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  Partner: UNT Libraries
 Department: Department of Technology and Cognition
The Effect of Giving Class Time for Reading on the Reading Achievement of Fourth Graders and the Effect of Using a Computer-Based Reading Management Program on the Reading Achievement of Fifth Graders
This study investigated the problem that educators have throughout the state of Texas. The problem educators have is that reading scores continue to fall short of state expectations. This study investigated the effectiveness of 90 minutes of class time given for reading to students who use the Electronic Bookshelf Program and the effectiveness of the Electronic Bookshelf Program, which is being sold to school districts throughout the nation. The literature review focused on the effectiveness of independent reading on reading achievement, and the effectiveness of using computer-based reading programs to increase reading achievement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279001/
Perceived Barriers to the Implementation of Site Based Management
The purpose of this study was to identify perceived barriers to the implementation of site-based management for administrators in the Region XII Service Center area in Texas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278906/
The Effects of a Brain-based Learning Strategy, Mind Mapping, on Achievement of Adults in a Training Environment with Considerations to Learning Styles and Brain Hemisphericity
This study examined the effectiveness of Mind Mapping (a diagram of the structure of ideas in an associative manner, using graphics, color and key words) as a note-taking device in a training course in a large, high-tech corporation, as compared to traditional note-taking. The population for this study consisted of personnel employed by a major high-tech firm, that had voluntarily registered for a Mind Mapping training class. The effect of Mind Mapping was measured by the pre-test and post-test of the control and experimental groups. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278776/
Mentoring in Family Firms : A Reflective Analysis of Senior Executives' Perceptions
This study is a reflective analysis of the perceptions of senior executives in family businesses that relate to their personal experiences of having been mentored. The study presents an overview of the topic of mentoring, defines key terms, and identifies questions addressed in the research. The rationale for this study rested on two facts. First, mentoring in non-family businesses constitutes the majority of the literature. That literature supports the importance of mentoring. Secondly, mentoring in family businesses has not been researched. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278701/
An Analysis of How Interest Groups Influence the Policy-making Process for the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act of 1997
This study examined the policy letters and verbal testimony transcripts submitted by interest groups to the United States Department of Education (USDE) in response to the proposed regulations pertaining to the implementation of the 1997 reauthorization of P. L. 105-17, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Specifically, this study analyzed the emerging themes in the area of discipline. Responses were received from the following interest groups: (a) school administrators, (b) parents, (c) teachers, (d) state educational agencies (SEAs), (e) national educational organizations, and (f) members of the United States Congress. In addition to analyzing the emerging themes, the study compared these themes to ones found in the current literature and court cases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279312/
An Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Learning Style and Presentation Methods on Knowledge Acquisition in a University Classroom Environment
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of four learning styles (accommodator, assimilator, converger, and diverger) and two different presentation methods (traditional and computer-based) on knowledge acquisition in a university classroom. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279216/
Endogenous Constructivist Implications for Methodology : Focus on Young Children with Developmental Delay in the Social and Emotional Domains
The Ecologically-Based Activity Plan (EBAP) is proposed as a method to create a transition between special education and general education. It serves as a tool to help classroom teachers assess the environment of the class and as a method for embedding instruction within the naturally occurring context of the endogenous constructivist classroom. In this study the EBAP was used to reduce aggressive behavior and increase prosocial behavior among five children who displayed developmental delays in the social and emotional domains. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279375/
Predicting Workers' Compensation Claims and On-the-Job Injuries Using Four Psychological Measures
This study assessed the predictive validity of four independent factors (Rotter Locus of Control Scale, Safety Locus of Control, Organizational Attribution Style Questionnaire, and Rosenburg Self-Esteem Scale) in the establishment of a measure of safety consciousness in predicting on-the-job injuries and the filing of workers' compensation claims. A 125-item questionnaire was designed and administered to assess participants' disposition on each of the four psychological dimensions, demographic data and on-the-job injury information. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278884/
Measurement Disturbance Effects on Rasch Fit Statistics and the Logit Residual Index
The effects of random guessing as a measurement disturbance on Rasch fit statistics (unweighted total, weighted total, and unweighted ability between) and the Logit Residual Index (LRI) were examined through simulated data sets of varying sample sizes, test lengths, and distribution types. Three test lengths (25, 50, and 100), three sample sizes (25, 50, and 100), two item difficulty distributions (normal and uniform), and three levels of guessing (no guessing (0%), 25%, and 50%) were used in the simulations, resulting in 54 experimental conditions. The mean logit person ability for each experiment was +1. Each experimental condition was simulated once in an effort to approximate what could happen on the single administration of a four option per item multiple choice test to a group of relatively high ability persons. Previous research has shown that varying item and person parameters have no effect on Rasch fit statistics. Consequently, these parameters were used in the present study to establish realistic test conditions, but were not interpreted as effect factors in determining the results of this study. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279376/
