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 Degree Discipline: Chemistry
Stoichiometry and Deposition Temperature Dependence of the Microstructural and Electrical Properties of Barium Strontium Titanate Thin Films
Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) was deposited on Pt/ZrO2 / SiO2/Si substrates using liquid source metal organic chemical vapor deposition. A stoichiometry series was deposited with various GrII/Ti ratios (0.658 to 1.022) and a temperature series was deposited at 550 to 700°C. The thin films were characterized using transmission electron microscopy. Both series of samples contained cubic perovskite BST and an amorphous phase. The grain size increased and the volume fraction of amorphous phase decreased with increasing deposition temperature. The electrical and microstructural properties improved as the GrII/Ti ratio approached 1 and deteriorated beyond 1. This research demonstrates that BST thin films are a strong candidate for future MOS transistor gate insulator applications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279410/
Synthesis, structure and redox reactivity of Co₃(CO)₆(μ₂-η²,η¹-C(Ph)C=C(PPH₂)C(O)SC(O)) (μ₂-PPh₂)
The tricobalt cluster PhCCo₃(CO)₉ (1) reacts with the bidentate phosphine ligand 2,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)maleic thioanhydride (bta) with added Me₃NO to yield PhCCo₃(CO)₇(bta) (2), which upon heating overnight yields Co₃(CO)₆(μ₂-η²,η¹-C(Ph)C=C(PPH₂)C(O)SC(O)) (μ₂-PPh₂) (3). Cluster (3) has been isolated and characterized by FT-IR and ³¹P NMR spectroscopy. Structural determination of the cluster has been demonstrated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Cluster (3) is analogous to the cluster synthesized by Richmond and coworkers. The redox properties of (3) have been examined by cyclic voltammetry and the data are reported within. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279408/
Survey of the Solid State Conformation of Calix[4]arenes
The characteristics of seventy-six calix[4]arene crystal structures derived from the Cambridge Crystallographic Database are presented. This survey is a discussion of the inter and intramolecular effects on the solid state cavity shape and molecular recognition ability of the compounds. In addition to this survey, four new calix[4]arene crystal structures are presented. The conformational characteristics of these four calixarenes are determined by a complicated array of inter and intramolecular interactions in the crystal packing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278942/
Interactions of Clean and Sulfur-modified Reactive Metal Surfaces with Aqueous Vapor and Liquid Environments : A Combined Ultra-high Vacuum/electrochemistry Study
The focus of this research is to explore the molecular-level interactions between reactive metal surfaces and aqueous environments by combined ultra-high vacuum/electrochemistry (UHV-EC) methodology. The objectives of this work are to understand (1) the effects of sulfate ions on the passivity of metal oxide/hydroxide surface layer, (2) the effects of sulfur-modification on the evolution of metal oxide/hydroxide surface layer, and (3) the effects of sulfur adsorbate on cation adsorption at metal surfaces. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278914/
Chemical Equilibria in Binary Solvents
Dissertation research involves development of Mobile Order Theory thermodynamic models to mathematically describe and predict the solubility, spectral properties, protonation equilibrium constants and two-phase partitioning behavior of solutes dissolved in binary solvent mixtures of analytical importance. Information gained provide a better understanding of solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions at the molecular level, which will facilitate the development of better chemical separation methods based upon both gas-liquid and high-performance liquid chromatography, and better analysis methods based upon complexiometric and spectroscopic methods. Dissertation research emphasizes chemical equilibria in systems containing alcohol cosolvents with the understanding that knowledge gained will be transferable to more environmentally friendly aqueous-organic solvent mixtures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278936/
Mobile Order Theory as Applied to Polycyclic Aromatic Heterocycles
Experimental mole fraction solubilities of benzil, thianthrene, trans-stilbene, thioxanthen-9-one, diphenyl sulfone and dibenzothiophene sulfone are determined in pure noncomplexing and complexing solvents. Predicted solubility values are calculated for benzil, thianthrene, trans-stilbene and thioxanthen-9-one using expressions derived from Mobile Order theory. Large deviations between experimental and predicted solubilities in alcohol solvents exist, therefore optimized solute - solvent association constants are determined. Previously measured thianthrene solubilities in five binary alkane + cyclohexane solvent mixtures are compared with values predicted from Mobile Order theory using the measured solubility in each of the pure solvents as input parameters. The experimental mole fraction solubility of benzil in eight binary alcohol + 1-octanol solvent mixtures are also measured and compared with predicted values. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278994/
Kinetics and Mechanisms of Metal Carbonyls
