytical and stylistic study of the Quartett; Yun's compositional language and formal structure are examined based on a stylistic assessment of selected examples from the work. The fifth and last chapter is a conclusion.
A Survey of the Solo and Chamber Works for Trumpet, Horn, Trombone, Euphonium and Tuba By the Hungarian Composer Frigyes Hidas
Hidas composed more than 135 compositions. Of these 135 compositions 67 feature the trumpet, horn, trombone, euphonium, and tuba in a solo setting, a homogenous chamber setting, or a heterogeneous chamber setting. The first section of this project presents the significance of the topic, state of research, and methodology. Chapter one provides a narrative detailing the collaboration of Hidas with Gusztáv Höna and László Szabó, Sr. Chapter two provides a brief description of characteristics found in Hidas' compositions. Appendix A and B provides a survey of the 67 works for brass instruments that Hidas composed. Included in this survey is information pertaining to the title, editor, publisher and date of publication, total measures, duration, ranges, degree of difficulty, clefs, special effects/techniques, instrumentation, dedications, analytical information, general comments, recordings, and rental details.
A Performer's Guide to Béla Bartók's Violin Concerto No 1, Opus Posthumous, 1907–1908
Despite Bartók's lasting international fame, some of his works remain unjustly lesser-known. One of the pieces that still resides in relative obscurity is his Violin Concerto No.1—a gem of the violin repertoire that must be brought to the broader public's attention. The fact that the concerto was hidden definitely contributed to its little–known status at first. However, the most important cause for the lack of enthusiasm to tackle this terrific work lies in the unorthodox demands it puts on the violinist. The purpose of this paper is to provide musical and technical suggestions based on Bartók's performing style and on his requirements for performer, which will help to create a more persuasive interpretation of the piece. The guide covers the questions of character, articulation, dynamics, and other performance aspects, and also provides practical suggestions, such as fingerings and bowings. It is hoped that this study will help violin performers to gain additional knowledge and insight into this composition and encourage more frequent performances of it.
Piano-related Musculoskeletal Disorders: Posture and Pain
A healthy posture protects the body-supporting functions and prevents injuries by maintaining balance. Literature in performing arts medicine suggests that posture is an important component to prevent piano-playing related injuries. However, no known research studies have quantified, characterized, and compared pianists' sitting postures. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between playing postures and perceived pain among pianists. This study applied innovative approach using qualitative and quantitative methods, combined with three-dimensional motion captured technology. To examine risk factors related pianists' postures, three-dimensional motion-capture cameras recorded approximate 40 pianists' postures in various situations; data recordings were combined with a statistical method to investigate pain-posture correlations. Results reveal that the degrees of head-neck or body tilt angles are the tendency of risk factors for piano-playing related pain. Results from this study may have multiple practical implications among which are: (1) a risk factor pain, injury index, or indicator (2) a performance habits profile and (3) practice guide to prevention of piano-playing related musculoskeletal disorders.
A Survey of Four Original Works for Clarinet and Guitar and Their Effect on Compositional Output for the Repertoire
In the last three decades there has been a surge in original compositions for clarinet and guitar resulting in the repertoire virtually doubling in size. However, documentation and research of original works in published sources remains limited and is quickly becoming outdated. This document reviews the current resources and reviews the newer published materials. Early chamber music works for guitar and clarinet typically required the guitar to supply harmonic support to the clarinet's upper voice, which carried the themes. An examination of the earliest works, which date from the early nineteenth century, suggests, in other words, that the two parts were not treated equally, in contrast to modern-day chamber music, in which melodic elements are proportionally balanced between the two instruments. A critical survey and comparison of four significant works from the repertoire reveals a development toward motivic balance, a progression towards melodic equality that continued in subsequent compositions. The four works surveyed are: Heinrich Neumann's Serenata Svizzera Op.29, Ferdinand Rebay's Sonata for Clarinet and Guitar No.2 in A minor, Libby Larsen's Blue Third Piece, and Gernot Wolfgang's Four Miniatures. An extensive compilation of over 300 original published and unpublished works for clarinet and guitar, bass clarinet and guitar, and more than one clarinet and/or guitar is included.
An Analysis of Pitch Organization in Villa-lobos's Rudepoêma
Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959) stands central to the music history of the Brazilian twentieth century. His music represents a synthesis of the European art influences he absorbed and his quest to find a true Brazilian identity, which was not rooted in the deliberate imitation of Brazilian folk elements, but rather in the natural assimilation of them in his compositional style. His early compositions embody strong post-romantic, impressionistic tendencies, especially in regard to their harmonies and use of tone color, whereas the works from the 1920's and onwards show Villa-Lobos increasingly asserting his unusual and strong voice. Villa-Lobos's large-scale composition for piano, Rudepoêma, was composed between 1921 and 1926, and stands as one of the most significant contributions to the Latin-American piano literature. Despite of its importance in Villa-Lobos's oeuvre, it has largely eluded analytical attention. Discourse on Villa-Lobos is often marked by a somewhat one-dimensional approach that identifies the folk and rhythmic elements as the most important characteristics of his compositional style, and displays a certain reticence with regard to in-depth analysis of other parameters of his works. This study redresses the imbalance in the general approach to analytical assessment of Villa-Lobos's oeuvre by illustrating that pitch organization plays an indispensable role in establishing formal unity between the multiple sections of this complex work.
Transcription of Baroque Works for Classical Guitar: J S Bach's Sonata in D Minor (Bwv 964) As Model
Continuing the common practice of composers of the Baroque period to transcribe their own or other composers' works for a different instrument, this dissertation contributes to studies of J. S. Bach's repertory as the source of program material for the classical guitar. It is from differences revealed through a comparative analysis of Bach's Violin Sonata No. 2 (BWV 1003) and his harpsichord arrangement thereof – Sonata in D minor (BWV 964) – that principles of transcription are derived and organized according to descriptive categories. Emulating the composer-transcriber with knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of the instruments involved, the arrangement procedures are applied to the classical guitar. In so doing, this study addresses the emerging challenges and complexities in creating an idiomatic arrangement.