A Longitudinal Study of Graduation, Retention, and School Dropout for Students in Regular and Special Education
This study examined differences in retention, graduation, and dropout between students in grades 9-12 in special education and regular education in the state of Texas for school years 1992-93 through 1995-96. The purpose was to gather information regarding the possible adverse effects of increased academic standards and mandatory testing on students with disabilities. The results indicate that when compared to students in regular education, students with disabilities are significantly more likely to be retained and are not experiencing the same decline in dropout rates as regular students. There is no indication that students with disabilities have been adversely affected by school reform but the size of the school district may play a significant role in whether or not students with disabilities dropout of school. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279003/
Reliability of Authentic Assessment in Fourth-Grade Narrative and Descriptive Written Language for Students with and without Learning Disabilities
The purpose of this study was to determine reliability estimates of authentic assessment for fourth-grade narrative and descriptive writing samples for students with and without learning disabilities. Three types of reliability estimates were established: (a) inter-rater, (b) score stability, and (c) alternate-form. The research design involved 40 teachers, trained in holistic scoring by Education Service Centers 10 and 11 in Dallas and Fort Worth, Texas, who scored 16 writing samples. Approximately 2 weeks later the teachers rescored 8 of the same writing samples. In addition to scoring the writing samples, the teachers also completed a demographic questionnaire. The writing samples, which consisted of eight narrative and eight descriptive writings, were selected based upon teachers' holistic scores and scores from 1993 writing sample of the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills. Based upon these scores, two narrative and descriptive writings of above-average, average, and below-average writings were selected. In addition, two narrative and descriptive writing samples of students with learning disabilities in written language were selected. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278748/
A Comparison of Three Criteria Employed in the Selection of Regression Models Using Simulated and Real Data
Researchers who make predictions from educational data are interested in choosing the best regression model possible. Many criteria have been devised for choosing a full or restricted model, and also for selecting the best subset from an all-possible-subsets regression. The relative practical usefulness of three of the criteria used in selecting a regression model was compared in this study: (a) Mallows' C_p, (b) Amemiya's prediction criterion, and (c) Hagerty and Srinivasan's method involving predictive power. Target correlation matrices with 10,000 cases were simulated so that the matrices had varying degrees of effect sizes. The amount of power for each matrix was calculated after one or two predictors was dropped from the full regression model, for sample sizes ranging from n = 25 to n = 150. Also, the null case, when one predictor was uncorrelated with the other predictors, was considered. In addition, comparisons for regression models selected using C_p and prediction criterion were performed using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278764/
The Generalization of the Logistic Discriminant Function Analysis and Mantel Score Test Procedures to Detection of Differential Testlet Functioning
Two procedures for detection of differential item functioning (DIF) for polytomous items were generalized to detection of differential testlet functioning (DTLF). The methods compared were the logistic discriminant function analysis procedure for uniform and non-uniform DTLF (LDFA-U and LDFA-N), and the Mantel score test procedure. Further analysis included comparison of results of DTLF analysis using the Mantel procedure with DIF analysis of individual testlet items using the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure. Over 600 chi-squares were analyzed and compared for rejection of null hypotheses. Samples of 500, 1,000, and 2,000 were drawn by gender subgroups from the NELS:88 data set, which contains demographic and test data from over 25,000 eighth graders. Three types of testlets (totalling 29) from the NELS:88 test were analyzed for DTLF. The first type, the common passage testlet, followed the conventional testlet definition: items grouped together by a common reading passage, figure, or graph. The other two types were based upon common content and common process. as outlined in the NELS test specification. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279043/
A Comparison of a Computer-Administered Test and a Paper and Pencil Test Using Normally Achieving and Mathematically Disabled Young Children
This study investigated whether a computer-administered mathematics test can provide equivalent results for normal and mathematically disabled students while retaining similar psychometric characteristics of an equivalent paper and pencil version of the test. The overall purpose of the study was twofold. First, the viability of using computer administered assessment with elementary school children was examined. Second, by investigating items on the computer administered mathematics test for potential bias between normally achieving and mathematically disabled populations, it was possible to determine whether certain mathematical concepts consistently distinguish between the two ability groups. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279334/
Identification of the Competencies Needed by Secondary & Post Secondary Career Counselors to Initiate and Maintain Articulation of Secondary & Post Secondary Comprehensive Career Development Programs and Services
This study researched effect of selected demographic variables on the self-perceived competencies of career counselors at secondary and post secondary institutions in Texas. Demographic variables were years of service, educational level, type of institution, age of counselor, size of institution, and percentage of vocational enrollment. One hundred career counselors, fifty secondary and fifty post secondary career counselors were mailed copies of the Professional Needs Assessment and a Demographic questionnaire. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278803/
Problem-Based Learning for Training Teachers of Students with Behavioral Disorders in Hong Kong