Pulsed laser flash photolysis with both visible and infrared detection has been applied to the study of the displacement of weakly coordinating ligands (Lw) by strongly "trapping" nucleophiles (Ls) containing either an olefinic functionality (Ls = 1-hexene, 1-decene, 1-tetradecene) or nitrogen (Ls = acetonitrile, hydrocinnamonitrile) from the photogenerated 16 electron pentacarbonylchromium (0) intermediate. 5-Chloropent-l-ene (Cl-ol), a potentially bidentate ligand, has been shown to form (ol-Cl) pentacarbonylchromium (0), in which Cl-ol is bonded to Cr via a lone pair on the chlorine, and isomerize to (Cl-ol) pentacarbonylchromium (0), in which Cl-ol is bonded to the olefinic functionality on the submillisecond time scale. This process has been studied in both the infrared and visible region employing both fluorobenzene or n-heptane as the "inert" diluent. Parallel studies employing 1-chlorobutane and 1-hexene were also evaluated and showed great similiarity with the Cl-ol system. The data supported a largely dissociative process with a possibility of a small interchange process involving the H's on the alkyl chain. Studies were also carried out for various Cr(CO)6/arene/Ls systems (arene = various alkyl or halogenated substituted benzenes). The data indicated that for both C6H5R (R=various alkyl chains) or multi-alkyl substituted arenes (i.e. o-xylene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene) containing an "unhindered" ring-edge, bonding to the the Cr(CO)5 moiety occurs "edge on" via a partially delocalized center of unsaturation on the ring. The data indicated that both electronic and steric properties of the arenes influence the kinetics, and that an interchange pathway takes place at least, in part, through the alkyl chains on both the arenes and "trapping" nucleophiles. Moreover, halogenated arenes bond through the lone pair on the halogen for both CI- and Br- derivatives but "edge-on" for the fluorinated arenes. Finally, in the case of arene complexes without and "unhindered" ring-edge (i.e., 1,2,3,4,5-pentamethylbenzene) bonding can occur either "edge-on" or through the ring center of the arene or combination of the two. Carbonyl stretching frequencies for the arenes are also indicative of the type of bonding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278709/
Syntheses of Antimetabolites
In these studies several different types of antimetabolites were synthesized, and their biological effects were examined in various assay systems. More extensive investigations were done in microbial systems in which many of the compounds proved to be inhibitory to growth, and attempts were made to determine the mode of biochemical action by adding supplements of the appropriate natural metabolite. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279358/
Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Polycarbocyclic Compounds
Part I. Diels-Alder cycloadditions of 1,2,3,4,9,9-hexachloro-1α,4α,4aα,8aβ-tetrahydro-l,4-methanonaphthalene (32) and 1,2,3,4,9,9-hexachloro-lα,4α,6,7- tetrahydro-l,4-methanonaphthalene (33) to 4-methyl- and 4-phenyl-l,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione [MTAD and PTAD, respectively] and to N-methylmaleimide (NMM) have been studied. The structures of several of the resulting cycloadducts were determined by X-ray crystallographic methods. The observed stereoselectivity of each of these Diels-Alder reactions was further investigated via application of theoretical methods. Thus, semiempirical (AMI) and ab initio molecular orbital calculations were used to calculate relative energies. Ab initio calculations were employed to perform frontier molecular orbital analyses of diene-dienophile interactions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279238/
An Approach Towards the Total Synthesis of Clonostachydiol
The syntheses of the unsymmetrical 14-membered bismacrolides have been reviewed. A total synthesis of clonostachydiol, the latest to join this family, has been attempted using trimethylsilyl acetylene as the builiding block and palladium catalyzed reactions for the formation of key bonds. The alkyne groups were introduced by Stille coupling of trimethylstannylethynyltrimethylsilane with an acid chloride for one fragment and by addition of lithiotrimethylsilyl acetylene to an aldehyde for the other. Lactic acid derivatives were chosen as starting materials for both fragments, thus introducing two of the chiral centers. The remaining stereocenters were introduced using stereoselective reductions of ketones. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278800/
Magnetic Exchange in Oxovanadium(IV) Complexes with N-Salicylideneamino Acids
Copper(II) and oxovanadium(IV) ions resemble one another magnetically in having one unpaired electron in their complexes irrespective of their geometrical structures and bond types involved. Copper(II) complexes with antiferromagnetic exchange are well known. On the contrary, antiferromagnetic exchange in oxovanadium(IV) complexes is rather new and not well established. Very few oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been reported to have this anomalous magnetic property. In the investigation of the magnetic properties of oxovanadium(IV) complexes, we have successfully prepared two series of new oxovanadium(IV) complexes with N-salicylideneamino acids. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278821/
Conformational Analogs of Some Phytoactive Compounds
In an effort to determine if there is a specific conformational structure which is most effective at the appropriate active physiological site, the synthesis of a group of sterically restricted analogs was undertaken. A portion of the polymethylene carbon skeleton of glutaric acid was replaced by selected aromatic carbons in benzenedicarboxylic acids to produce a series of ridged conformers, and the relative plant growth regulating properties of these derivatives were determined. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279187/
Synthesis and Study of Bioactive Compounds: I. Pyrethroids; II. Glutathione Derivatives
Part I: In the first study of pyrethroids, twenty-one novel pyrethroid esters bearing strong electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., halomethylketo and nitro groups) in the double bond side chain of the cyclopropane acid moiety have been synthesized and evaluated for insect toxicity. Rather than the usually employed Wittig reaction for these syntheses, the novel pyrethroid acid moieties were prepared by amino acidcatalyzed Knoevenagel condensations under mild conditions. In the second study of pyrethroids, fourteen pyrethroid-like carbonates were synthesized by condensation of a variety of alcohols and the chloroformates of the corresponding known pyrethroid alcohols. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278848/
