 Cooperationinduced Criticality in Neural Networks
 The human brain is considered to be the most complex and powerful informationprocessing device in the known universe. The fundamental concepts behind the physics of complex systems motivate scientists to investigate the human brain as a collective property emerging from the interaction of thousand agents. In this dissertation, I investigate the emergence of cooperationinduced properties in a system of interacting units. I demonstrate that the neural network of my research generates a series of properties such as avalanche distribution in size and duration coinciding with the experimental results on neural networks both in vivo and in vitro. Focusing attention on temporal complexity and fractal index of the system, I discuss how to define an order parameter and phase transition. Criticality is assumed to correspond to the emergence of temporal complexity, interpreted as a manifestation of nonPoisson renewal dynamics. In addition, I study the transmission of information between two networks to confirm the criticality and discuss how the network topology changes over time in the light of Hebbian learning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc283813/
 Electron Density and Collision Frequency Studies Using a Resonant Microwave Cavity as a Probe
 Electron densities and collision frequencies were obtained on a number of gases in a dc discharge at low pressures (0.702mm of Hg). These measurements were performed by microwave probing of a filament of the dc discharge placed coaxially in a resonant cavity operating in a TM₀₁₀ mode. The equipment and techniques for making the microwave measurements employing the resonant cavity are described. One of the main features of this investigation is the technique of differentiating the resonance signal of the loaded cavity in order to make accurate measurements of the resonant frequency and halfpower point frequencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279091/
 Magnetomorphic Oscillations in Zinc
 In making this study it is important to search for ways to enhance and, if possible, make detection of MMO signals simpler in order that this technique for obtaining FS measurements may be extended to other materials. This attempt to improve measurement techniques has resulted in a significant discovery: the eddycurrent techniques described in detail in a later section which should allow MMO to be observed and sensitively measured in many additional solids. The second major thrust of the study has been to use the newly discovered eddycurrent technique in obtaining the first indisputable observation of MMO in zinc. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279266/
 QuantumConfined CdS Nanoparticles on DNA Templates
 As electronic devices became smaller, interest in quantumconfined semiconductor nanostructures increased. Selfassembled mesoscale semiconductor structures of IIVI nanocrystals are an especially exciting subject because of their controllable band gap and unique photophysical properties. Several preparative methods to synthesize and control the sizes of the individual nanocrystallites and the electronic and optical properties have been intensively studied. Fabrication of patterned nanostructures composed of quantumconfined nanoparticles is the next step toward practical applications. We have developed an innovative method to fabricate diverse nanostructures which relies on the size and a shape of a chosen deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) template. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279352/
 Structural and Photoelectron Emission Properties of Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown Diamond Films
 The effects of methane (CH4), diborone (B2H6) and nitrogen (N2) concentrations on the structure and photoelectron emission properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films were studied. The diamond films were grown on singlecrystal Si substrates using the hottungsten filament CVD technique. Raman spectroscopy and xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the different forms of carbon in the films, and the fraction of sp3 carbon to sp3 plus sp2 carbon at the surface of the films, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface morphology of the films. The photoelectron emission properties were determined by measuring the energy distributions of photoemitted electrons using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and by measuring the photoelectric current as a function of incident photon energy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279053/
 On Delocalization Effects in Multidimensional Lattices
 A cubic lattice with random parameters is reduced to a linear chain by the means of the projection technique. The continued fraction expansion (c.f.e.) approach is herein applied to the density of states. Coefficients of the c.f.e. are obtained numerically by the recursion procedure. Properties of the nonstationary second moments (correlations and dispersions) of their distribution are studied in a connection with the other evidences of transport in a onedimensional Mori chain. The second moments and the spectral density are computed for the various degrees of disorder in the prototype lattice. The possible directions of the further development are outlined. The physical problem that is addressed in the dissertation is the possibility of the existence of a nonAnderson disorder of a specific type. More precisely, this type of a disorder in the onedimensional case would result in a positive localization threshold. A specific type of such nonAnderson disorder was obtained by adopting a transformation procedure which assigns to the matrix expressing the physics of the multidimensional crystal a tridiagonal Hamiltonian. This Hamiltonian is then assigned to an equivalent onedimensional tightbinding model. One of the benefits of this approach is that we are guaranteed to obtain a linear crystal with a positive localization threshold. The reason for this is the existence of a threshold in a prototype sample. The resulting linear model is found to be characterized by a correlated and a nonstationary disorder. The existence of such special disorder is associated with the absence of Anderson localization in specially constructed onedimensional lattices, when the noise intensity is below the nonzero critical value. This work is an important step towards isolating the general properties of a nonAnderson noise. This gives a basis for understanding of the insulator to metal transition in a linear crystal with a subcritical noise. