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 Degree Discipline: Mathematics
Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Logistic Sinusoidal Regression Models
We consider the problem of maximum likelihood estimation of logistic sinusoidal regression models and develop some asymptotic theory including the consistency and joint rates of convergence for the maximum likelihood estimators. The key techniques build upon a synthesis of the results of Walker and Song and Li for the widely studied sinusoidal regression model and on making a connection to a result of Radchenko. Monte Carlo simulations are also presented to demonstrate the finite-sample performance of the estimators
A Comparative Study of Non Linear Conjugate Gradient Methods
We study the development of nonlinear conjugate gradient methods, Fletcher Reeves (FR) and Polak Ribiere (PR). FR extends the linear conjugate gradient method to nonlinear functions by incorporating two changes, for the step length αk a line search is performed and replacing the residual, rk (rk=b-Axk) by the gradient of the nonlinear objective function. The PR method is equivalent to FR method for exact line searches and when the underlying quadratic function is strongly convex. The PR method is basically a variant of FR and primarily differs from it in the choice of the parameter βk. On applying the nonlinear Rosenbrock function to the MATLAB code for the FR and the PR algorithms we observe that the performance of PR method (k=29) is far better than the FR method (k=42). But, we observe that when the MATLAB codes are applied to general nonlinear functions, specifically functions whose minimum is a large negative number not close to zero and the iterates too are large values far off from zero the PR algorithm does not perform well. This problem with the PR method persists even if we run the PR algorithm for more iterations or with an initial guess closer to the actual minimum. To improve the PR algorithm we suggest finding a better weighing parameter βk, using better line search method and/or using specific line search for certain functions and identifying specific restart criteria based on the function to be optimized.
Centers of Invariant Differential Operator Algebras for Jacobi Groups of Higher Rank
Let G be a Lie group acting on a homogeneous space G/K. The center of the universal enveloping algebra of the Lie algebra of G maps homomorphically into the center of the algebra of differential operators on G/K invariant under the action of G. In the case that G is a Jacobi Lie group of rank 2, we prove that this homomorphism is surjective and hence that the center of the invariant differential operator algebra is the image of the center of the universal enveloping algebra. This is an extension of work of Bringmann, Conley, and Richter in the rank 1case.
Natural Smooth Measures on the Leaves of the Unstable Manifold of Open Billiard Dynamical Systems
In this paper, we prove, for a certain class of open billiard dynamical systems, the existence of a family of smooth probability measures on the leaves of the dynamical system's unstable manifold. These measures describe the conditional asymptotic behavior of forward trajectories of the system. Furthermore, properties of these families are proven which are germane to the PYC programme for these systems. Strong sufficient conditions for the uniqueness of such families are given which depend upon geometric properties of the system's phase space. In particular, these results hold for a fairly nonrestrictive class of triangular configurations of scatterers.
Minimality of the Special Linear Groups
Let F denote the field of real numbers, complex numbers, or a finite algebraic extension of the p-adic field. We prove that the special linear group SLn(F) with the usual topology induced by F is a minimal topological group. This is accomplished by first proving the minimality of the upper triangular group in SLn(F). The proof for the upper triangular group uses an induction argument on a chain of upper triangular subgroups and relies on general results for locally compact topological groups, quotient groups, and subgroups. Minimality of SLn(F) is concluded by appealing to the associated Lie group decomposition as the product of a compact group and an upper triangular group. We also prove the universal minimality of homeomorphism groups of one dimensional manifolds, and we give a new simple proof of the universal minimality of S∞.
Aspects of Universality in Function Iteration
This work deals with some aspects of universal topological and metric dynamic behavior of iterated maps of the interval.
Topics in Fractal Geometry
In this dissertation, we study fractal sets and their properties, especially the open set condition, Hausdorff dimensions and Hausdorff measures for certain fractal constructions.
Multifractal Measures
The purpose of this dissertation is to introduce a natural and unifying multifractal formalism which contains the above mentioned multifractal parameters, and gives interesting results for a large class of natural measures. In Part 2 we introduce the proposed multifractal formalism and study it properties. We also show that this multifractal formalism gives natural and interesting results when applied to (nonrandom) graph directed self-similar measures in Rd and "cookie-cutter" measures in R. In Part 3 we use the multifractal formalism introduced in Part 2 to give a detailed discussion of the multifractal structure of random (and hence, as a special case, non-random) graph directed self-similar measures in R^d.