This study attempts to explore the perceived value of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in training teachers of students with behavioral disorders (E/BD) in Hong Kong. It represents an effort to improve the predominately lecture focussed approach adopted in many preparation programs. Data on the training needs of Hong Kong teachers were also acquired and 31 knowledge/skills areas related to teaching students with E/BD were identified. Subjects viewed the PBL approach as dynamic, interesting and incentive driven. It develops skills involved in group learning, self-directed learning, use of information resources and problem-solving. Most important, teachers felt they were supported to explore the practical problems they personally encountered in the classroom and actions they could take to resolve them. Difficulties in using PBL included a lack of resources and the tendencies of most Chinese students to accept rather than challenge others' ideas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278904/
A Student Environment Model: a Measure of Institutional Effectiveness
In a rapidly changing environment of growing competition for limited resources and ever increasing operational costs, institutions of higher education must focus on all aspects of the organizational functions to insure institutional effectiveness and the maximization of student success. This study will use a Student Environment Model (SEM) to assess students' perception of their college environment outside of the formal classroom at a unique two year technical college. The information obtained is used by the administration of Texas State Technical College Waco (TSTCW) to make appropriate adjustments in programs, services, or policies when the student data indicates that change or improvement is needed. While the SEM provides an indication of the students' "image" of the college environment, it can also provide indicators of areas which need improvement or require change. Applying the SEM information to decision making, problem solving, and planning will allow the institution and its people to move toward higher productivity and continuous quality improvement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279096/
Inclusion of Children and Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders into the General Education Classroom Setting: Survey of General Education Classroom Teachers' Beliefs Regarding Expected Knowledge/Skills
This study identified the expected knowledge/skills needed for working with children and youth with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) in general education classroom settings, as identified by general educators. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278925/
Using regression analysis to investigate relationships of ASVAB selector composites to end-of-course grades for students in aircraft maintenance training programs in the Air Force
Aircraft maintenance training programs in the Air Force have evolved from an almost exclusively mechanical orientation to one that is largely electronic. The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) with its four selector composites (Mechanical, Administration, General, and Electronic) has been in use for over 20 years. The mechanical (M) composite score is used to identify those who will be trained in aircraft maintenance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279035/
A Study of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 and the Amendments of 1989 and 1990. Mandatory Education for Nursing Assistants and Their Effect on Job Performance in Two Counties in Florida
The purpose of this study was to focus on the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 and the amendments of 1989 and 1990. Nursing assistants were placed in cluster groups of 300-hours, 120-hours, and 0-hours. Each subject's job performance of nursing care was observed using the Francis's Task Performance Rating Scale. The purpose of the analysis was to determine (1) if there was a significant difference in job performance of patient care between program completers and the challengers, (2) if there was a significant difference in the job performance of patient care between 300-hour and 120-hour, and (3) if there was a significant difference between the content required in OBRA mandated nursing assistant programs and actual job performance skills needed in patient care. It was determined that program completers' job performance of patient care was significantly different from the challengers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278836/
The Effectiveness of Speech Recognition as a User Interface for Computer-Based Training
Some researchers are saying that natural language is probably one of the most promising interfaces for use in the long term for simplicity of learning. If this is true, then it follows that speech recognition would be ideal as the interface for computer-based training (CBT). While many speech recognition applications are being used as a means for a computer interface, these are usually confined to controlling the computer or causing the computer to control other devices. The user input or interface has been the recipient of a strong effort to improve the quality of the communication between man and machine and is proposed to be a dominant factor in determining user productivity, performance, and satisfaction. However, other researchers note that full natural interfaces with computers are still a long way from being the state-of-the art with technology. The focus of this study was to determine if the technology of speech recognition is an effective interface for an academic lesson presented via CBT. How does one determine if learning has been affected and how is this measured? Previous research has attempted quantify a learning effect when using a variety of interfaces. This dissertation summarizes previous studies using other interfaces and those using speech recognition. It attempted to apply a framework used to measure learning effectiveness in some of these studies to quantify the measurement of learning when speech recognition is used as the sole interface. The focus of the study was on cognitive processing which affects short-term memory and in-turn, the effect on original learning (OL). The methods and procedures applied in an experimental study were presented. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279226/
An Investigation of School Administrator Personality Type and Gender to Leader Effectiveness, Flexibility, and Years of Experience