James Wintle's Northwest Miniatures for Flute, Trumpet and Piano (1998): a Performance Guide
James Wintle's, Northwest Miniatures for flute, trumpet and piano is a unique work in the chamber music repertoire. In addition, the use of auxiliary instruments makes this piece a rarity in the flute and trumpet chamber music repertoire. There are a limited number of resources presently available to performers regarding Northwest Miniatures.This dissertation provides a pedagogical performance guide addressing the inherent challenges for the flutist and this instrumentation and serves as a new resource for performers and scholars of this work. It provides a performance analysis of the piece along with pertinent pedagogical information and exercises to assist the flutist. Insight from the composer on how to address these challenges is also included. Because there are a limited number of scholarly resources available on the subject of flute and trumpet chamber music, this dissertation is a significant contribution to this genre of repertoire.
A Performance Guide to Bernd Alois Zimmermann's Trumpet Concerto, "Nobody Knows De Trouble I See"
Bernd Zimmermann's Trumpet Concerto, "Nobody Knows de Trouble I See" is an important twentieth-century work for trumpet. Despite the stature of the composition, it has rarely been performed due to its considerable musical and technical demands. Integrating these diverse demands into a coherent performance requires careful consideration of the various performance practice consequences. The study begins by exploring the historical and musical context in which the work was written. It then considers the individual musical elements of the concerto. Finally, the study examines the performance practice implications of the work. The performance guide serves as a framework for making intelligent musical and technical decisions through context, analysis, and practical considerations.
Dario Castello's Music for Sackbut: the Sonate Concertate in Stil Moderno (1629)
Dario Castello's Sonate concertate in stil moderno is a collection of 29 trio sonatas in two volumes, with 10 of them employing the sackbut. These works represent a significant repertoire for the sackbut in an era where specific instrumentation was only starting to become a convention. While these pieces are often studied, performed and recorded in Europe, most American trombonists are not aware of their existence. This study seeks to acquaint the American trombonist with the sonatas of Castello and to provide performance suggestions for those less familiar with this genre. Chapter 1 presents a survey of the current literature on Castello. Chapter 2 provides an historical background for music in Venice in the early 17th century, while Chpater 3 focuses on the composer and his music for sackbut. Chapter 4 investigages the sonata in early 17th century Venice. Chapter 5 provides an insight into early baroque performance practice by discussing principles such as affect, tempo, ornamentation, diminution and articulation. Examples from the ten sonatas are used to illustrate these principles, providing the modern trombonist with a framework in which to study Castello's music. The final chapter discusses the implications of this study on the American trombone curriculum.
The Formative Years: an Exploration of the Early Training and Song Juvenilia of Samuel Barber
In the art of song composition, American composer Samuel Barber was the perfect storm. Barber spent years studying under superb instruction and became adept as a pianist, singer, composer, and in literature and languages. The songs that Barber composed during those years of instruction, many of which have been posthumously published, are waypoints on his journey to compositional maturity. These early songs display his natural inclinations, his self-determination, his growth through trial and error, and the slow flowering of a musical vision, meticulously cultivated by the educational opportunities provided to him by his family and his many devoted mentors. Using existing well-known and recently uncovered biographical data, as well as both published and unpublished song juvenilia and mature songs, this dissertation examines the importance of Barber's earliest musical and academic training in relationship to his development as a song composer.
Derivation of the Thematic Material and Intervallic Gestures From the Main Theme in Fantasia Carioca By Sérgio Assad
The quantity of classical guitar literature reached a new peak late in the twentieth century with many famous guitarists publishing their own works for solo classical guitar. This increase in the published guitar literature resulted in a decline of the relative analytical discussions of contemporary guitar works. Sérgio Assad is a perfect example of an active guitarist/composer whose works are frequently performed in guitar recitals and yet very little discussion has been provided attempting to gain a deeper understanding of his compositional language. The purpose of this study is to two-fold: first, to show that Fantasia Carioca (1994) is a very carefully organized work and includes an intricate network of thematic material developed through a spectrum of intervallic gestures, of which all derive from the main theme of the piece; second, to provide a deeper insight into the compositional language of Sérgio Assad through a demonstration of different compositional procedures to which the composer resorts. This one-movement piece reveals a high level of organization present in Sérgio Assad's style. The entire thematic material is carefully derived from the main theme. Each thematic unit shows a set of predetermined characteristics that allow these units to react to particular textures and situations. The thematic organization is interwoven with important intervallic gestures and relationships, which lead the development of the thematic material. The insight into the applied techniques and structural elements provides a highly beneficial pool of information for anybody who decides to perform this piece. The offered arguments also serve as a good starting point for further analytical approaches and examinations of the growing oeuvre of Assad's classical guitar music.
The Creation of a Performance Edition of Gustav Mahler's Lieder Und Gesänge Aus Der Jungendzeit and Its Role in Bass Tuba Pedagogy
When the tubist is first introduced to the bass tuba, Mahler's songs can be used as effective solo material. Through transcription, practice, and performance of art songs, novice bass tubists focus primarily on fundamental musical components such as tone quality, intonation, breathing, and musicianship. By identifying deficiencies in the current solo repertoire as related to the early stages of development on the bass tuba, I intend to address the need for more solo works through the transcription and performance of Mahler's Lieder und Gesänge aus der Jugendzeit.
Osvaldo Lacerda’s Sonata for Flute and Piano (1959): A Performance Guide with Historical Background of Brazilian Genres Embolada, Serestra, and Baião
Osvaldo da Costa Lacerda (March 23, 1927-July 18, 2011), one of the most significant Brazilian composers of the twentieth century, wrote more than 250 compositions. The purpose of this dissertation is to provide a history and analysis of the Brazilian genres characterized in Osvaldo Lacerda’s, Sonata for Flute and Piano. Written in 1959, the sonata represents traditional Brazilian rhythms within a classical structure and modern harmony. The work provides a basis for the exploration of the embolada, the serestas, and the baião, examples of Brazilian typical song forms and rhythms. Analysis of the historical roots of these nationalistic elements will provide appropriate performance practice considerations when playing Brazilian rhythms; and because this sonata only exists in manuscript form, the historical analysis and performance guide will be of service to disseminate this important Brazilian work. As a basis for a critical edition of the Sonata for Flute and Piano, this initial effort will provide performers with a context for Brazilian flute music. Chapters include the Lacerda’s biography, a background of the nationalistic movement in Brazil and the composers who have influenced Osvaldo Lacerda. Definitions of embolada, serestas, and baião is also provided.