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278868/
 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy of Epitaxial Diamond (110) and (111) Films and Field Emission Properties of Diamond Coated Molybdenum Microtips
 The growth mechanism of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown homoepitaxial diamond (110) and (111) films was studied using ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). In addition, the field emission properties of diamond coated molybdenum microtips were studied as a function of exposure to different gases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279160/
 MagnetoOptical and Chaotic Electrical Properties of nInSb
 This thesis investigation concerns the optical and nonlinear electrical properties of nInSb. Two specific areas have been studied. First is the magnetooptical study of magnetodonors, and second is the nonlinear dynamic study of nonlinear and chaotic oscillations in InSb. The magnetooptical study of InSb provides a physical picture of the magnetodonor levels, which has an important impact on the physical model of nonlinear and chaotic oscillations. Thus, the subjects discussed in this thesis connect the discipline of semiconductor physics with the field of nonlinear dynamics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279131/
 Studies of Particles and Wave Propagation in Periodic and Quasiperiodic Nonlinear Media
 This thesis examines the properties of transmission and transport of light and charged particles in periodic or quasiperiodic systems of solid state and optics, especially the nonlinear and external field effects and the dynamic properties of these systems. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278708/
 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Studies of Highly Charged Molecular Ions
 The existence of singly, doubly, and triply charged diatomic molecular ions was observed by using an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique. The mean lifetimes of 3 MeV boron diatomic molecular ions were measured. No isotopic effects on the mean lifetimes of boron diatomic molecules were observed for charge state 3+. Also, the mean lifetime of SiF^3+ was measured. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279004/
 Experimental Synchronization of Chaotic Attractors Using Control
 The focus of this thesis is to theoretically and experimentally investigate two new schemes of synchronizing chaotic attractors using chaotically operating diode resonators. The first method, called synchronization using control, is shown for the first time to experimentally synchronize dynamical systems. This method is an economical scheme which can be viably applied to low dimensional dynamical systems. The other, unidirectional coupling, is a straightforward means of synchronization which can be implemented in fast dynamical systems where timing is critical. Techniques developed in this work are of fundamental importance for future problems regarding high dimensional chaotic dynamical systems or arrays of mutually linked chaotically operating elements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278971/
 Dielectric Relaxation of Aqueous Solutions at Microwave Frequencies for 3[less than or equal to]f[less than or equal to]35 GHz. Using a Loaded Microwave Cavity Operating in the TM010 Mode
 The frequency dependence and temperature dependence of the complex dielectric constant of water is of great interest. The temperature dependence of the physical properties of water given in the literature, specific heat, thermal conductivity, electric conductivity, pH, etc. are compared to the a. c. (microwave) and d. c. conductivity of water with a variety of concentration of different substances such as HC1, NaCl, HaS04, etc. When each of these properties is plotted versus inverse absolute temperature, it can be seen that each sample shows "transition temperatures". In this work, Slater's perturbation equations for a resonant microwave cavity were used to analyze the experimental results for the microwave data. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279039/
 Angular Dependence of the Stopping Processes and the Yields of Ioninduced Electron Emission from Channeled MEV Protons in <100> Silicon Foils
 The present work reports the experimental evidence of anomalous energy loss, energy straggling, and the corresponding ioninduced electron emission yields of channeled protons in silicon. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279025/
 Charge State Dependence of MShell XRay Production in 67Ho by 212 MeV Carbon Ions