The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between four selected personality categories as measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI) and gender to leader effectiveness and flexibility as measured by Leader Behavior Analysis II Self-A® (LBAII Self-A) and years of experience in school administration. A review of literature traced leadership to the Situational Leadership II model utilized in this study. The model was based on selecting the appropriate leadership style for the individual situation and development level of followers. MBTI® measured sixteen combinations of four personality types which included Extravert® or Introvert, Sensing or iNtuitive®, Thinking or Feeling, and Judging or Perceiving. Four types were selected for this study (ISTJ, ESTJ, INTP, and ESFJ). The LBAII Self-A® instrument measured leader effectiveness and flexibility. The sample was 80 Texas school administrators in eleven school districts. Statistics utilized to test the hypotheses included Hotelling's T2, Multiple Analysis of Variance, Analysis of Variance, and Multiple Regression. Independent variables were gender and personality type. Dependent variables were leader effectiveness, flexibility, and years of experience in school administration. Findings reported a significant difference in leader effectiveness scores of the ESTJ personality type. Additionally, Judging/Perceiving was a significant predictor of years of experience of school administrators. In conclusion, a significant difference was found in leader effectiveness scores which showed that ESTJ personality types had higher scores. Another significant finding was Judging/ Perceiving as a predictor of years of administrative experience. As years of experience increased, Judging (preference for order) increased as a personality variable rather than Perceiving (preference for spontaneity). It was recommended that MBTI® and LBAII® be administered to school administrators as part of pre-service leadership training and for ongoing staff development. These instruments can be utilized as tools to help administrators understand personality type and effective leadership practices. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278788/
Strategic Planning for Texas Community Colleges
Over the past three to four decades the community college has experienced some tremendous periods of growth and success. Much of this has been due to a growing economy and a growing population. However, the future of the community college may be in for some changes. The effects these changes are having can mean opportunity or disaster depending on the readiness of the institution. The change occurring today requires future insight, swifter action, and a proactive response. Community colleges cannot afford to leave planning for crisis situations. A proactive stance must be taken and tough questions must be asked. In 1991 the Seventy-second Texas Legislature tasked the Legislative Budget Board of Texas with the assignment of developing a long-range strategic plan for state government based on individual agency plans. The passing of House Bill No. 2009 required that all agencies of Texas State Government, including community colleges, develop a strategic plan. The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of certain independent variables towards the perceived importance of three dependent variables - statements of purpose, statements of direction and statements of impact - found in the Legislative Budget Board Strategic Planning Template. Research shows that there are a number of planning paradigms which contain some form of strategic planning. Independent variables such as administrative levels of involvement, levels of experience, levels of strategic planning training, and college location could all be significant factors in determining the success of strategic planning. The results of this study may provide community colleges in Texas with information for better understanding characteristics influencing strategic planning, for identifying strategic planning program barriers, and for evaluating strategic planning program models and outcomes throughout the state. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279346/
Impact of Training on the Information Technology Attitudes of University Faculty
The purpose of this study was to determine whether training had an impact on the information technology attitudes of university faculty. The study was twofold. First, it sought to determine whether training changed attitudes toward information technology among faculty at a small, liberal arts university. Secondly, a group of faculty at a similar university was used to compare the differences in attitudes toward information technology among faculty who had received training and those who had not. The research population consisted of 218 faculty from these two universities. The literature review focused on obstacles to information technology use by faculty, instruments currently available for measuring faculty attitude, methods used in training faculty to use information technology, and integration of information technology by faculty. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278150/
The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices
The study examined the effects of a study skills training intervention course on U.S. Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices with five main purposes. The first was to examine the relationship between study skills training and the number of times students required academic interventions outside of normal class time. The second purpose was to examine the relationship between study skills training and end of course averages. The third was to determine the relationship between study skills training and the amount of additional instruction, measured in time, students required. The fourth purpose examined the relationship between study skills training and graduation rates. The final purpose was to recommend areas for further research. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278161/
The Awareness and Perception of Distance Education by the Leadership in the Texas State Technical College System
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were differences in the levels of awareness and perception concerning distance education among the leadership at the seven campuses of the Texas State Technical College (TSTC) System. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278282/
The Effect of Time on Training Retention Rates of United States Air Force Loadmaster Apprentice Students
The purpose of this study was to determine if extended periods of time out of the training environment has an effect on the retention of training. The rationale for conducting this study was based on the fact that little research has been done in this area. The findings of the study indicated that extensive periods of time out of training do significantly influence the amount of training retained fromone loadmaster course to the other. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between the number of days out of training and the posttest scores. The optimum training break between courses appears to be between 10 and 20 days. Training retention is apparently affected by time. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278257/
Behavior Management Techniques Used by Teachers of Emotionally/behaviorally Disordered Students in Various Educational Settings
The purpose of this study was to delineate the differences between the types of behavioral management techniques used by teachers of students with emotional/behavioral disorders. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278609/