A Performer's Guide to the First Two Movements of Pyotr Tchaikovsky's Grand Sonata in G Major, Opus 37
The Grand Sonata in G Major, Op.37, composed by Tchaikovsky, is a powerful large-scale composition and a piece of a symphonic scope. However, the sonata did not receive a desired acclaim in the modern repertoire partially due to an obvious lack of performance instructions in the existing editions, which makes the sonata challenging to perform. Thus, in order to reduce the technical challenges and to encourage more frequent performances of the sonata, this dissertation offers a performer's guide that addresses essential elements of pedal indications, phrasing and detailed dynamics, as well as suggestions on voice balancing, agogics, fingering, and hand redistribution. The guide consists of musical examples that are focused on the most challenging sections of the sonata, and is organized in the subsections according to a technique type proposed to facilitate a performance of the sonata. In addition to the examples on application of individual techniques presented in the main body of the dissertation, alternative and more elaborate versions of the suggestions are proposed in the appendices. The dissertation also provides a history of the sonata, and discusses its concept and symphonic principles. Additionally, the work highlights Tchaikovsky's piano style and describes his views on the art of piano performance. A special attention is also given to two musical references repeatedly embedded into the sonata: the bell-like sonorities and Dies irae melody.
Aphorismen, Capriccio, and Heptameron for Piano Solo By Jürg Baur: a Performer's Guide
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The purpose of this dissertation is to give instruction regarding the performance of three important piano works by Jürg Baur (1918-2010). Aphorismen, Capriccio, and Heptameron stand out as his most significant piano works both because of their length and because of their pianistic complexity. Since Baur had a successful career as both teacher and composer during his lifetime, his acclaimed works received many honors in Germany. His works can be performed by intermediate to advanced students. Intermediate students can easily offer simpler pieces like Aphorismen in competitions, while pieces like Capriccio and Heptameron better are suited to a more advanced level. Although some of his compositions are difficult to perform compared with other modern German works, Baur's music is more accessible. In the article, "Auf der Spuren der alten Zeit" Baur is quoted to state that Paul Hindemith and Bela Bartok's music influenced his own compositional ideas. However, although Baur is a modern composer, he didn't write in a totally atonal style, but rather attempted to broaden tonality. While Heptameron is atonal, Aphorismen and Capriccio give the impression of tonality, thus they are more accessible to the audience. I was fortunate enough to study Aphorismen with Baur as well as receiving advice for performance of Capriccio and some movements of Heptameron. Therefore, I gained a primary source of instruction, particularly in regards to pedal markings, rhythmic indications, voice balancing, finger suggestions, articulation markings, and tone of musical expression. In this dissertation, I include my own instructions (accepted by the composer) along with the composer's intentions.
Korean Traditional Elements and Contemporary Compositional Techniques in Hyowon Woo’s Choral Music As Reflected in Gloria
Among native Korean choral composers, Hyowon Woo has emerged as one of the most significant representatives of choral genre, both in Korea and internationally. She has created a new style of choral music that combines traditional Korean musical elements with contemporary Western compositional techniques, in a synthesis that generates new sonorities and effects. Her choral music falls into three basic categories: music employing direct quotation of Korean folk tunes or other elements, which produce typical Korean sonorities; music using Western practices, which produce modern and Western flavors; and music combining Korean traditional methods with modern Western concepts. Hyowon Woo’s unique contribution to contemporary Korean choral music is ideally represented by her Gloria, which will form the basis for this study. Because traditional Korean music culture has such a strong presence and influence on her choral compositions, detailed knowledge of these elements are essential for the study and performance of her work. The combination of traditional Korean music and Western contemporary techniques lies at the core of her compositional style, and is the principal focus of this study. A detailed understanding of these stylistic elements, both Korean and Western, and how they work together to achieve the composer’s purpose and vision, is vital to achieving an informed performance of this work.  This study is intended to supply the conductor these needed tools and to add to the small but growing body of literature related to the performance practice not only of Woo’s significant body of choral compositions, but of Korean choral music in general.
Correcting the Record: a Comparison of Vladimir Ashkenazy’s Urtext-based Edition of Pictures at an Exhibition with Orchestration By Ravel and Stokowski
Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881) never published his piano suite, Pictures at an Exhibition. The first publication of the Pictures was Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov’s (1844-1908) piano edition in 1886, five years after Mussorgsky’s death. Among several piano editions of Pictures, Manfred Schandert’s urtext piano edition of 1984 has shed new light on the piano suite. The urtext edition is based on a facsimile of Mussorgsky’s autograph, and Schandert’s authoritative urtext contains all of Mussorgsky’s musical indications that previous editions neglected to include. Previous orchestrations based on less comprehensive editions include well-known orchestrations by Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) and Leopold Stokowski (1882-1977). Vladimir Ashkenazy (b. 1937), on the other hand, derived his orchestration directly from the Schandert edition. In this study I argue that Ashkenazy offers “corrections” to his predecessors, Ravel and Stokowski, whose orchestrations differ—at times radically—from Mussorgsky’s autograph. This dissertation thus will explore the significant features of Ashkenazy’s orchestration in relation to the urtext edition by comparing it to the orchestrations of Ravel and Stokowski. In an age of attempts to present “authentic” versions of past music, Ashkenazy’s orchestration provides an authenticity that other orchestrations lack. Ashkenazy’s orchestration of Pictures at an Exhibition provides conductors an alternative performance option that is both effective and more closely related to Mussorgsky’s autograph.
Transformation of Themes, Controlled Pianistic Textures, and Coloristic Effects in Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsodies Nos 6, 10, and 12
Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsodies are uniformly considered highly challenging in terms of technical execution. However, their artistic value is frequently questioned. This dissertation examines the compositional elements that are often overlooked in these virtuoso works, and provides a viewpoint into their interpretative characteristics. Furthermore, it pursues a claim that besides being excellent performance pieces, these works also make an intriguing contribution to Liszt scholarship, and deserve meaningful consideration in terms of their artistic quality. Following the Introduction (Chapter 1), Chapter 2 provides a brief historical perspective of the critical affirmation Liszt the composer encountered from the musical society. It also includes a short background on Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsodies, as well as the general reactions these works evoked from pianists, audiences, and scholars, during the time they were composed to the present day. As the main body of the dissertation, Chapter 3 investigates the three primary compositional concepts found in Rhapsodies Nos. 6, 10, and 12. These concepts are divided into three subchapters: Transformation of Themes, Controlled Pianistic Textures, and Coloristic Effects. Each of these subchapters provides explanatory information, as well as some of the most characteristic passages presented.