Solid State Diffusion Kinetics of Intermetallic Compound Formation in Composite Solder
The Sn/Pb eutectic alloy system is the most widely used joining material in the electronics industry. In this application, the solder acts as both an electrical and mechanical connection within and among the different packaging levels in an electronic device. Recent advances in packaging technologies, however, driven by the desire for miniaturization and increased circuit speed, result in severe operating conditions for the solder connection. In an effort to improve its mechanical integrity, metallic or intermetallic particles have been added to eutectic Sn/Pb solder, and termed composite solders. It was the goal of this study to investigate the growth and morphology of the two intermetallic phases (Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn) that form between a Cu substrate and Sn/Pb solder under different aging and annealing conditions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279330/
The Development of Predictive Models for the Acid Degradation of Chrysotile Asbestos
The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting the acid degradation of chrysotile asbestos (Mg_3Si_2O_5(OH_4)) . Millions of tons of asbestos have found use in this country as insulative or ablative material. More than 95 percent of the asbestos in use is of the chrysotile variety. The remaining 5 percent is composed of various types of fibrous amphiboles. The inhalation of asbestos can lead to several diseases in humans. Asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma are the most common afflictions associated with asbestos inhalation, and they may occur up to 40 years after the initial exposure. It has previously been reported that if more than 50 percent of the magnesium is removed from a chrysotile sample its carcinogenicity is reduced to nil. Several inorganic acids were studied to determine their ability to leach magnesium from chrysotile. It was found that the ability to leach magnesium was dependent upon the acidic anion in addition to the concentration of the acid. The ordering of the efficiency of the acids in their ability to remove magnesium from chrysotile was found to be HCl > H_2SO_4 > H_3PO_4 > HNO_3. Predictive equations were developed to allow the calculation of the amount of magnesium removed under various acid concentrations as a function of time and acid species. The effects of temperature and dissolved spectator cations upon the degradation process were also examined. There was no major effect on the amount of magnesium removed as a function of spectator cation concentration. An infrared method was also developed to allow the determination of the percent degradation of a chrysotile sample directly. The shifts in the positions of three silicate stretching peaks (1068 cm^-1, 948 cm^-1 and 715 cm^-1) and one magnesium oxygen stretching peak (415 cm"1) as a function of the percent magnesium removed were correlated to allow this determination. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279343/
Stabilization of Different Lead Compounds in Portland Cement
This research investigated the chemistries and mechanisms involved in lead-cement systems through the study of a larger number of lead compounds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278830/
Substitution Chemistry of the Cobalt Complexes [Co₂(CO)₆(PhC≡CR) (R=Ph, H) and PhCCo₃(CO)₉] with the Diphosphine Ligands [Bis(diphenylphosphino)maleic Anhydride (BMA) and (Z)-Ph₂PCH=CHPPh₂]. Reversible Chelate-to-Bridge Diphosphine Ligand Exchange, Phosphorus-Carbon Bond Cleavage and Phosphorus-Carbon Bond Formation
The tricobalt cluster PhCCo3(CO)9 (1) reacts with the bidentate phosphine ligand 2,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)maleic anhydride (bma) in the presence of added Me3NO to give the diphosphine-substituted cluster PhCCo3(CO)7(bma) (2). Cluster 2 is unstable in solution, readily losing CO to afford Co3(CO)6[(μ2-η2/η1-C(Ph)C=C(PPh2)C(O)OC(O)](μ2-PPh2) (3) as the sole observed product. VT-31P NMR measurements on cluster 2 indicate that the bma ligand functions as both a chelating and a bridging ligand. At -97 °C, 31P NMR analysis of 2 reveals a Keq of 5.7 in favor of the bridging isomer. The bridged bma cluster 2 is the only observed species above -50°C. The solid-state structure of 2 does not correspond to the major bridging isomer observed in solution but rather the minor chelating isomer. The conversion of 2 to 3 followed first-order kinetics, with the reaction rates being independent of the nature of the reaction solvent and strongly suppressed by added CO, supporting a dissociative loss of CO as the rate-determining step. The activation parameters for CO loss were determined to be ΔH≠ = 29.9 ± 2.2 kcal/mol and ΔS≠ = 21.6 ± 6 eu. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279206/
Ligand Substitution Studies in the Tetracobalt Cluster Co₄(CO)₁₀([mu]₄-PPh₂) and Synthesis and Reactivity Studies in the Fe₂Pt and FeCo₂ Mixed-metal Clusters
The kinetics of ligand substitution for CO in Co4(CO)10(mu4-PPh2) , 1, have been investigated for the ligands P(OMe)3, P(OEt)3, PPh2H, P(0-i-Pr)3, P(n-Bu)3, PPh3, P(i-Pr)3, and PCy3 over a wide temperature range. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279335/
Adsorbate-enhanced Corrosion Processes at Iron and Iron Oxide Surfaces
This study was intended to provide a fuller understanding of the surface chemical processes which result in the corrosion of ferrous materials. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279113/
Thermodynamic Properties of Nonelectrolyte Solutes in Ternary Solvent Mixtures