Impact of Locus of Control and Incentives on Team Performance and Job Satisfaction
With the growing use of teams in organizations and schools there is a need to better understand the individual differences of employees that might potentially increase performance and improve attitudes. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of locus of control, which was the individual difference of interest in this study, and incentives on team performance and job satisfaction. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278621/
An Investigation of Factors Affecting Test Equating in Latent Trait Theory
The study investigated five factors which can affect the equating of scores from two tests onto a common score scale. The five factors studied were: (a) distribution type (i.e., normal versus uniform); (b) standard deviation of itemdifficulties (i.e., .68, .95, .99); (c) test length or number of test items (i.e., 50,100, 200); (d) number of common items (i.e., 10,20,30); and (e) sample size (i.e., 100, 300, 500). The significant two-way interaction effects were for common item length and test length, standard deviation of item difficulties and distribution type, and standard deviation of item difficulties and sample size. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278079/
Factors Affecting Discrete-Time Survival Analysis Parameter Estimation and Model Fit Statistics
Discrete-time survival analysis as an educational research technique has focused on analysing and interpretating parameter estimates. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of certain data characteristics on the hazard estimates and goodness of fit statistics. Fifty-four simulated data sets were crossed with four conditions in a 2 (time period) by 3 (distribution of Y = 1) by 3 (distribution of Y = 0) by 3 (sample size) design. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278405/
Investigating the Selected Validity of Authentic Assessment in Written Language for Students With and Without Learning Disabilities
This research study was designed to investigate whether authentic assessment in written language is a valid assessment tool for students with and without learning disabilities. Teacher judgements were used to evaluate students' authentic writing assessments gathered from the classroom. Students' report card grades, authentic writing assessments, and two standardized writing assessments, the Test of Written Language- Revised and Written Language Assessment, were correlated to provide evidence of the validity of authentic assessment practices in written language. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277937/
A Comparison of Multivariate Normal and Elliptical Estimation Methods in Structural Equation Models
In the present study, parameter estimates, standard errors and chi-square statistics were compared using normal and elliptical estimation methods given three research conditions: population data contamination (10%, 20%, and 30%), sample size (100, 400, and 1000), and kurtosis (kappa =1,10, 20). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278401/
A Comparison of Knowledge/Skills Statements Needed by Teachers of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and Teachers in Juvenile Correctional Special Education Settings
This study had a two-fold purpose. The first purpose was to compare the rankings of a set of knowledge/skills statements as reported by teachers of students with emotional behavioral disorders and teachers in juvenile correctional special education settings. A survey instrument designed to measure the importance, proficiency, and frequency of use of clusters of knowledge/skills statements was administered to 123 teachers in juvenile correctional special education settings in state institutions. Mann Whitney U analyses were calculated to compare the mean rankings of the two groups of teachers. The findings indicated that teachers in juvenile correctional special education settings and teachers of students with emotional and behavioral disorders were very similar as to which knowledge/skills clusters were important to their job performance, which clusters they were most proficient at using, and which clusters they utilized most frequently. The second purpose was to compare the teachers in juvenile correctional special education settings and to determine whether their mean rankings of the knowledge/skills clusters varied when analyzed by differing categories of age, type of certification held, years of teaching experience, and level of the teachers' education. Analysis of variance revealed no significant difference in the mean rankings in any of the comparison groups. Therefore teacher age, level of education, type of certification held, or years of teaching experience yielded no significant differences on the mean rankings of the knowledge/skills clusters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278049/
A Factor Analytic Study of Competencies Needed by Entry-level Automotive Technicians
This study centered on competencies needed by entry-level automotive technicians. Many students in automotive technician programs immediately seek employment upon program completion. This study is one step toward identifying areas in the automotive technician curriculum that need the most training emphasis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277713/
Stress and Job Satisfaction Among Special Education Teachers in Urban Districts in Texas
The purpose of this study was to explore the correlation of stress and job satisfaction among urban special education teachers. A stress inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory, a job satisfaction questionnaire, Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire, and a demographic profile were used to survey 292 special needs teachers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278208/
A Comparison of Two Differential Item Functioning Detection Methods: Logistic Regression and an Analysis of Variance Approach Using Rasch Estimation