Claude Bolling’s Toot Suite for Trumpet and Jazz Piano: a Performance Guide
Claude Bolling’s Toot Suite for Trumpet and Jazz Piano that was premiered by French virtuoso trumpeter Maurice Andre in 1980 is an important work in the trumpet repertoire. At present, there is limited research regarding Toot Suite. Almost all of the six movements within Toot Suite are performed on a different instrument: C trumpet for Allegre, Eb trumpet for Mystique, Bb cornet for Rag-Polka, Bb piccolo trumpet for Marche, Bb flugelhorn for Vesperale and Bb piccolo for Spirituelle. Chapter 1 examines the life and musical background of the composer. It also exposes the history surrounding the origin of Toot Suite. Chapter 2 discusses the musical influences of the composer that are found in Toot Suite. Chapter 3 provides an analysis of existing studio recordings. Chapter 4 offers specific suggestions regarding preparation and performance of Toot Suite. Chapters 5 and 6 conclude the guide with interviews with the composer and prominent trumpet performers and pedagogues that have recorded and/or have performed Toot Suite live.
The Impact of the Development of the Fortepiano on the Repertoire Composed for It From 1760–1860
The relationship between piano manufacturer and composer is interactive, and consequently both compositions and performance styles evolved organically due to this relationship. Early on, the instrument had more influence on the composer, whereas with the instrument’s establishment, composers began to exert more influence on the subsequent development of the instrument through their requests of manufacturers. The relationship between pianist-composers and manufacturers is important for pianists to study and understand, as well as the actual sound of a composer’s fortepiano and the way he performed on it. Through studying the development of the piano and the relationship between manufacturers and composers, pianists can reinterpret compositions before the mid nineteenth century, such as Mozart, Beethoven, Dussek, Chopin, and Liszt, using their knowledge of the aforementioned to bring a different perspective to their performances on the modern piano. There are numerous manufacturers and composers who made important contributions to the development of the piano. This dissertation focuses on selected pianist-composers and fortepiano manufacturers, and the impact of their relationship on piano literature before 1860.
Johann Nepomuk Hummel’s Transcriptions of Beethoven´s Symphony No 2, Op 36: a Comparison of the Solo Piano and the Piano Quartet Versions
Johann Nepomuk Hummel was a noted Austrian composer and piano virtuoso who not only wrote substantially for the instrument, but also transcribed a series of important orchestral pieces. Among them are two transcriptions of Beethoven’s Symphony No. 2 in D Major, Op. 36- the first a version for piano solo and the second a work for piano quartet, with flute substituting for the traditional viola part. This study will examine Hummel’s treatment of the symphony in both transcriptions, looking at a variety of pianistic devices in the solo piano version and his particular instrumentation choices in the quartet version. Each of these transcriptions can serve a particular purpose for performers. The solo piano version is an obvious virtuoso vehicle, whereas the quartet version can be a refreshing program alternative in a piano quartet concert.
Conductor Awareness of, Knowledge of, and Attitude Toward Sound Intensity Levels Generated During Ensemble-based Instructional Activities in College-level Schools of Music
In 2011, the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) took an official position to recognize the importance of hearing health and injury prevention as a standard for all member-accredited institutions. This is the largest national acknowledgement promoting hearing health and safety within the music discipline and among students seeking a music degree in the United States. The purpose of the study is to describe what conductors (i.e., instructors) of college-based ensembles know about hearing health and the generation of sound intensity levels. The study aimed to describe the 1) current state of conductors’ awareness and knowledge of sound intensity levels, 2) current attitudes of conductors toward learning and sharing knowledge of sound intensity levels, and 3) current teaching practices of conductors in regard to equipment usage (e.g. sound level meter, noise dosimeter, hearing protection devices) relating to sound measurement and exposure. Findings indicate 80.2% of conductors (N = 162, 66% employed by NASM-accredited institutions) agree that sounds generated during ensemble-based instructional activities (EBIAs) in college-level schools of music are capable of harming human hearing, but 24.1% “do not know” if EBIAs they conduct ever exceed sound intensity levels capable of harming human hearing, 54.9% do not know “what services or resources” their home institutions offer/refer to students, 93% are never using a noise dosimeter, 40% have never had an audiology exam, and 70% have never used hearing protection during an EBIA. Conductors have a strong openness to change current teaching practices and inform themselves about hearing health, but few are personally informing and educating their students during the EBIA. The study serves to assist conductors and foster a new dialogue among their students, colleagues, staff, and administrators to revise current curriculum, explore sound measurement technologies, and evaluate current hearing health and safety issues inherent in the practice, performance, and teaching of sound intensity levels generated during EBIAs in college-level schools of music.
Music of the Spheres: Astronomy and Shamanism in the Music of Urmas Sisask
In 1619, Johannes Kepler published his magnum opus Harmonices mundi in which the astronomer derived distinct pitches and scales for each known planet in the solar system from calculations of various aspects of their orbital motions. This was the first theoretical realization of the ancient tradition of musica universalis (also called musica mundana), or music of the celestial bodies. It was not until the Estonian composer Urmas Sisask (b. 1960) began his compositional career by deriving his own “planetary scale,” however, that the theoretical musica universalis came into audible existence. Sisask’s work represents a distinctive musical voice among today’s choral composers, and although he is steadily gaining attention for his unique compositional style, only limited information exists about the specifics of his background, his interest in astronomy and shamanism, and the subsequent influence these interests have had on his choral music. At once traditional and modern, he bridges the gap between ancient Estonian folk song and the present. Through an application of exotic techniques including extreme repetition, ritualistically driving rhythms and sudden changes in timbre and texture; coupled with his own peculiarly crafted “planetary scale,” Urmas Sisask has created a completely unique body of work which is examined in this study by looking at representative works from his choral oeuvre including Gloria Patri…24 hymns for mixed choir, Magnificat, Ave Sol, and Benedictio.