Existence of Many Sign Changing Non Radial Solutions for Semilinear Elliptic Problems on Annular Domains
The aim of this work is the study of the existence and multiplicity of sign changing nonradial solutions to elliptic boundary value problems on annular domains.
Polish Spaces and Analytic Sets
A Polish space is a separable topological space that can be metrized by means of a complete metric. A subset A of a Polish space X is analytic if there is a Polish space Z and a continuous function f : Z —> X such that f(Z)= A. After proving that each uncountable Polish space contains a non-Borel analytic subset we conclude that there exists a universally measurable non-Borel set.
Physical Motivation and Methods of Solution of Classical Partial Differential Equations
We consider three classical equations that are important examples of parabolic, elliptic, and hyperbolic partial differential equations, namely, the heat equation, the Laplace's equation, and the wave equation. We derive them from physical principles, explore methods of finding solutions, and make observations about their applications.
On Groups of Positive Type
We describe groups of positive type and prove that a group G is of positive type if and only if G admits a non-trivial partition. We completely classify groups of type 2, and present examples of other groups of positive type as well as groups of type zero.
Multifractal Analysis of Parabolic Rational Maps
The investigation of the multifractal spectrum of the equilibrium measure for a parabolic rational map with a Lipschitz continuous potential, φ, which satisfies sup φ < P(φ) x∈J(T) is conducted. More specifically, the multifractal spectrum or spectrum of singularities, f(α) is studied.
A Topological Uniqueness Result for the Special Linear Groups
The goal of this paper is to establish the dependency of the topology of a simple Lie group, specifically any of the special linear groups, on its underlying group structure. The intimate relationship between a Lie group's topology and its algebraic structure dictates some necessary topological properties, such as second countability. However, the extent to which a Lie group's topology is an "algebraic phenomenon" is, to date, still not known.
Plane Curves, Convex Curves, and Their Deformation Via the Heat Equation
We study the effects of a deformation via the heat equation on closed, plane curves. We begin with an overview of the theory of curves in R3. In particular, we develop the Frenet-Serret equations for any curve parametrized by arc length. This chapter is followed by an examination of curves in R2, and the resultant adjustment of the Frenet-Serret equations. We then prove the rotation index for closed, plane curves is an integer and for simple, closed, plane curves is ±1. We show that a curve is convex if and only if the curvature does not change sign, and we prove the Isoperimetric Inequality, which gives a bound on the area of a closed curve with fixed length. Finally, we study the deformation of plane curves developed by M. Gage and R. S. Hamilton. We observe that convex curves under deformation remain convex, and simple curves remain simple.
Primitive Substitutive Numbers are Closed under Rational Multiplication
Lehr (1991) proved that, if M(q, r) denotes the set of real numbers whose expansion in base-r is q-automatic i.e., is recognized by an automaton A = (Aq, Ar, ao, δ, φ) (or is the image under a letter to letter morphism of a fixed point of a substitution of constant length q) then M(q, r) is closed under addition and rational multiplication. Similarly if we let M(r) denote the set of real numbers α whose base-r digit expansion is ultimately primitive substitutive, i.e., contains a tail which is the image (under a letter to letter morphism) of a fixed point of a primitive substitution then in an attempt to generalize Lehr's result we show that the set M(r) is closed under multiplication by rational numbers. We also show that M(r) is not closed under addition.
A Generalization of Sturmian Sequences: Combinatorial Structure and Transcendence
We investigate a class of minimal sequences on a finite alphabet Ak = {1,2,...,k} having (k - 1)n + 1 distinct subwords of length n. These sequences, originally defined by P. Arnoux and G. Rauzy, are a natural generalization of binary Sturmian sequences. We describe two simple combinatorial algorithms for constructing characteristic Arnoux-Rauzy sequences (one of which is new even in the Sturmian case). Arnoux-Rauzy sequences arising from fixed points of primitive morphisms are characterized by an underlying periodic structure. We show that every Arnoux-Rauzy sequence contains arbitrarily large subwords of the form V^2+ε and, in the Sturmian case, arbitrarily large subwords of the form V^3+ε. Finally, we prove that an irrational number whose base b-digit expansion is an Arnoux-Rauzy sequence is transcendental.