The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the thermodynamic properties of nonelectrolyte solutes dissolved in ternary solvent mixtures, and to develop mathematical expressions for predicting and describing that behavior in the solvent mixtures. Thirty-four ternary solvent systems were studied containing either alcohol (1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and 2-butanol), alkane (cyclohexane, heptane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane) or alkoxyalcohol (2-ethoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol) cosolvents. Approximately 2500 experimental measurements were performed. Expressions were derived from the Combined Nearly Ideal Multiple Solvent (NIMS)/Redlich-Kister, the Combined Nearly Ideal Multiple Solvent (NIMS)/Bertrand, Acree and Burchfield (BAB) and the Modified Wilson models for predicting solute solubility in ternary solvent (or even higher multicomponent) mixtures based upon the model constants calculated from solubility data in sub-binary solvents. Average percent deviation between predicted and observed values were less than 2%, documenting that these models provide a fairly accurate description of the thermodynamic properties of nonelectrolyte solutions. Moreover, the models can be used for solubility prediction in solvent mixtures in order to find the optimum solvent composition for solubilization or desolubilization of a solute. From a computational standpoint, the Combined Nearly Ideal Multiple Solvent/Redlich-Kister equation is preferred because the needed model constants can be calculated with a simple linear regressional analysis. Model constants for the Modified Wilson equation had to be calculated using a reiterative trial-and-error method. The C++ program for the Modified Wilson equation applied to ternary and heptanary solvent mixtures is attached. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279275/
Combined Electrochemistry and Spectroscopy of Complexes and Supramolecules containing Bipyridyl and Other Azabiphenyl Building Blocks
A group of azabiphenyl complexes and supramolecules, and their reduced and oxidized forms when possible, were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electronic absorption spectroscopy. The oxidized and reduced species, if sufficiently stable, were further generated electrochemically inside a specially designed quartz cell with optically transparent electrode, so that the spectra of the electrochemically generated species could be taken in situ. Assignments were proposed for both parent and product electronic spectra. Species investigated included a range of Ru(II) and Pt(II) complexes, as well as catenanes and their comparents. Using the localized electronic model, the electrochemical reduction can be in most cases assigned as azabiphenyl-based, and the oxidation as transition metal-based. This is consistent with the fact that the azabiphenyl compounds have a low lying π* orbital. The electronic absorption spectra of the compounds under study are mainly composed of π —> π* bands with, in some cases, charge transfer bands also. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279396/
Spectrofluorometric and Solubility Studies of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Hydrogen Bonded Binary Solvent Mixtures
The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in binary solvent systems and determine and/or develop predictive mathematical expressions for describing solutions in which hydrogen-bonding occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279188/
Spectroscopic Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds
The fluorescence spectrum of many polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) depends upon solvent polarity. The emission spectrum of PAC monomers consists of several major vibronic bands labeled I, II, etc., in progressive order. Emission intensity enhancement of select bands is observed in polar solvents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278682/
Solution Studies of the Structures and Stability of Mixed Lithium Alkoxide/Alkvllithium Aggregates
New one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques were used to elucidate the solution structures of these complex mixtures. The system, lithium tert-butoxide/tert-butyllithium, was studied as a model system with O/Li ratios varying from 0/1 to 1/1. It was found that at low O/Li ratios, a single mixed tetrameric aggregate was formed. At higher O/Li ratios, mixed hexameric species were formed. Two other systems, lithium isopropoxide/iso-propyllithium and lithium n-propoxide/n-propyllithium were also studied at low O/Li ratios. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279031/
Discontinuous Thermal Expansions and Phase Transformations in Crystals at Higher Temperatures
The purpose of this investigation is to make more detailed studies of transformations. Fourteen compounds have been examined by high temperature X-ray diffraction for this purpose. The investigations have been carried out in such a way as to reveal: 1. the existence of transformations, 2. the influence of polarizability on thermal expansion, 3. the anisotropy of expansion, and 4. the discontinuity of thermal expansion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277668/
Thermodynamic and Structural Studies of Layered Double Hydroxides
The preparation of layered double hydroxides via titration with sodium hydroxide was thoroughly investigated for a number of M(II)/M(III) combinations. These titration curves were examined and used to calculate nominal solubility product constants and other thermodynamic quantities for the various LDH chloride systems. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278144/
A Quenchofluorometric Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Molecularly Organized Media