Lind, James Meyer the Trumpet Concertos of Anthony Plog: a Performer’s Guide
Anthony Plog (b. 1947) has contributed several notable works for brass instruments. He is known for writing extremely technically challenging works that contain angular melodies, fast rhythms and a large degree of chromaticism. Though his music is difficult, it also conveys intense emotions. His music for trumpet, specifically Concerto no. 1 for Trumpet, Brass Ensemble and Percussion and Concerto no. 2 for Trumpet and Orchestra, represents a zenith in his compositional development. This dissertation examines Concerto no. 1 and Concerto no. 2 from a performer’s perspective to better understand the stylistic characteristics and challenges encountered in his music. Each concerto is examined in terms of rhythmic structure, intervallic structure, thematic material, motivic material and form.
Goethe Settings By Johann Friedrich Reichardt and Carl Friedrich Zelter: Text, Music and Performance Possibilities
The connection between text, music, and performance in the lieder of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries is an integral aspect to fully comprehending the style and performance of the genre. It is also essential in order to understand the full development of the lied in its totality. The era represented a transitional period in musical development, influenced by Enlightenment values of elegance, good taste, simplicity, and naturalness which sought to eradicate the overly decorative “excesses” of the high-Baroque. In this study, emphasis is placed upon the unique development of the lied in the northern German regions by the composers Johann Friedrich Reichardt and Carl Friedrich Zelter and their musical settings of the lyric poetry of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The study also addresses the overall development of the genre as it progressed from the Baroque through Classicism/Neo-Classicism, Sturm und Drang, and into Romanticism exploring the musical settings and performance possibilities both then and now in the context of the various treatises and correspondence between the composers and poet. It seeks to effectively address the notion that these early songs were composed and performed by those versed in the ideal of music being an improvisatory/dramatic vehicle for expressing emotion and textual meaning. In opera, and to a lesser extent other vocal idioms, musico-dramatic excesses occurred in the late Baroque and the cult of the singer reigned. However, the reforms which led to the new aesthetic of naturalness did not suddenly end this improvisatory vocal performance practice. The musical complexity of the lied was gaining in prominence but not yet to the detriment of the priority of the poetic text and its effective rendering.
From Ritual to Art in the Puritan Music of Colonial New England: the Anthems of William Billings
The manner in which Billings’s music contrasts with the Puritan musical ideal clearly demonstrates his role in the transition from ritual to art in the music of eighteenth-century New England. The tenets of Puritan worship included the restriction that music should serve primarily as a form of communal prayer for the congregation and in a secondary capacity to assist in biblical instruction. Billings’s stylistic independence from Puritan orthodoxy began with a differing ideology concerning the purpose of music: whereas Calvin believed music merely provided a means for the communal deliverance of biblical text, Billings recognized music for its inherent aesthetic worth. Billings’s shift away from the Puritan musical heritage occurred simultaneously with considerable change in New England in the last three decades of the eighteenth century. A number of Billings’s works depict the events of the Revolutionary War, frequently adapting scriptural texts for nationalistic purposes. The composition of occasional works to commemorate religious and civic events reflects both the increase in society’s approval of choral music beyond its nominal use in worship, both in singing schools and in choirs. With his newfound independence from Puritan ritual, Billings seems to have declared himself one of the United States of America’s first musical artists.
Analysis of Roger-ducasse’s Pastorale Pour Orgue
Pastorale pour Orgue (1909) is Jean Jules Aimable Roger-Ducasse’s only solo organ composition, which demonstrates skillful use of organ colors and demands a virtuoso technique for performance. Writing Pastorale in 1909, Roger-Ducasse synthesized compositional styles and techniques of two very different compositional approaches – impressionism and classicism. This study examines the stylistic characteristics of Pastorale by Roger-Ducasse as examples of both of these influences. the synthesis in Pastorale is primarily evident in the combination of classical forms and generic references with impressionist harmony and color. Thus, examining these musical elements provides hitherto unexplored insights into Pastorale as a master solo organ work of the early twentieth century. the dissertation is divided into four chapters. the first chapter presents the purpose, the significance, and the state of research of the piece. in the second chapter, I examine the traits of classicism through genre, form, thematic variation and other classicist elements of the composition. the third chapter presents the traits of impressionism including harmonic parallelism, extended chords, pedal points, ostinatos, and whole-tone scales. in the fourth chapter, I summarize the study and make a suggestion for further research of the piece.
Sun (1966): Eight Poems in One Movement for Solo Voice and Orchestra By Ned Rorem: Background, Analysis, and Performance Guide
The purpose of the document is to present Ned Rorem’s Sun (1966): Eight Poems in One Movement for Solo Voice and Orchestra. the eight songs are “To the Sun,” “Sun of the Sleepless,” “Dawn,” “Day,” “Catafalque,” “Full Many a Glorious Morning,” “Sundown Lights,” and “From What Can I Tell My Bones?” the document is divided into four main chapters: 1) Background; 2) Poet and Poem Background; 3) Musical Analysis; 4) Performance Guide. Chapter 1 contains biographical information on Ned Rorem, and basic information of the work, Sun. Here, a relationship between the eight songs is presented. Chapter 2 discusses biography of poet and background of the poem. the poetry is examined to determine the theme and to identify imagery, and metaphor. Chapter 3 offers detailed musical analysis for each of the eight songs and interludes. Chapter 4 provides performance guide which offers assistance in forming personal interpretation and brief specifies to singers who wish to perform this work. Appendix a includes tonality, difficulty, tempo, form, theme, range, and orchestration of each song and interlude. This study serves as a reference guide for performers of Sun.
Establishing Editorial Principles to Create a Performance Edition of Selections From Appunti Op 210 By Mario Castelnuovo-tedesco
This paper examined editorial methods used in producing published versions of the music of Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco (1895-1968). From this examination, I established some editorial principles to create a performance edition of five movements from book two of Castelnuovo-Tedesco’s Appunti op. 210. This paper includes a discussion of the sources and methods used in establishing editorial criteria. at the request of the Milanese guitarist Ruggero Chiesa (1933-1993), Castelnuovo-Tedesco set out to create a collection of didactic pieces for young guitarists. the pieces were to be collaboratively edited and fingered by Chiesa, and then given final approval by the composer. Unfortunately, the composer died before finishing the work. the pieces and sketches that survive exist in four volumes published by the Italian house, Suvini Zerboni, containing the pieces that Chiesa edited with the approval of Castelnuovo-Tedesco. the published edition also includes unedited pieces that did not undergo the collaborative process. with the goal of maintaining an unadulterated portrayal of the composer’s intentions, Chiesa presented these pieces as they appear in the manuscript. Much of the music is unidiomatic and either impossible or highly impractical to play. My study established some editorial principles for use in creating a performance edition of this work. the edition includes my engraving of the original unedited manuscript as well as ossia measures containing solutions to performance problems. the suggested solutions balance the perception of the composer’s intentions, established editorial practices, and idiomatic concerns to creating a playable edition.