Countable Additivity, Exhaustivity, and the Structure of Certain Banach Lattices
The notion of uniform countable additivity or uniform absolute continuity is present implicitly in the Lebesgue Dominated Convergence Theorem and explicitly in the Vitali-Hahn-Saks and Nikodym Theorems, respectively. V. M. Dubrovsky studied the connection between uniform countable additivity and uniform absolute continuity in a series of papers, and Bartle, Dunford, and Schwartz established a close relationship between uniform countable additivity in ca(Σ) and operator theory for the classical continuous function spaces C(K). Numerous authors have worked extensively on extending and generalizing the theorems of the preceding authors. Specifically, we mention Bilyeu and Lewis as well as Brooks and Drewnowski, whose efforts molded the direction and focus of this paper. This paper is a study of the techniques used by Bell, Bilyeu, and Lewis in their paper on uniform exhaustivity and Banach lattices to present a Banach lattice version of two important and powerful results in measure theory by Brooks and Drewnowski. In showing that the notions of exhaustivity and continuity take on familiar forms in certain Banach lattices of measures they show that these important measure theory results follow as corollaries of the generalized Banach lattice versions. This work uses their template to generalize results established by Bator, Bilyeu, and Lewis.
Cycles and Cliques in Steinhaus Graphs
In this dissertation several results in Steinhaus graphs are investigated. First under some further conditions imposed on the induced cycles in steinhaus graphs, the order of induced cycles in Steinhaus graphs is at most [(n+3)/2]. Next the results of maximum clique size in Steinhaus graphs are used to enumerate the Steinhaus graphs having maximal cliques. Finally the concept of jumbled graphs and Posa's Lemma are used to show that almost all Steinhaus graphs are Hamiltonian.
The Continuous Wavelet Transform and the Wave Front Set
In this paper I formulate an explicit wavelet transform that, applied to any distribution in S^1(R^2), yields a function on phase space whose high-frequency singularities coincide precisely with the wave front set of the distribution. This characterizes the wave front set of a distribution in terms of the singularities of its wavelet transform with respect to a suitably chosen basic wavelet.
Traveling Wave Solutions of the Porous Medium Equation
We prove the existence of a one-parameter family of solutions of the porous medium equation, a nonlinear heat equation. In our work, with space dimension 3, the interface is a half line whose end point advances at constant speed. We prove, by using maximum principle, that the solutions are stable under a suitable class of perturbations. We discuss the relevance of our solutions, when restricted to two dimensions, to gravity driven flows of thin films. Here we extend the results of J. Iaia and S. Betelu in the paper "Solutions of the porous medium equation with degenerate interfaces" to a higher dimension.
Graev Metrics and Isometry Groups of Polish Ultrametric Spaces
This dissertation presents results about computations of Graev metrics on free groups and characterizes isometry groups of countable noncompact Heine-Borel Polish ultrametric spaces. In Chapter 2, computations of Graev metrics are performed on free groups. One of the related results answers an open question of Van Den Dries and Gao. In Chapter 3, isometry groups of countable noncompact Heine-Borel Polish ultrametric spaces are characterized. The notion of generalized tree is defined and a correspondence between the isomorphism group of a generalized tree and the isometry group of a Heine-Borel Polish ultrametric space is established. The concept of a weak inverse limit is introduced to capture the characterization of isomorphism groups of generalized trees. In Chapter 4, partial results of isometry groups of uncountable compact ultrametric spaces are given. It turns out that every compact ultrametric space has a unique countable orbital decomposition. An orbital space consists of disjoint orbits. An orbit subspace of an orbital space is actually a compact homogeneous ultrametric subspace.
Determinacy-related Consequences on Limit Superiors
Laczkovich proved from ZF that, given a countable sequence of Borel sets on a perfect Polish space, if the limit superior along every subsequence was uncountable, then there was a particular subsequence whose intersection actually contained a perfect subset. Komjath later expanded the result to hold for analytic sets. In this paper, by adding AD and sometimes V=L(R) to our assumptions, we will extend the result further. This generalization will include the increasing of the length of the sequence to certain uncountable regular cardinals as well as removing any descriptive requirements on the sets.