Differential item functioning (DIF) detection rates were examined for the logistic regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) DIF detection methods. The methods were applied to simulated data sets of varying test length (20, 40, and 60 items) and sample size (200, 400, and 600 examinees) for both equal and unequal underlying ability between groups as well as for both fixed and varying item discrimination parameters. Each test contained 5% uniform DIF items, 5% non-uniform DIF items, and 5% combination DIF (simultaneous uniform and non-uniform DIF) items. The factors were completely crossed, and each experiment was replicated 100 times. For both methods and all DIF types, a test length of 20 was sufficient for satisfactory DIF detection. The detection rate increased significantly with sample size for each method. With the ANOVA DIF method and uniform DIF, there was a difference in detection rates between discrimination parameter types, which favored varying discrimination and decreased with increased sample size. The detection rate of non-uniform DIF using the ANOVA DIF method was higher with fixed discrimination parameters than with varying discrimination parameters when relative underlying ability was unequal. In the combination DIF case, there was a three-way interaction among the experimental factors discrimination type, relative ability, and sample size for both detection methods. The error rate for the ANOVA DIF detection method decreased as test length increased and increased as sample size increased. For both methods, the error rate was slightly higher with varying discrimination parameters than with fixed. For logistic regression, the error rate increased with sample size when relative underlying ability was unequal between groups. The logistic regression method detected uniform and non-uniform DIF at a higher rate than the ANOVA DIF method. Because the type of DIF present in real data is rarely known, the logistic regression method is recommended for most cases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278366/
A Correlational Study Using the Behavior Dimensions Rating Scale & the Behavior Assessment System for Children with Two Groups of Elementary School-Aged Students in Special Programs
This study examined the correlation between two commercially available behavior rating scales. The two scales used were the Behavior Dimensions Rating Scale (BDRS) and the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). Students from a special education behavior management class (primarily students with emotional disabilities) were rated on the two scales and students from a general education behavior management class (primarily students with conduct problems without disabilities) were rated on the two scales. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277634/
Paraeducators' Attitudes Toward Students with Disabilities: Implications for Staff Development
This study identified the attitudes of paraeducators toward students with disabilities and the implications for staff development. The purpose of this study was to survey attitudes of paraeducators toward students with disabilities. The attitude and demographic information obtained through the survey were analyzed for its implications for staff development with paraeducators. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278007/
The Effects of Career Group Counseling on the Self-Concept of At-Risk High School Students as Measured by the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of career group counseling in raising the self-concept of at-risk high school students. The following subgroups were represented in the sample: male and female students, white and non-white ethnic groups, and students from sophomore, junior, and senior classifications. Two groups of students in the Lewisville Independent School District meeting the criteria for at-risk as defined by House Bill 1010 were administered a pretest and posttest using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale. The experimental group was from the Lewisville Learning Center. The control group was students enrolled in the Coordinated Vocational Academic Education (CVAE) classes at Lewisville High School. A treatment sample of 25 students received career group counseling. A nontreatment sample of 25 students did not receive any group counseling. The t-test for independent samples was used to analyze the data. The pretests for the experimental and control groups showed no significant difference at the .05 level. The treatment sample received 30 hours of group counseling in the Fall semester of 1994. At the end of 30 hours of counseling a posttest was administered to the treatment sample and to the control sample. The t-test for independent samples was used to analyze the data. While career group counseling appeared to impact the students in the experimental group, the limitations of sample size and population may have effected the results. The treatment was significant at the .05 level and the null hypothesis was rejected. The findings showed that career group counseling was not an effective tool for increasing positive self-concept. It is concluded that self-concept was not effectively enhanced through group interaction conducted by the school system in this study. Further research is recommended. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277630/
An Investigation of Selected Factors Affecting Automotive Service Excellence Test Outcome and Job Placement Rate
Under investigation in this study was the effect of ASE certification of automotive technician training programs and other selected factors on ASE test outcome and job placement rate. This research ponders whether the time and money invested in certifying technician training programs is returning desired improvements in this automobile manufacturer's dealer service staff. The study focussed on technicians employed at Chrysler dealerships around the United States. The 2 samples totalling 387 males between the ages of 22 and 30 were drawn from 1,007 graduates of automotive technician training programs. Technicians that completed a formal training program beyond the high school level certified by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) were compared to others whose training was not certified by ASE. Comparisons were made on the basis of ASE Automobile Technician Test scores and on the length of time from training program completion to employment. This research sought to identify the significance of association between three main predictors - the status of training program ASE certification, work experience and year of training program completion - and the most desirable levels of ASE test outcome (at or above 90% on the ASE test) and job placement rate (immediately following completion of training). The logistic regression procedure in SAS was used to analyze categorical data in testing the statistical hypotheses. Resulting odds ratios provided indications of significant associations between ASE program certification, technician experience and year of program completion and each of the dependent variables, ASE test outcome and job placement rate. The findings indicated that ASE automotive training program certification status was a significant predictor of ASE test outcome and of job placement rate. Recommendations for further study suggest a look at how technician skill levels affect implementation of the Clean Air Act or dependency on foreign sources of fuel, how training program certification impacts desirable results in industries other than automotive, and how realignment of resources might enhance the performance of training programs already certified. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277698/
Prediction of High School Dropouts and Teen-Aged Parents from Student Permanent Records