The Choral Music of Ola Gjeilo: a New Vision of the Choral Instrument in the 21St Century
The choral music of Norwegian composer Ola Gjeilo (pronounced “yay-loh”) is gaining international acclaim and is widely performed and commissioned by prominent high school, university, and professional choirs. It represents a philosophical approach and vision of the choral instrument for which the conductor must have a clear understanding in order to prepare a meaningful performance. in particular, his music merges diverse musical influences, which results in a product of unique character among choral compositions in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Gjeilo draws inspiration from a text but then uses its sonic qualities (the sounds of vowels and consonants) to create an atmosphere of sound instead of following the traditions in choral and vocal music of using musical mechanisms (melody, rhythm, and harmony) to reinforce the text poetically. This study provides an overview of Gjeilo’s background, in Chapter 1, and discusses its influence on his compositional philosophy. Chapter 2 contains musical examples from selected works, which are used to illuminate unique attributes found in Gjeilo’s music. Chapter 3 presents important implications to consider aiding choral conductors in their preparation of future performances of Gjeilo’s music.
The Collective Pedagogy Utilized By the Trombone Instructors at the Rotterdam Conservatory of the Netherlands
The Collective Pedagogy Utilized by the Trombone Instructors at the Rotterdam Conservatory of the Netherlands offers a comprehensive study of the collaboration between the various instructors of the trombone studio within the Rotterdam Conservatory and their pedagogical approach to curriculum, lesson structure, grading process, student body, and social environment. the Rotterdam Conservatory has produced some of the finest trombonists in the global music community. Alumni from the conservatory consistently win positions in professional ensembles, succeed in national and international competitions, and are often featured artists at international music festivals. the success of their alumni warrants closer scrutiny of the pedagogical approach utilized by the faculty of the conservatory.
Go-hyang (Ancestral Home) By David Burge: a Performer’s Guide to Integrating Korean Musical and Cultural Aspects
David Burge (b. 1930) composed the work Go-Hyang (1994) inspired by his impressions of Korea. the purpose of this study is to provide a performance guide particularly for the benefit of non- Korean pianists. Each of the six pieces of Go-Hyang contains Korean musical and/or cultural references. This document details these aspects, obviously stated or implied through the work. Investigation into distinct characteristics and Korean elements of each of the six movements will involve sources from multiple fields. Interviews with both the composer and the pianist Young-Hae Han for whom the work was written answer many questions about performance issues. Once the Korean reference is examined, it will be related to performance consideration of each movement, in order. the result of this examination will provide the performer not only with beneficial information to facilitate the performance but also with some cultural background to enrich the interpretation of the work.
The Chopin Etudes: a Study Guide for Teaching and Learning Opus 10 and Opus 25
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The etudes of Chopin are masterworks of the piano literature and are designed to go beyond mere technical exercises; moreover, each etude represents not only a technical study but also has a distinct musical character. Alarmingly, the current trend seems to be to assign the Chopin etudes at an increasingly young age to students who are not yet equipped either technically or musically to handle them. As Chopin’s pupil, Carl Mikuli, commented in the preface to his Chopin edition, the etudes were meant for “more advanced students.” If Chopin had intended his etudes for students at an intermediate level, he would have assigned them to most of his students; however, only a limited number of students had his permission to work on their master’s etudes. As a teacher, I have always felt the need to devise a systematic teaching plan to guide students to handle the challenges of these pieces both physically and musically. This study examines the repertoire which might help prepare a student to learn the etudes without overstraining his/her muscular and mental ability. Rooted in Chopin’s teaching and his recommendation of the pieces to learn before tackling the etudes themselves, this pedagogical study guide intends to help students and teachers to work progressively towards the study of these works. While pinpointing some exercises and simple pieces to assign to a student in preparation for studying the individual etudes, helpful works of later composers are also liberally incorporated, as well as some suggestions for practicing the etudes themselves. Finally, I shall provide my own “re-ordering” of the etudes, with a progressive degree of difficulty, as an additional aid to a young pianist who may eventually want to learn the entire opus 10 and opus 25.
Overview and Introduction to the Organ Music of Alsatian-american Composer René Louis Becker (1882-1956)
This dissertation provides the first biographical overview and annotated catalog of the organ music of Alsatian-American organist and composer René Louis Becker. Born and educated in Strasbourg, Alsace, Becker emigrated to the United States in 1904 and remained active as a composer and church musician for the next 50 years. in addition to providing sources for his biographical information, documentation of the specific organs with which Becker was professionally associated is included for the purpose of evaluating possible dates of composition of his undated organ works as well as for consideration of organ registrations when performing his works. Primary sources include newspaper clippings, personal correspondence, family scrapbooks, organ archives, and both published and unpublished manuscripts. Study of these manuscripts, including rediscovery of more than fifty works of Becker’s which were previously published in the early 1900s, present an opportunity to introduce a large new body of sophisticated repertoire from a distinguished and accomplished musician to the field of organ music. Becker composed more than 180 individual works for the organ, over half of which remain in manuscript and which were completely unknown since even before his death in 1956. Becker’s complete known oeuvre for organ includes 34 marches, 15 toccatas, three published large-scale sonatas as well as numerous works styled as preludes, postludes, finales, chansons, fantasies, fugues, and multiple small-scale compositions. After a brief biography and an overview of Becker’s compositional style and complete extant organ works, an introduction to his largest-scale work for the organ, the five-movement First Sonata in G, op. 40, is given. This is followed by an illustration of the overt stylistic influences present in the first two movements of that sonata with extensive musical examples, serving to establish Becker as one of the inheritors of the romantic tradition of the large-scale organ sonata and as a 20th century composer of note.