Descriptive Set Theory and Measure Theory in Locally Compact and Non-locally Compact Groups
In this thesis we study descriptive-set-theoretic and measure-theoretic properties of Polish groups, with a thematic emphasis on the contrast between groups which are locally compact and those which are not. The work is divided into three major sections. In the first, working jointly with Robert Kallman, we resolve a conjecture of Gleason regarding the Polish topologization of abstract groups of homeomorphisms. We show that Gleason's conjecture is false, and its conclusion is only true when the hypotheses are considerably strengthened. Along the way we discover a new automatic continuity result for a class of functions which behave like but are distinct from functions of Baire class 1. In the second section we consider the descriptive complexity of those subsets of the permutation group S? which arise naturally from the classical Levy-Steinitz series rearrangement theorem. We show that for any conditionally convergent series of vectors in Euclidean space, the sets of permutations which make the series diverge, and diverge properly, are ?03-complete. In the last section we study the phenomenon of Haar null sets a la Christensen, and the closely related notion of openly Haar null sets. We identify and correct a minor error in the proof of Mycielski that a countable union of Haar null sets in a Polish group is Haar null. We show the openly Haar null ideal may be distinct from the Haar null ideal, which resolves an uncertainty of Solecki. We show that compact sets are always Haar null in S? and in any countable product of locally compact non-compact groups, which extends the domain of a result of Dougherty. We show that any countable product of locally compact non-compact groups decomposes into the disjoint union of a meager set and a Haar null set, which gives a partial positive answer to a question of Darji. We display a translation property in the homeomorphism group Homeo+[0,1] which is impossible in any non-trivial locally compact group. Other related results are peppered throughout.
Real Analyticity of Hausdorff Dimension of Disconnected Julia Sets of Cubic Parabolic Polynomials
Consider a family of cubic parabolic polynomials given by for non-zero complex parameters such that for each the polynomial is a parabolic polynomial, that is, the polynomial has a parabolic fixed point and the Julia set of , denoted by , does not contain any critical points of . We also assumed that for each , one finite critical point of the polynomial escapes to the super-attracting fixed point infinity. So, the Julia sets are disconnected. The concern about the family is that the members of this family are generally not even bi-Lipschitz conjugate on their Julia sets. We have proved that the parameter set is open and contains a deleted neighborhood of the origin 0. Our main result is that the Hausdorff dimension function defined by is real analytic. To prove this we have constructed a holomorphic family of holomorphic parabolic graph directed Markov systems whose limit sets coincide with the Julia sets of polynomials up to a countable set, and hence have the same Hausdorff dimension. Then we associate to this holomorphic family of holomorphic parabolic graph directed Markov systems an analytic family, call it , of conformal graph directed Markov systems with infinite number of edges in order to reduce the problem of real analyticity of Hausdorff dimension for the given family of polynomials to prove the corresponding statement for the family .
Nonparametric Estimation of Receiver Operating Characteristic Surfaces Via Bernstein Polynomials
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Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is one of the most widely used methods in evaluating the accuracy of a classification method. It is used in many areas of decision making such as radiology, cardiology, machine learning as well as many other areas of medical sciences. The dissertation proposes a novel nonparametric estimation method of the ROC surface for the three-class classification problem via Bernstein polynomials. The proposed ROC surface estimator is shown to be uniformly consistent for estimating the true ROC surface. In addition, it is shown that the map from which the proposed estimator is constructed is Hadamard differentiable. The proposed ROC surface estimator is also demonstrated to lead to the explicit expression for the estimated volume under the ROC surface . Moreover, the exact mean squared error of the volume estimator is derived and some related results for the mean integrated squared error are also obtained. To assess the performance and accuracy of the proposed ROC and volume estimators, Monte-Carlo simulations are conducted. Finally, the method is applied to the analysis of two real data sets.