Research has reported that a predictive link exists between socio-economic risk factors and high school dropouts, including teen-aged parents. Educators have little control over socio-economic risk factors. However, school records and classroom performance data can point to in-school risk factors. The purpose of this study was to help all students by using the in-school data to pinpoint the indicators that predict potential student achievement difficulties in specific areas of curricula. This study was an anteriospective longitudinal study of the 1995 graduating class of a suburban school district composed of approximately 920 seniors. The sample consisted of 344 graduates, 114 dropouts, and 42 teenaged parents. Backward stepwise logistic regression analysis was the statistical method used for model building. An analysis was done by gender at the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th grades from the permanent records of sample students. The study found that significant predictors exist at each grade level and are different for each group, grade level, and gender with some predictors in common: language arts and attendance. The most consistent male dropout predictors were found to be absenteeism, grades in language arts, spelling, and achievement test scores in language arts. The most consistent female dropout predictors were found to be absenteeism, elementary retention, course failures, and achievement test scores in language arts. Achievement test scores in language arts were found to be the most important in-school predictors for teen-aged parents. The predictors for teenaged parents followed the same pattern as female dropouts and graduates until the 8th grade where achievement test scores in vocabulary, math, and total battery became important predictors. Teen-aged parents were found to be a sub-population of dropouts or graduates. Teen-aged parents dropped out or graduated from school based on the early predictors of dropouts or graduates, not based on parenting or single status. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277964/
An Empirical Comparison of Random Number Generators: Period, Structure, Correlation, Density, and Efficiency
Random number generators (RNGs) are widely used in conducting Monte Carlo simulation studies, which are important in the field of statistics for comparing power, mean differences, or distribution shapes between statistical approaches. Statistical results, however, may differ when different random number generators are used. Often older methods have been blindly used with no understanding of their limitations. Many random functions supplied with computers today have been found to be comparatively unsatisfactory. In this study, five multiplicative linear congruential generators (MLCGs) were chosen which are provided in the following statistical packages: RANDU (IBM), RNUN (IMSL), RANUNI (SAS), UNIFORM(SPSS), and RANDOM (BMDP). Using a personal computer (PC), an empirical investigation was performed using five criteria: period length before repeating random numbers, distribution shape, correlation between adjacent numbers, density of distributions and normal approach of random number generator (RNG) in a normal function. All RNG FORTRAN programs were rewritten into Pascal which is more efficient language for the PC. Sets of random numbers were generated using different starting values. A good RNG should have the following properties: a long enough period; a well-structured pattern in distribution; independence between random number sequences; random and uniform distribution; and a good normal approach in the normal distribution. Findings in this study suggested that the above five criteria need to be examined when conducting a simulation study with large enough sample sizes and various starting values because the RNG selected can affect the statistical results. Furthermore, a study for purposes of indicating reproducibility and validity should indicate the source of the RNG, the type of RNG used, evaluation results of the RNG, and any pertinent information related to the computer used in the study. Recommendations for future research are suggested in the area of other RNGs and methods not used in this study, such as additive, combined, mixed and shifted RNGs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277807/
Nontraditional students in community colleges and the model of college outcomes for adults.
The purpose of this study was to examine three components of Donaldson and Graham's (1999) model of college outcomes for adults: (a) Prior Experience & Personal Biographies, (b) the Connecting Classroom, and (c) Life-World Environment, and to assess their application to traditional and nontraditional students in community colleges in both technical and nontechnical courses. The study sample was comprised of 311 community college students enrolled in technical and nontechnical courses during fall 2005. A survey instrument was developed based on the three model components through a review of the literature. Demographic data collected were utilized to classify students into a technical or nontechnical grouping as well as four classifications of traditionalism: (a) traditional, (b) minimally nontraditional, (c) moderately nontraditional, and (d) highly traditional. This study found that nontraditional students vary from traditional students in regards to the three model constructs. A post hoc descriptive discriminate analysis determined that the Life-World Environment component contributed the most to group differences with the minimally nontraditional group scoring the highest on this construct. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5793/
A Qualitative Research Study of How Extended Field Experience Prepares Special Education Teachers of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
A well-prepared and qualified special education teacher is crucial to the performance of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). The prominent educators and federal government encourage the use of extended field experiences in preparing qualified special education teachers. The study examined the strengths and weaknesses of extended field experience in terms of the perceptions of the prospective teachers and teachers of students with EBD. Both individual interviews and a focus group were used to collect data. The results revealed that extended field experience benefits prospective teachers in showing the reality of the teachers' world, self-motivation assessment, and professional development. However, there were some improvements that could be made, including more placement selections and more practical knowledge. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5795/
Enhanced learning performance in the middle school classroom through increased student motivation, by the use of educational software and question-based gaming technology.