Detection, identification and separation of polycyclic aromatic compounds in environmental samples are of extreme importance since many of these compounds are well known for their potential carcinogenic and/or mutagenic activities. Selective quenching of molecular fluorescence can be utilized effectively to analyze mixtures containing different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Molecularly organized assemblies are used widely in detection and separation of these compounds mainly because of less toxicity and enhanced solubilization capabilities associated with these media. Feasibility of using nitromethane and the alkylpyridinium cation as selective fluorescence quenching agents for discriminating between alternant versus nonalternant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is critically examined in several molecularly organized micellar solvent media. Fluorescence quenching is used to probe the structural features in mixed micelles containing the various combinations of anionic, cationic, nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants. Experimental results provide valuable information regarding molecular interactions between the dissimilar surfactants. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278285/
Substituent Effects on Diazeniumdiolate Anions: an AB Initio and DFT Study
Nitroglycerin and isoamyl nitrate have been used as nitrovasodilators since the nineteeth century. However, not until recently has it been known that these compounds were useful since they promoted the release of NO in the body. More recently, a new class of drugs, NO donors, has been developed. These include S-nitrosothiols (RSNO), sydnonimines, and nucleophilic NO adducts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277741/
Molecular Modeling Study of Oxidative Degradation of Polyperfluoroethers Catalyzed by Iron Fluoride Surfaces : An Extended Hückel Theory Approach
Extended Hückel methods are known to be a useful tool in understanding surface phenomena. Important quantities about atoms and chemical bonds can be obtained from this computationally simple method, although caution must be exercised in interpreting the results. Application of Extended Hückel calculations to large metal clusters reveals the role of d orbitals in solids. Basic ideas of constructing model compounds have been developed. Several model systems for surface chemisorption processes are constructed in order to understand the surface catalyzed oxidative degradation of polyperfluoroethers. The activation of oxygen molecules can be explained. The Lewis acid character of the iron fluoride surface can be predicted. Based on these results, mechanisms of the degradation processes are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278315/
Investigation of Ultratrace Metallic and Organic Contaminants in Semiconductor Processing Environments
Detection of ultratrace levels of metallic ion impurities in hydrofluoric acid solutions and alkaline hydrogen peroxide solution was demonstrated using a silicon-based sensing electrode. The sensor's operation principle is based on direct measurements of the silicon open-circuit potential shift generated by the interaction between metallic ions and the silicon-based sensing surface. The new sensor can have practical applications in the on-line monitoring of microelectronic chemical processing. The detection of Ag+ content in KODAK waste water was carried out successfully by this novel sensor. Trace levels of organic impurities in the hydrofluoric acid solutions and in the cleanroom air were characterized by multiple internal reflection infrared spectroscopy (MIRIS) using an organics probe prepared directly from a regular silicon wafer. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277845/
I. On the Mechanism of Acid Promoted Rearrangement of PCU-Derived Pinacols II. Synthesis of a Trimethyltrishomocubyl Helical Tubuland Diol
I. Reductive dimerization of pentacyclo[5.4.0.0.^2,6.0^3,10.0^5'9]undecane-8-one-(PCU-8-one, 53) affords a mixture of meso and d,l pinacols (55a and 55b respectively). Acid promoted rearrangement of 55a and 55b conceivably can proceed with migration of C(7)-C(8) and/or C(8)-C(9) to form the corresponding pinacolone(s). In our hands, acid promoted rearrangement of 55a and 55b each proceeds with exclusive migration of C(7)- C(8) bond, thereby affording 58a and 59a respectively. Mechanistic features of this rearrangement are discussed. II. 4,7,1 l-trimethylpentacyclo[6.3.0.0.^2,6.0^3,l0.0^5,9]undecane-exo-4,exo-7-diol (23a) was successfully synthesized. This diol crystallizes in a helical tubuland lattice although its molecular structure does not possess C2 rotational symmetry. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277859/
Investigation of Copper Out-Plating Mechanism on Silicon Wafer Surface
As the miniaturization keeps decreasing in semiconductor device fabrication, metal contamination on silicon surfaces becomes critical. An investigation of the fundamental mechanism of metal contamination process on silicon surface is therefore important. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the copper out-plating process on silicon surfaces in diluted HF solutions are both evaluated by several analytical methods. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278367/
Surface and Interfacial Studies of Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition of Copper
The nucleation and successful growth of copper (Cu) thin films on diffusion barrier/adhesion promoter substrates during metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are strongly dependent on the initial Cu precursor-substrate chemistry and surface conditions such as organic contamination and oxidation. This research focuses on the interactions of bis(1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoroacetylacetonato)copper(II), [Cu(hfac)2], with polycrystalline tantalum (Ta) and polycrystalline as well as epitaxial titanium nitride (TiN) substrates during Cu MOCVD, under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions and low substrate temperatures (T < 500 K). The results obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) measurements indicate substantial differences in the chemical reaction pathways of metallic Cu formation from Cu(hfac)2 on TiN versus Ta surfaces. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278058/