Uniting Commedia Dell’arte Traditions with the Spieltenor Repertoire
Sixteenth century commedia dell’arte actors relied on gaudy costumes, physical humor and improvisation to entertain audiences. the Spieltenor in the modern operatic repertoire has a similar comedic role. Would today’s Spieltenor benefit from consulting the commedia dell’arte’s traditions? to answer this question, I examine the commedia dell’arte’s history, stock characters and performance traditions of early troupes. the Spieltenor is discussed in terms of vocal pedagogy and the fach system. I reference critical studies of the commedia dell’arte, sources on improvisatory acting, articles on theatrical masks and costuming, the commedia dell’arte as depicted by visual artists, commedia dell’arte techniques of movement, stances and postures. in addition, I cite vocal pedagogy articles, operatic repertoire and sources on the fach system. My findings suggest that a valid relationship exists between the commedia dell’arte stock characters and the Spieltenor roles in the operatic repertoire. I present five case studies, pairing five stock characters with five Spieltenor roles. Suggestions are provided to enhance the visual, physical and dramatic elements of each role’s performance. I conclude that linking a commedia dell’arte stock character to any Spieltenor role on the basis of shared traits offers an untapped resource to create distinctive characterizations based on theatrical traditions.
Fugal And Canonic Techniques In Selected Large Chorale Preludes Of Clavierübung III By J.S. Bach
Numerous scholars have studied the Clavierübung III, but their studies mainly focused on the relationship between the chorale text and Bach♠s response in music. Analysis without explaining J.S. Bachs word painting in other chorale preludes can be found easily, but most analyses treat rhetoric, especially those dealing with Clavierübung III. There have been numerous studies linking Bach's organ works to Lutheran doctrine. However, to give a better understanding of the work's structure and its implications for performance, a contrapuntal analysis is indispensable. This study deals with an analysis focused on canonic and fugal techniques in selected large chorales, and it will provide a better understanding of Clavierbung III. For purposes of comparison with typical fugal techniques, the C minor fugue from the Well-Tempered Clavier I, BWV 847, is taken as a model. This work reveals typical eighteenth-century, late Baroque fugal structure with a well-defined subject. The episode modulates through the keys of Eb major-G minor and C minor. Below is an outline of the present paper. Chapter I discusses the purpose of this study. Chapter II covers the earlier research on Clavierübung III and includes a discussion of the general background of the Clavierübung III. Chapter III provides a contrapuntal analysis of the three chorale preludes. A translation of the text will be included in each analysis.Chapter IV, the conclusion, will summarize and confirm the findings from the present study of the analysis.
Erwin Schulhoff (1894-1942): An Analytical Study and Discussion of Concertino for Flute, Viola, Double Bass, WV 75, and Sonata for Flute and Pianoforte, WV 86
Erwin Schulhoff (1894–1942) was a Czechoslovakian musician born in Prague, to a German-Jewish family, and whose life came to a premature end in 1942 at the Wülzburg concentration camp, near Weißenburg, Bavaria. Schulhoff’s life, compositional style, and two of his flute works are addressed in this dissertation: Sonata for flute and pianoforte, WV 86, and Concertino for Flute, Viola, and Double Bass, WV 75. Each work is considered as a discrete entity, and insight provided into the structure of the music; stylistic and compositional influences, form, phrase structure, and other aspects are discussed. The intended audience is the flutist seeking knowledge regarding the historical significance and performance of each piece. The analysis and summary of Schulhoff’s life and primary flute works will contribute to the understanding of performance scholarship of his music and provide a deeper understanding of the composer, from the perspective of musical and compositional style.
The Role Of The Piccolo In Beethoven's Orchestration
This dissertation discusses the role of the piccolo in Beethoven’s orchestration in his symphonic works. These include the Fifth Symphony, the Sixth Symphony, the Egmont Overture and the Ninth Symphony. The document includes the history of piccolo’s development since the ninth century B.C. until the modern Boehm piccolo. The author provides comparative observation through Beethoven’s orchestration techniques such as the range covered, instrumental pairing, balance, and melodic organization of each symphony works. In addition to discussing development of the piccolo in orchestration, this study compares the piccolo’s usage through motives (e.g. the “Ode to Joy” theme), harmonic analysis; range; balance; and melodic organization. Appendix A provides of tables that summarize piccolo’s harmonic function of works discussed to help the reader comprehend the piccolo function at a glance. This dissertation includes observations of performers, theorists and musicians; and these guides provide the reader with better understanding of the piccolo’s place in Beethoven’s orchestration. By following the observations, piccolo players will bring a deeper musical and technical understanding to individual performances.
James (Santa Fe) Galloway’s Alabado And The Musical Traditions Of The Penitentes
This dissertation explores the musical traditions of the Penitentes of New Mexico and how these traditions influenced James (Santa Fe) Galloway’s Alabado for soprano, alto flute, and piano. Due to geographical isolation and religious seclusion the music of the Penitential Brotherhood is not well known outside of these New Mexican communities. The focus of this study, as pertaining to the music of the Penitentes, is the alabado “Por el rastro de la cruz,” and the pito, a handmade wooden flute. Included in this paper are transcriptions of pito melodies performed by Vicente Padilla, Cleofes Vigil, Emilio Ortiz, and Reginald Fisher, which have been transcribed by John Donald Robb, William R. Fisher, Reginald Fisher, and Rebecca Weidman-Winter. Few resources are available on Galloway or Alabado, an unpublished work, yet the popularity of this piece is apparent from the regular performances at the National Flute Association Conventions and by flutists throughout the United States. This paper represents a significant contribution to the study of Alabado, the composer, and how this composition reflects the music, history, and people of New Mexico.
The Compositional Transformation and Musical Rebirth of Leo Ornstein
This study focuses on the transformation of Leo Ornstein’s (1893-2002) musical language of his early years into the strikingly different approach found in his later years. Ornstein’s initial radical compositions from the mid-1910s were no doubt representative of the direction in which modern music was moving. Despite the intense fame and notoriety of his early works, Ornstein did not feel connected to the trends of modern music development, and by the end of the 1930s he withdrew from the public scene and turned to teaching. By the 1950s Ornstein had been almost forgotten, and in later life he became a very private person. He worked in almost total isolation composing a substantial amount of music well into his nineties, and died at the age of 109. The music of Ornstein’s “second life” is very different from the initial works of his early years, and most of it is unknown to the public and should be brought into scholarly light, especially since Ornstein has been considered by historians as a pivotal figure in twentieth-century music. This study examines selected music from different stages of Ornstein’s career: Wild Men’s Dance (1913), Suicide in an Airplane (1913), Arabesques (1918), A Long Remembered Sorrow (1964), Piano Sonata No. 7 (1988). A discussion of the selected compositions will provide an understanding of Ornstein’s compositional transformation, and will familiarize musicians and scholars with this widely unknown music.