Semi-supervised and Self-evolving Learning Algorithms with Application to Anomaly Detection in Cloud Computing
Semi-supervised learning (SSL) is the most practical approach for classification among machine learning algorithms. It is similar to the humans way of learning and thus has great applications in text/image classification, bioinformatics, artificial intelligence, robotics etc. Labeled data is hard to obtain in real life experiments and may need human experts with experimental equipments to mark the labels, which can be slow and expensive. But unlabeled data is easily available in terms of web pages, data logs, images, audio, video les and DNA/RNA sequences. SSL uses large unlabeled and few labeled data to build better classifying functions which acquires higher accuracy and needs lesser human efforts. Thus it is of great empirical and theoretical interest. We contribute two SSL algorithms (i) adaptive anomaly detection (AAD) (ii) hybrid anomaly detection (HAD), which are self evolving and very efficient to detect anomalies in a large scale and complex data distributions. Our algorithms are capable of modifying an existing classier by both retiring old data and adding new data. This characteristic enables the proposed algorithms to handle massive and streaming datasets where other existing algorithms fail and run out of memory. As an application to semi-supervised anomaly detection and for experimental illustration, we have implemented a prototype of the AAD and HAD systems and conducted experiments in an on-campus cloud computing environment. Experimental results show that the detection accuracy of both algorithms improves as they evolves and can achieve 92.1% detection sensitivity and 83.8% detection specificity, which makes it well suitable for anomaly detection in large and streaming datasets. We compared our algorithms with two popular SSL methods (i) subspace regularization (ii) ensemble of Bayesian sub-models and decision tree classifiers. Our contributed algorithms are easy to implement, significantly better in terms of space, time complexity and accuracy than these two methods for semi-supervised anomaly detection mechanism.
Connectedness and Some Concepts Related to Connectedness of a Topological Space
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the idea of topological "connectedness" by presenting some of the basic ideas concerning connectedness along with several related concepts.
Borel Sets and Baire Functions
This paper examines the relationship between Borel sets and Baire functions.
Regular Semigroups
This thesis describes semigroups and the properties of both regular and inverse semigroups.
Linear Algebras
This paper is primarily concerned with the fundamental properties of a linear algebra of finite order over a field. A discussion of linear sets of finite order over a field is used as an introduction to these properties.
Measure Functions
This thesis examines measure functions. A measure function has as its domain of definition a class of sets. It also must satisfy a certain additive condition. To state a concise definition of a measure function, it is convenient to define set function and completely additive set function.
Elliptic Geometry
This thesis discusses elliptic geometry including the order and incidence properties, projective properties and congruence properties.
Completing the Space of Step Functions
In this thesis a study is made of the space X of all step functions on [0,1]. This investigation includes determining a completion space, X*, for the incomplete space X, defining integration for X*, and proving some theorems about integration in X*.
Continuous Multifunctions
This paper is a discussion of multifunctions, various types of continuity defined on multifunctions, and implications of continuity for the range and domain sets of the multifunctions.
A Classification of Regular Planar Graphs
The purpose of this paper is the investigation and classification of regular planar graphs. The motive behind this investigation was a desire to better understand those properties which allow a graph to be represented in the plane in such a manner that no two edges cross except perhaps at vertices.
On the Stielitjes Integral
This paper is a study of the Stieltjes integral, a generalization of the Riemann integral normally studied in introductory calculus courses. The purpose of the paper is to investigate many of the basic manipulative properties of the integral.
Equivalence Classes of Subquotients of Pseudodifferential Operator Modules on the Line
Certain subquotients of Vec(R)-modules of pseudodifferential operators from one tensor density module to another are categorized, giving necessary and sufficient conditions under which two such subquotients are equivalent as Vec(R)-representations. These subquotients split under the projective subalgebra, a copy of ????2, when the members of their composition series have distinct Casimir eigenvalues. Results were obtained using the explicit description of the action of Vec(R) with respect to this splitting. In the length five case, the equivalence classes of the subquotients are determined by two invariants. In an appropriate coordinate system, the level curves of one of these invariants are a pencil of conics, and those of the other are a pencil of cubics.
On Steinhaus Sets, Orbit Trees and Universal Properties of Various Subgroups in the Permutation Group of Natural Numbers
In the first chapter, we define Steinhaus set as a set that meets every isometric copy of another set at exactly one point. We show that there is no Steinhaus set for any four-point subset in a plane.In the second chapter, we define the orbit tree of a permutation group of natural numbers, and further introduce compressed orbit trees. We show that any rooted finite tree can be realized as a compressed orbit tree of some permutation group. In the third chapter, we investigate certain classes of closed permutation groups of natural numbers with respect to their universal and surjectively universal groups. We characterize two-sided invariant groups, and prove that there is no universal group for countable groups, nor universal group for two-sided invariant groups in permutation groups of natural numbers.