Structural Elucidation of tert-Butyllithium/Lithium Alkoxide and Lithium Hydride/Lithium Alkoxide Mixed Aggregates
The effects of lithium alkoxides on the rates of reactions and on the structures of a series of tert-butyllithium/lithium alkoxide mixed aggregates were studied, where the alkoxides were iso-butoxide, tert-butoxide and menthoxide. It was found that their effects depend not only on their amount present, but also on their steric bulk. The tert-butyllithium/lithium alkoxide mixed aggregates were exposed to UV light or heat to form lithium hydride/lithium alkoxide mixed aggregates. The aggregation states were assigned from either 13C-6Li coupling or a new technique based on the relative intensity of NMR peaks using different nuclei. The compounds formed depend upon the method of formation and the alkoxide. The unique properties of the lithium hydride/lithium alkoxide mixed aggregates are their high solubility in hydrocarbon solutions, very reactive bases, showing 6Li-1H couplings, and having only one hydride ion per aggregate. Their formation, reactivity, solubility, and aggregation states were found to depend on the size of lithium alkoxides. X-ray crystal structures of lithium tert-butoxide and lithium menthoxide were also studied and found to be hexameric. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278525/
Part I: Solid State Studies of Larger Calixarenes : Part II: Synthesis and Characterization of Metallocalixarenes
Calixarenes are a class of macrocyclic compounds that have garnered interest in large part because of their ability to form host-guest complexes with various types of molecules. For all of the studies of complex formation by calixarenes, most of the work to date has concentrated upon the smaller calixarenes, and little is understood about the relationship between the complexes formed when in solution and that observed in the solid state. The first part of the study, presented in Chapter 3, is of the solid-state properties of two of the larger calixarenes, and in comparison to other reported structures reveals patterns to the observed conformations both in the solid state and in solution. The formation of metal complexes has also been investigated and has focused extensively upon the metals as guests. Thus, the ability of the calixarenes to act as ligands in inorganic complexes has been virtually untapped, despite the polyoxo binding site they can easily provide, and very few metallocalixarenes have been reported. The second part of this study goes beyond the simple solid-state properties of such compounds, and involves the synthesis of several metallocalixarenes as part of a project directed at the functionalization of calixarenes with the components of a class of catalysts known to polymerize various olefins. These catalysts, commonly referred to as Ziegler-Natta catalysts, are introduced in Chapter 4. The new compounds presented here--three new aluminocalixarenes in Chapter 5 and a new titanocalixarene in Chapter 6--were synthesized so as to contain some of the same components observed in several of the other catalysts. These new compounds have been characterized crystallographically as well as through proton and multinuclear NMR, and observed conformational patterns are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278414/
Mixed Alkyllithim/Lithium Alkoxide Aggregates with Less Sterically Crowded Alkyl Groups
Mixed alkyllithium / lithium alkoxide aggregates in the form (RLi)n(ROLi)m were formed by addition of corresponding alcohol compounds at different Li/O ratios. Variable temperature 13C and 6Li NMR spectroscopy were used to verify the formation of the mixed aggregates and to study their behavior in hydrocarbon solution. Spectra for the lithium n-propoxide / n-propyllithium and iso-butyllithium / lithium iso-butoxide systems each indicated at least one mixed aggregate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278441/
Solvent and Ionic Complexes of the Calix[6]arenes
One of the more attractive attributes of calixarenes is their wide variety of possible conformations and hence cavity shapes. However, the flexibility that allows this long-range benefit gives rise to major synthetic challenges when working with the larger members of the family. O-alkylations have proven to be the most widely employed synthetic routes to "functionalization" of the calixarenes, and these have shown a dependence upon both solvent and the metal ions present. Surprisingly, there have been no structural data presented concerning the complexes between the simple unsubstituted calix[6]arenes and the metal ions of groups 1 and 2. The structures of four complexes, containing cesium, rubidium, and calcium are reported as determined by X-ray crystallography. The solution behavior of the complexes for both representative groups is also discussed, in particular with regard to conformational stabilization of the calix[6]arenes and the role of solvent upon this stabilization. These complexes are also investigated as starting materials for the selective functionalization of the calix[6]arenes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278436/
The Synthesis and Chemistry of Polyciclic Cage Compounds