 The charge state dependence of Mshell xray production cross sections of 67HO bombarded by 212 MeV carbon ions with and without Kvacancies are reported. The experiment was performed using an NEC 9SDH2 tandem accelerator at the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory of the University of North Texas. The high charge state carbon ions were produced by a postaccelerator stripping gas cell. Ultraclean holmium targets were used in ionatom collision to generate Mshell x rays at energies from 1.05 to 1.58 keV. The xray measurements were made with a windowless Si(Li) xray detector that was calibrated using radiative sources, particle induced xray emission (PIXE), and the atomic field bremsstrahlung (AFB) techniques. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278725/
 Deterministic Brownian Motion
 The goal of this thesis is to contribute to the ambitious program of the foundation of developing statistical physics using chaos. We build a deterministic model of Brownian motion and provide a microscpoic derivation of the FokkerPlanck equation. Since the Brownian motion of a particle is the result of the competing processes of diffusion and dissipation, we create a model where both diffusion and dissipation originate from the same deterministic mechanism  the deterministic interaction of that particle with its environment. We show that standard diffusion which is the basis of the FokkerPlanck equation rests on the Central Limit Theorem, and, consequently, on the possibility of deriving it from a deterministic process with a quickly decaying correlation function. The sensitive dependence on initial conditions, one of the defining properties of chaos insures this rapid decay. We carefully address the problem of deriving dissipation from the interaction of a particle with a fully deterministic nonlinear bath, that we term the booster. We show that the solution of this problem essentially rests on the linear response of a booster to an external perturbation. This raises a longstanding problem concerned with Kubo's Linear Response Theory and the strong criticism against it by van Kampen. Kubo's theory is based on a perturbation treatment of the Liouville equation, which, in turn, is expected to be totally equivalent to a firstorder perturbation treatment of single trajectories. Since the boosters are chaotic, and chaos is essential to generate diffusion, the single trajectories are highly unstable and do not respond linearly to weak external perturbation. We adopt chaotic maps as boosters of a Brownian particle, and therefore address the problem of the response of a chaotic booster to an external perturbation. We notice that a fully chaotic map is characterized by an invariant measure which is a continuous function of the control parameters of the map. Consequently if the external perturbation is made to act on a control parameter of the map, we show that the booster distribution undergoes slight modifications as an effect of the weak external perturbation, thereby leading to a linear response of the mean value of the perturbed variable of the booster. This approach to linear response completely bypasses the criticism of van Kampen. The joint use of these two phenomena, diffusion and friction stemming from the interaction of the Brownian particle with the same booster, makes the microscopic derivation of a FokkerPlanck equation and Brownian motion, possible. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279262/
 Scaling Behaviors and Mechanical Properties of Polymer Gels
 Polymer gels undergo a volume phase transition in solvent in response to an infinitesimal environmental change. This remarkable phenomenon has resulted in many potential applications of polymer gels. The understanding of its mechanical properties has both scientific and technological importance. For this purpose, we have developed a novel method for measuring Poisson's ratio, which is one of the most important parameters determining the mechanical property of gels. Using this method, Poisson's ratio in Nisopropyacrylamide (NIPA) and polyacrylamide (PAAM) gels has been studied. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc279278/
 On Chaos and Anomalous Diffusion in Classical and Quantum Mechanical Systems
 The phenomenon of dynamically induced anomalous diffusion is both the classical and quantum kicked rotor is investigated in this dissertation. We discuss the capability of the quantum mechanical version of the system to reproduce for extended periods the corresponding classical chaotic behavior. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278244/
 Steadystate and Dynamic Probe Characteristics in a Lowdensity Plasma
 The problem with which this investigation is concerned is that of determining the steadystate and dynamic characteristics of the admittance of a metallic probe immersed in a laboratory plasma which has the low electron densities and low electron temperatures characteristic of the ionospheric plasma. The problem is separated into three related topics: the design and production of the laboratory plasma, the measurement of the steadystate properties of dc and very low frequency probe admittance, and the study of transient ion sheath effects on radio frequency probe admittance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278232/
 Evolution of Vacancy Supersaturations in MeV Si Implanted Silicon
 Highenergy Si implantation into silicon creates a net defect distribution that is characterized by an excess of interstitials near the projected range and a simultaneous excess of vacancies closer to the surface. This defect distribution is due to the spatial separation between the distributions of interstitials and vacancies created by the forward momentum transferred from the implanted ion to the lattice atom. This dissertation investigates the evolution of the nearsurface vacancy excess in MeV Siimplanted silicon both during implantation and postimplant annealing. Although previous investigations have identified a vacancy excess in MeVimplanted silicon, the investigations presented in this dissertation are unique in that they are designed to correlate the freevacancy supersaturation with the vacancies in clusters. Freevacancy (and interstitial) supersaturations were measured with Sb (B) dopant diffusion markers. Vacancies in clusters were profiled by Au labeling; a new technique based on the observation that Au atoms trap in the presence of openvolume defects. The experiments described in this dissertation are also unique in that they were designed to isolate the deep interstitial excess from interacting with the much shallower vacancy excess during postimplant thermal processing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277663/