The purpose of this research was to determine if the introduction of a competitive and collaborative computer-based gaming software system into middle school classrooms would result in improved attendance and grades, and motivate students to have a greater interest in their studies. This study was conducted over a 6 week period, with attendance and performance data being collected from 284 students. Two quantitative surveys were used to measure course interest and motivation: (a) the Course Interest Survey (CIS), and (b) the Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS). Participation in these surveys consisted of 84 students taking the CIS and 40 students taking the IMMS. The results indicated that the experimental group showed statistically better scores than the comparison group in attendance and performance. Students participating in the experimental group had significantly lower mean ranks of absenteeism compared to students in the comparison group. Results also revealed significant differences on grades. Students that were in the experimental group had significantly higher grades compared to students that were in the comparison group. Results of the CIS suggest that a statistically significant difference does not exist on Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction between the experimental and comparison groups. Results of the means and standard deviations for the IMMS Motivation Scores fell somewhere between Moderately true and Mostly true. This research study suggests that student's attendance and performance can be improved when quiz based gaming software that is both collaborative and competitive is used regularly in the classroom. However, for student's that participated in the gaming software, their interest in studying the subject doesn't appear to be significantly different from students that did not participate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5613/
The Relationship of the Learning Styles of High School Teachers and Computer Use in the Classroom
This study sought to determine if the dominant learning styles of high school teachers is related to the amount of time computers are used in the classroom by students. It also examined the types of software used by those teachers, and their levels of technology adoption. Subjects (N=177) were from high schools in a large urban school district. Instrumentation included the Gregorc Style Delineator, a modified version of the Snapshot Survey and the Stages of Adoption of Technology. An ANOVA showed no statistical significance between teachers with different dominant learning styles in the numbers of minutes per week that computers were utilized in their classrooms with students. A chi square test showed no statistical significance in the types of software used in the classrooms of teachers with different dominant learning styles. A chi square test showed no statistical significance in the Stages of Technology Adoption of teachers with different dominant learning styles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5580/
The relationship between the reasons for participation in continuing professional education and the leader effectiveness of first-line supervisors.
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This research examined the reasons for participation in continuing professional education (CPE) and the predictive relationship of those motivational reasons to the perceived leadership effectiveness of first-line supervisors. For this study, 105 first-line supervisors were surveyed from four electric utility companies. Input was also collected from each supervisor's subordinate employees. Using the five motivational reasons for participation, collected via the Participation Reasons Scale and the effectiveness score collected using the Leader Behavior Analysis II®, regression techniques were used to asses the data. The five participation reasons of the PRS were regressed individually against the effectiveness scores to determine the extent to which leader effectiveness could be predicted by the participation reasons. In each case, the null hypothesis failed to be rejected. Regression of the five PRS reasons collectively on leader effectiveness also failed to reject the null, producing a p value of .800 and an R2 value of .023. An "all possible subsets" regression was conducted to determine whether a smaller subset of the five predictor variables might improve the predictive value of the participation reasons. No subset improved the predictive value. This study concludes that motivation to participate in CPE does not predict leader effectiveness. Thus, training organizations do not need to attempt to determine leader effectiveness based on underlying reasons individuals are motivated to participate, but rather should focus on the more traditional aspects of determining effectiveness most often associated with rigorous training evaluation processes. This study focused on the job role of first-line supervisor. Future research could be performed using: (a) populations of individuals from other traditional job roles including front-line employees (both unionized and non-unionized), mid-level managers, and executives; (b) leaders with and without prior training in situational leadership; and (c) effectiveness measure over time (i.e., a time-series method). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5535/
Well-Being of Gifted Students Following Participation in an Early-College-Entrance Program
The concepts of well-being and life satisfaction are explored in this study of the experiences and psychological traits of highly-gifted students who have been radically accelerated into an early-college-entrance program. The study was conducted after participation in the early-college-entrance program. The primary focus of the study is on personal well-being and life satisfaction including the variables of subjective well-being, efficacy, and the dispositional traits of cheerfulness, seriousness, and bad mood. These variables are gathered as the initial phase of a longitudinal study of the early-college entrants' personal and professional experiences, their life satisfaction, and dispositions. The subjects for this study were participants in the Texas Academy of Math and Science (TAMS). TAMS is a state run early-college-entrance program at the University of North Texas in Denton. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5505/
Measuring the Perceived Transfer of Learning and Training for a Customer Service Training Program Delivered by Line Managers to Call Center Employees in a Fortune 200 Financial Services Company
The purpose of this study was to explore what effect manager involvement in the delivery of training has on employee learning (transfer of learning) and on student behavior after training (transfer of training). Study participants were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups and a customer service training program was delivered with and without manager involvement. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected immediately after training using a retrospective pretest-then/posttest-now instrument developed to measure the participants' perceived transfer of learning. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected approximately 4 weeks after training also using a retrospective pretest-then/posttest-now instrument developed to measure the participants' perceived transfer of training. Quality assurance data generated by the organization for the first full month after the training program was completed were collected to measure the actual transfer of training. A 13-item version of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-C) was included with the perceived transfer of training survey to measure the potential for self-perception bias with the perceived transfer of learning and the perceived transfer of training data. ANOVA results for the perceived transfer of learning and perceived transfer of training data indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups. ANOVA results for the actual transfer of training data mirrored the results found for the perceived transfer of training. The possibility of self-perception bias in using the retrospective pretest-then/posttest-now instruments was recognized as a study concern with MC-C data indicating a much higher level of social desirability with the sample population than with reported non-forensic norms. A slight positive influence on the transfer of learning and on the transfer of training was found when a participant's direct manager was involved in the delivery of training. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5401/
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