Chapter I describes the synthesis of a trishomocubyl helical tubuland diol and some aspects of its inclusion chemistry. Thus, all three isomers of 4,7-dimethylpentacyclo[6.3.0.0^2,6.0^3,10.0^5,9]undecane-4,7-diol have been prepared and their X-ray structures have been determined. The syn,syn-isomer crystallizes in a double-stranded hydrogen-bonded lattice, while anti,syn-isomer forms a hydrogen-bonded layer lattice. In contrast, the anti,anti-isomer is a new member of the helical tubuland diol host family; its crystal lattice consists of parallel canals with a trefoil-shaped cross-section of area 25.4 Å^2. Chapter II describes the synthesis of new molecular clefts. These molecular clefts have been synthesized via base-promoted reactions of 3,6-diaryl-l,2,4,5-tetrazines with tetracyclo[6.3.0.0^4,11.0^5,9]undecane-3,6-dione and with tricyclo[6.3.0.0^2,6]undecane-3,11-dione, respectively. Compounds of this type are of interest as a potential new class of host molecules for use in host-guest complexation studies. Chapter III reports the synthesis of stereospecifically deuterated spiro(oxetane-3,8'-pentacyclo[5.4.0.0^2,6.0^3,10.0^5,9]undecanes) and their acid-promoted ring opening and concomitant rearrangements. The deuterium-containing reaction products have been characterized via analysis of their NMR and mass spectra. The results strongly suggest that intramolecular 1,5-hydride shifts provide an important pathway through which the acid promoted rearrangements occur. Chapter IV reports the oxidation of heptacyclo-[6.6.0.0^2,6.0^3,13.0^4,11.0^5,9.0^10,14] tetradecane (HCTD) via application of Barton's "GoAgg" systems. The products have been characterized by NMR and mass spectral analysis. Under GoAgg^v conditions, oxidation of HCTD proceeds to afford heptacyclo [6.6.0.0^2,6.0^3,13.0^4,11.0^5,9.0^10,14]tetradecan-7-one in 1% yield. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278447/
Thermophysical and Mechanical Properties of Polymer Liquid Crystals and Their Blends
Tensile properties, namely the elastic modulus, tensile strength, percent of elongation at yield and at the break were determined for the pure components and blends. The results are connected to the respective phase diagrams and demonstrate that blending makes property manipulation possible. Blends for which the mechanical properties are better than those of pure EPs can be obtained. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278308/
The Analysis of Volatile Impurities in Air by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
The determination of carbon monoxide is also possible by trapping CO on preconditioned molecular sieve and thermal desorption. Analysis in this case is performed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, although the trapping technique is applicable to other suitable GC techniques. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277733/
Preparation and Stereochemistry of Reactive Intermediates Containing a Silicon-Carbon Double Bond
1,1-Dimethyl-2-neopentylsilene reacted with the N-methylimine of benzophenone to give 1,2,2-trimethyl-3- neopentyl-4,4-diphenyl-l-aza-2-silacyclobutane, I, and 2,3,4,4a-tetrahydro-2,3,3-trimethyl-1-phenyl-4-neopentyl-2- aza-3-silanephthalene, II, in 35% and 20% yields, respectively. Compounds I and II did not serve as thermal silene precursors. Heating I and II to over 280°C did not yield 1,3-disilacyclobutanes. In the presence of 2,3- dimethyl-1,3-butadiene typical silene products were not obtained. However, I and II reacted rapidly with methanol at room temperature to give the ring-opened products (E)-2- methoxy-2,5,5-trimethyl-2-silahex-3-ene, III, 1,1- diphenyldimethylamine, IV, and 2-methoxy-2,5,5-trimethyl-3- (N-methylaminodiphenyl) methyl-2-silahexane, V. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277928/
Sulfur-induced Corrosion at Metal and Oxide Surfaces and Interfaces
Sulfur adsorbed on metallic and oxide surfaces, whether originating from gaseous environments or segregating as an impurity to metallic interfaces, is linked to the deterioration of alloy performance. This research dealt with investigations on the interactions between sulfur and iron or iron alloy metallic and oxide surfaces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Sulfur was either intentionally dosed from a H2S source on an atomically clean metal surface, or segregated out as an impurity from the bulk to the metal surface by annealing at elevated temperatures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277765/
Characterization of Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds in Enzyme Catalysis: an Ab Initio and DFT Investigation
Hartree-Fock, Moller-Plesset, and density functional theory calculations have been carried out using 6-31+G(d), 6-31+G(d,p) and 6-31++G(d,p) basis sets to study the properties of low-barrier or short-strong hydrogen bonds (SSHB) and their potential role in enzyme-catalyzed reactions that involve proton abstraction from a weak carbon-acid by a weak base. Formic acid/formate anion, enol/enolate and other complexes have been chosen to simulate a SSHB system. These complexes have been calculated to form very short, very short hydrogen bonds with a very low barrier for proton transfer from the donor to the acceptor. Two important environmental factors including small amount of solvent molecules that could possibly exist at the active site of an enzyme and the polarity around the active site were simulated to study their energetic and geometrical influences to a SSHB. It was found that microsolvation that improves the matching of pK as of the hydrogen bond donor and acceptor involved in the SSHB will always increase the interaction of the hydrogen bond; microsolvation that disrupts the matching of pKas, on the other hand, will lead to a weaker SSHB. Polarity surrounding the SSHB, simulated by SCRF-SCIPCM model, can significantly reduce the strength and stability of a SSHB. The residual strength of a SSHB is about 10--11 kcal/mol that is still significantly stable compared with a traditional weak hydrogen bond that is only about 3--5 kcal/mol in any cases. These results indicate that SSHB can exist under polar environment. Possible reaction intermediates and transition states for the reaction catalyzed by ketosteroid isomerase were simulated to study the stabilizing effect of a SSHB on intermediates and transition states. It was found that at least one SSHB is formed in each of the simulated intermediate-catalyst complexes, strongly supporting the LBHB mechanism proposed by Cleland and Kreevoy. Computational results on the activation energy for catalyzed and uncatalyzed model reactions shows that strong hydrogen bonding between catalyst and the substrate at the transition state can significantly reduce the activation energy. This implies that LBHBs are possibly playing a crucial role in enzyme catalysis by supplying significant stabilizing energy to the reaction transition state. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278586/