 Distribution of Nighttime Fregion Molecular Ion Concentrations and 6300 Å Nightglow Morphology
 The purpose of this study is twofold. The first is to determine the dependence of the molecular ion profiles on the various ionospheric and atmospheric parameters that affect their distributions. The second is to demonstrate the correlation of specific ionospheric parameters with 6300 Å nightglow intensity during periods of magnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278620/
 Charge State Distributions in Molecular Dissociation
 The present work provides charge state fractions that may be used to generate TEAMS relative sensitivity factors for impurities in semiconductor materials. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278340/
 Anisotropic Relaxation Time for Solids with Ellipsoidal Fermi Surfaces
 Many solids have Fermi surfaces which are approximated as ellipsoids. A comprehensive solution for the magnetoconductivity of an ellipsoid is obtained which proves the existence of a relaxation time tensor which can be anisotropic and which is a function of energy only. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278322/
 Fluorine Adsorption and Diffusion in Polycrystalline Silica
 The measurement of fluorine penetration into archeological flint artifacts using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) has been reported to be a potential dating method. However, the mechanism of how fluorine is incorporated into the flint surface, and finally transported into the bulk is not well understood. This research focuses on the study of the fluorine uptake phenomenon of flint mineral in aqueous fluoride solutions. Both theoretical and experimental approaches have been carried out. In a theoretical approach, a pipediffusion model was used to simulate the complicated fluorine transportation problem in flint, in which several diffusion mechanisms may be involved. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277986/
 TwoFold Role of Randomness: A Source of Both LongRange Correlations and Ordinary Statistical Mechanics
 The role of randomness as a generator of long range correlations and ordinary statistical mechanics is investigated in this Dissertation. The difficulties about the derivation of thermodynamics from mechanics are pointed out and the connection between the ordinary fluctuationdissipation process and possible anomalous properties of statistical systems is highlighted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278012/
 Synthesis and Study of Engineered Heterogenous Polymer Gels
 This dissertation studies physical properties and technological applications of engineered heterogenous polymer gels. Such gels are synthesized based on modulation of gel chemical nature in space. The shape memory gels have been developed in this study by using the modulated gel technology. At room temperature, they form a straight line. As the temperature is increased, they spontaneously bend or curl into a predetermined shape such as a letter of the alphabet, a numerical number, a spiral, a square, or a fish. The shape changes are reversible. The heterogenous structures have been also obtained on the gel surface. The central idea is to cover a dehydrated gel surface with a patterned mask, then to sputterdeposit a gold film onto it. After removing the mask, a gold pattern is left on the gel surface. Periodical surface array can serve as gratings to diffract light. The grating constant can be continuously changed by the external environmental stimuli such as temperature and electric field. Several applications of gels with periodic surface arrays as sensors for measuring gel swelling ratio, internal strain under an uniaxial stress, and shear modulus have been demonstrated. The porous NIPA gels have been synthesized by suspension technique. Microstructures of newly synthesized gels are characterized by both SEM and capillary test and are related to their swelling and mechanical properties. The heterogenous porous NIPA gel shrink about 35,000 times faster than its counterpartthe homogeneous NIPA gel. Development of such fast responsive gels can result in sensors and devices applications. A new gel system with builtin anisotropy is studied. This gel system consists of interpenetrated polymer network (IPN) gels of polyacrylamide (PAAM) and Nisopropylacrylamide (NIPA). The swelling property of the anisotropy IPN gels along the prestressing direction is different from that along other directions, in contrast to conventional gels which swell isotropically. It is found that the ratio (L/D) of length (L) and diameter (D) of IPN samples has stepwise changes as the samples are heated from below the volume phase transition temperature to the above. A theoretical model is proposed and is in good agreement with the experimental results. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278503/
 Characterization and Field Emission Properties of Mo2C and Diamond Thin Films Deposited on Mo Foils and Tips by Electrophoresis
 In this dissertation M02C and diamond films deposited by electrophoresis on flat Mo foils and tips have been studied to determine their suitability as field emission tips. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278393/