Style And Performance Aspects In The Newly Published Piano Sonata By Witold Lutos?awski
Polish composer Witold Lutos?awski (1913-1994) was one of the most representative composers of the twentieth-century. Lutos?awski’s style progressed from traditional to modern avant-garde. His Piano Sonata belongs to his first compositional period, and is the only extant work from his student years. His remarkable synthesis of classical structures and impressionistic harmonic sonorities distinguishes the Sonata. Lutos?awski’s Piano Sonata is divided into three movements, and each movement is written in traditional sonata allegro form, sonata form without development and modified sonata form respectively. The Sonata contains both considerable elements of Classicism and Impressionism, as well as traits of Post-romanticism and Neoclassicism. The evolution of Lutos?awski’s compositional language can be better understood through an in-depth study of his Piano Sonata. Although Lutos?awski did not allow the work to be published during his lifetime, this occurred posthumously, ten years after the composer´s death. The recent publication of the work, paired with its substantial technical demands, both account for the fact that the Sonata is not frequently performed. The complex textures of Sonata place extensive technical and musical demands on the performer. In this study, a detailed description of the composer´s early style and influences as relates to this work will be analyzed and technical and pianistic approaches necessary for a performance of the work will be addressed. Also, there are significant discrepancies between the manuscript and printed score, even though the edition is based on the manuscript. Only one manuscript survives and scholarly research involving the work is scarce. Discrepancies between the manuscript and the published edition will be detailed, with suggestions for performance. It is hoped that this study will provide interest and be conducive to better approach the performance of this Piano Sonata.
Baroque Elements In The Piano Sonata, Opus 9 By Paul Creston
Paul Creston (1906-1985) was one of the most significant American composers from the middle of the twentieth century. Though Creston maintained elements of the nineteenth-century Romantic tradition and was categorized as a “Neo-Romantic” or “20th-century traditionalist,” many of Creston’s compositions contain elements of Baroque music. His Piano Sonata, Opus 9 provides significant examples of Baroque elements, while already foreshadowing his mature style. The purpose of this study is to explore Baroque elements in the compositional language of Paul Creston’s Piano Sonata, Opus 9. All four movements of the Piano Sonata will be examined in regards to its stylistic features associated with Baroque practices. These features mainly consist of rhythm, texture, imitative writing, and repeated phrase structure. Each category of the study will include comparisons of Domenico Scarlatti’s keyboard sonatas with Creston’s sonata. Through an examination of the Piano Sonata and its Baroque elements, this study hopes to inspire renewed interest in the work among musicians and to help the performer give a more stylistically coherent, and accurate, performance.
Dynamic Measurement of Intraoral Pressure and Sound Pressure With Laryngoscopic Characterization During Oboe Performance
Measurements of intraoral pressure (IOP) and sound pressure level (SPL) were taken of four oboists as they performed two sets of musical exercises: (1) crescendo-decrescendo from pp to ff and back to pp on the pitches D4, G4, C5 and A5, and (2) straight and vibrato performances of the same four pitches at mf. Video images of the vocal tract were also made using flexible fiberoptic nasoendoscopy (FFN). IOP and SPL data were captured in real time by the WinDaq®/Lite software package, with the dB meter located 8-9 inches in directly front of the oboe bell. The study yielded minimum and maximum values from 21.04 to 57.81 mm Hg and from 65.53 to 100.89 dB across all pitches examined. Discussion is included for the following topics: (1) the oboe’s sound envelope, or functional range of IOP and SPL values at different pitch levels, including the nonlinearity in the relationship between IOP and SPL on the oboe, (2) the static activation and kinetic maintenance thresholds for reed vibration, (3) the effect of vibrato on IOP/SPL, (4) the utilization of the vocal tract during execution of dynamic changes and vibrato, and (5) the impact of player experience on control of physical variables.
The Concept Of “Unity” In Isang Yun’s Königliches Thema Fr Violine Solo
A Korean-German composer Isang Yun.s life was evenly distributed between two different countries, and his music contains both elements of performance practices of Eastern Asian and Western music. This dissertation presents his ethnic and aesthetic musical roots by an analytic examination of his solo violin piece, K♠nigliches Thema (1976). The dissertation is divided into four chapters. The first chapter contains Isang Yuns biography and his works of the four periods. The second chapter studies his philosophy in music and compositional techniques such as twelve-tone technique, Taoism, Hauptton, Hauptklang and the Korean instrumental technique in Western instruments. The third chapter presents a detailed analysis of Knigliches Thema with his Taoist philosophy. The fourth chapter is solely dedicated to the performance perspectives of Königliches Thema in tempo, dynamic and various violin techniques.
"The Rainy Fragrance Musical”: Wintter Watts’ Song Cycle Vignettes Of Italy With Poetry By Sara Teasdale
Wintter Watts (1884-1962) was one of the most admired composers of American art song in the early twentieth century. The history of great singers who performed his songs at that time attests to the reputation of Watts as a song composer. Unfortunately the songs of Watts have become largely neglected by singers from later generations. The song cycle Vignettes of Italy (1919) for high voice is regarded by many as Watts♠ best-known composition. Vignettes of Italy was frequently performed by many famous singers in America in his day, but is little known in the current repertoire of American art song and rarely performed today. Vignettes of Italy is worthy of reintroduction to contemporary audiences and singers. This study explores the significant contributions Wintter Watts made to the body of American art song in the early twentieth century and presents a thorough investigation of Watts♠ compositional techniques of Sara Teasdale♠s texts in his song cycle Vignettes of Italy. These techniques include the use of carefully tailored rhythms, modulations, harmonic progressions, and accompaniment figures to give unique treatment to the musical setting of individual words, poetic ideas, and broader moods. I hope this research provides a foundation of understanding of this cycle, assists singers and pianists in presenting artistically coherent performances, and creates a fuller comprehension and appreciation of Watts songs.