Raman and NMR Investigation of Molecular Reorientation and Internal Rotation in Liquids
Molecular rotational motions are known to influence both Raman scattering of light and nuclear spin relaxation. Therefore, the application of Raman bandshape analysis and NMR relaxation time measurements to probe molecular dynamics in liquids will provide us with a deeper understanding of the dynamical behavior and structure of molecules in the liquid phase. Presented here are (i) studies of molecular reorientation of acetonitrile in the neat liquid phase and in solution by Raman bandshape analysis and NMR relaxation; (ii) studies of reorientational dynamics and internal rotation in transition metal clusters by NMR relaxation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278558/
Synthesis and Alkali Metal Extraction Properties of Novel Cage-functionalized Crown Coronands and Cryptands
A novel crown ether precursor was developed in which a rigid 4-oxahexacyclo(5.4.1.26.3,10.05,9.08,11)dodecyl cage moiety ("cage functionality") wasincorporated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277666/
A Study of the Processing Properties of Hard-Particle Reinforced Composite Solders
The microstructural, mechanical and thermal properties of various composite solder formulations were investigated. Special interest was given in observing the processing properties, microstructural characteristics, fatigue behavior, tensile strength, and the effect of environmental ageing on the composite solder formulations. The solderability parameters wetting and speed of soldering, reflow temperature, and the thermal stability of the resulting composite solder were also examined. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278000/
FT-NMR and Raman Spectroscopic Studies of Molecular Dynamics in Liquids
NMR relaxation and Raman lineshape analysis are well known methods for the study of molecular reorientational dynamics in liquids. The combination of these two methods provides another approach to tackle the characterization of molecular dynamics in liquids. Investigations presented here include (1) NMR relaxation study of polycyclic compounds in solution, (2) the study of nitromethane reorientational dynamics using the NMR and Raman methods, and (3) Raman lineshape analysis of reorientation hexafluorobenzene/benzene mixtures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277788/
The Study of Hydration of Fly Ash in the Presence of Calcium Nitrate and Calcium Formate
This research was designed to investigate the hydration reaction of fly ash when exposed to water. The effects that calcium nitrate and calcium formate have on the hydration reactions were also examined. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278140/
A Study of Intra- and Interaggregate Exchange Processes of Alkyllithium Compounds Using One- and Two- Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy
One- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, including 13C{6Li}{1H} triple resonance techniques, were used to characterize a series of mixed alkyllithium aggregates and to study their exchange processes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278360/
Stereoselective Solid-State NaBH₄ Reduction of 1-Methylpentacyclo[5.4.0.0²,⁶.0³,¹⁰,0⁵,⁹]undecane-8, 11-Dione, Synthesis and Chemistry of Strained Alkenes, and Chemical and Microbial Synthesis of Racemic and Optically Active (S)-4-Hydroxy-2-Cyclohexenone
Part I. Reduction of the 1-methylpentacyclo [5.4.0.0²,⁶.0³,¹⁰,0⁵,⁹]undecane-8, 11-dione (9) with solid NaBH₄ resulted in highly stereoselective reduction of both C=O groups in the substrate, thereby affording the corresponding endo-8, endo-11-diol (11a). The configuration of 11a was established unequivocally by converting 11a into the corresponding cyclic thiocarbonate ester, 12. Part II. Z-1,2-Di(1'-adamantyl)ethene (14) was synthesized with a high degree of stereoselectively in four steps (Scheme 9 in Chapter 2). E-1,2-di(1'-adamantyl)ethene (15) was synthesized by iodine promoted isomerization of 14. Both structures were established unequivocally via single-crystal X-ray structural analysis. E-1-(exo-8'-Pentacyclo[5.4.0.0²,⁶.0³,¹⁰,0⁵,⁹]undecyl)-2-phenylethylene (16a) was synthesized, and its structure was established via analysis of its 1H, 13C, and 2D COSY NMR spectra. Part III. Reactions of electrophiles, i.e.,:CCl_2, PhSCl, and Br_2, to Z- and E-1,2-di(1'-adamantyl)ethenes (14 and 15, respectively) are described (Scheme 5, 8, 10, and 13 in Chapter 3). Structures of the corresponding products were established unequivocally via analysis of their respective one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra and/or single-crystal X-ray structural analysis. Part IV. An improved asymmetric synthesis of optically active (S)-4-hydroxy-2-cyclohexenone 1 (64%ee, determined via Mosher's method) has been developed (Scheme 5 in Chapter 4). The key step in this synthesis involves the baker's yeast reduction of 13. The absolute configuration of the major product, (S)-1, was established unequivocally via single-crystal X-ray structural analysis of a precursor. The optical purity of the major product 14a (80%de, 67%ee) was established via careful integration of relevant gated-decoupled 13C NMR spectra. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278368/
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