Hochschild Cohomology and Complex Reflection Groups
A concrete description of Hochschild cohomology is the first step toward exploring associative deformations of algebras. In this dissertation, deformation theory, geometry, combinatorics, invariant theory, representation theory, and homological algebra merge in an investigation of Hochschild cohomology of skew group algebras arising from complex reflection groups. Given a linear action of a finite group on a finite dimensional vector space, the skew group algebra under consideration is the semi-direct product of the group with a polynomial ring on the vector space. Each representation of a group defines a different skew group algebra, which may have its own interesting deformations. In this work, we explicitly describe all graded Hecke algebras arising as deformations of the skew group algebra of any finite group acting by the regular representation. We then focus on rank two exceptional complex reflection groups acting by any irreducible representation. We consider in-depth the reflection representation and a nonfaithful rotation representation. Alongside our study of cohomology for the rotation representation, we develop techniques valid for arbitrary finite groups acting by a representation with a central kernel. Additionally, we consider combinatorial questions about reflection length and codimension orderings on complex reflection groups. We give algorithms using character theory to compute reflection length, atoms, and poset relations. Using a mixture of theory, explicit examples, and calculations using the software GAP, we show that Coxeter groups and the infinite family G(m,1,n) are the only irreducible complex reflection groups for which the reflection length and codimension orders coincide. We describe the atoms in the codimension order for the groups G(m,p,n). For arbitrary finite groups, we show that the codimension atoms are contained in the support of every generating set for cohomology, thus yielding information about the degrees of generators for cohomology.
Kleinian Groups in Hilbert Spaces
The theory of discrete groups acting on finite dimensional Euclidean open balls by hyperbolic isometries was borne around the end of 19th century within the works of Fuchs, Klein and Poincaré. We develop the theory of discrete groups acting by hyperbolic isometries on the open unit ball of an infinite dimensional separable Hilbert space. We present our investigations on the geometry of limit sets at the sphere at infinity with an attempt to highlight the differences between the finite and infinite dimensional theories. We discuss the existence of fixed points of isometries and the classification of isometries. Various notions of discreteness that were equivalent in finite dimensions, no longer turn out to be in our setting. In this regard, the robust notion of strong discreteness is introduced and we study limit sets for properly discontinuous actions. We go on to prove a generalization of the Bishop-Jones formula for strongly discrete groups, equating the Hausdorff dimension of the radial limit set with the Poincaré exponent of the group. We end with a short discussion on conformal measures and their relation with Hausdorff and packing measures on the limit set.
Two Axiomatic Definitions of the Natural Numbers
The purpose of this thesis is to present an axiomatic foundation for the development of the natural numbers from two points of view. It makes no claim at originality other than at the point of organization and presentation of previously developed works.
An Invariant Integral Over a Compact Topological Group
The purpose of this paper is to develop an invariant integral for a compact topological group and, then to use that integral to prove the fundamental Peter-Weyl Theorem.
Primary Abelian Groups and Height
This thesis is a study of primary Abelian groups and height.
Partially Ordered Groups and Rings
This report presents both the most essential known results and new results in the theory of partially ordered groups and rings. This report deals with partially ordered groups and rings in an algebraic aspect because it is more important than partially ordered, fully ordered and lattice-ordered semigroup theory.
Some Fundamental Properties of Valuations Defined on a Field
The purpose of this thesis is to develop some properties of a special class of functions called valuations. The study begins with and examination of the properties of valuations defined on an arbitrary field, F, and later, consideration is given to valuations defined on the field of rational numbers. The concept of a pseud-valuation is introduced and an investigation is made of the properties of pseudo-valuations.
Integrals Defined on a Field of Sets
The purpose of this paper is to define an integral for real-valued functions which are defined on a field of sets and to demonstrate several properties of such an integral.
Some Properties of Topological Spaces
This thesis presents a development of some useful concepts concerning topological spaces. Most of the theorems given apply to the most general form of topological space.
A Genesis for Compact Convex Sets
This paper was written in response to the following question: what conditions are sufficient to guarantee that if a compact subset A of a topological linear space L^3 is not convex, then for every point x belonging to the complement of A relative to the convex hull of A there exists a line segment yz such that x belongs to yz and y belongs to A and z belongs to A? Restated in the terminology of this paper the question bay be given as follow: what conditions may be imposed upon a compact subset A of L^3 to insure that A is braced?
Existence and Uniqueness Theorems for Nth Order Linear and Nonlinear Integral Equations
The purpose of this paper is to study nth order integral equations. The integrals studied in this paper are of the Riemann type.