 Expulsion of Carriers from the DoubleBarrier Quantum Well and Investigation of Its Spectral and Transport Consequences
 In this work I investigate the expulsion of carriers from nanostructures using the doublebarrier quantum well (DBQW) as an example and discuss manifestations of this effect in the spectrum of the DBQW in absence of bias, and in the tunneling current in presence of bias. Assuming equality of the Fermi energy in all regions of the considered system, I compute the relative density of carriers localized in the DBQW and conclude that a fraction of carriers is expelled from this nanostructure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277697/
 LShell XRay Production Cross Sections for ₂₀Ca, ₂₆Fe, ₂₈Ni, ₂₉Cu, ₃₀Zn, ₃₁Ga, and ₃₂Ge by Hydrogen, Helium, and Lithium Ions
 Lshell xray production cross sections are presented for Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, and Ge by 0.5 to 5.0MeV protons and by 0.5 to 8.0MeV helium ions and Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ge by 0.75 to 4.5MeV lithium ions. These measurements are compared to the first Born theory and the perturbedstationary state theory with energyloss, Coulomb deflection, and relativistic corrections (ECPSSR). The results are also compared to previous experimental investigations. The high precision xray measurements were performed with a windowless Si(Li) detector. The efficiency of the detector was determined by the use of thin target atomicfield bremsstrahlung produced by 66.5 keV electrons. The measured bremsstrahlung spectra were compared to theoretical bremsstrahlung distributions in order to obtain an efficiency versus energy curve. The targets for the measurement were manufactured by the vacuum evaporation of the target element onto thin foils of carbon. Impurities in the carbon caused interferences inthe Lshell xray peaks. Special cleansing procedures were developed that reduced the impurity concentrations in the carbon foil, making the use of less than 5 μg/cm^2 targets possible. The first Born theory is seen to greatly overpredict the data at low ion energies. The ECPSSR theory matches the data very well at the high energy region. At low energies, while fitting the data much more closely than the first Born theory, the ECPSSR theory does not accurately predict the trend of the data. This is probably due to the onset of molecularorbital effects, a mechanism not accounted for in the ECPSSR theory. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277620/
 ShortPeriod Transient Grating Measurement of Perpendicular Transport in GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Wells
 In this thesis the author describes the use of transient grating techniques to study the transport of electrons and holes perpendicular to the layers of a GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (MQW). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277907/
 Diffusion Kinetics and Microstructure of Eutectic and Composite Solder/Copper Joints
 Sn/Pb solders are widely used by the electronics industry to provide both mechanical and electrical interconnections between electronic components and printed circuit boards. Solders with enhanced mechanical properties are required for high reliability for Surface Mount Technology (SMT) applications. One approach to improve the mechanical properties of solder is to add metallic or intermetallic particles to eutectic 63Sn/37Pb solder to form composite solders. Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn form and grow at the solder/copper substrate interface. The formation and growth of these intermetallics have been proposed as controlling mechanisms for solderability and reliability of solder/copper joints. The goal of this study was to investigate the diffusion kinetics and microstructures of six types of composite solder/copper joints. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278545/
 Nonlinear Dynamics of Semiconductor Device Circuits and Characterization of Deep Energy Levels in HgCdTe by Using MagnetoOptical Spectroscopy
 The nonlinear dynamics of three physical systems has been investigated. Diode resonator systems are experimentally shown to display a period doubling route to chaos, quasiperiodic states, periodic locking states, and Hopf bifurcation to chaos. Particularly, the transition from quasiperiodic states to chaos in linecoupled systems agrees well with the CurryYorke model. The SPICE program has been modified to give realistic models for the diode resonator systems. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278165/
 Transport Processes in Synchrotrons
 This thesis examines the evolution of beams in synchrotrons. Following an introduction to accelerator physics in Chapter 1, in Chapter 2 I describe the Fermilab E778 'diffusion' experiment. Families of sextupoles were powered to drive the 2/5 resonance, and a beam was then kicked to populate a nonlinear region of the transverse phase space. The beam was then observed over periods of approximately 30 minutes for a variety of kick amplitudes and physical apertures. In Chapter 3 comments about the analytic treatment of such systems are discussed, including the assumptions inherent in the conventional treatment. I motivate my use of a simplified model in Chapter 4 after examining common computational methods. Deriving the model from the formalism of traditional accelerator physics, I discuss its implementation on a massively parallel computer, the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube, and examine the performance of this algorithm in detail. Using the simple model to perform the numerical experiment equivalent to E778 is the subject of Chapter 5. I derive the parameters needed for the simple model based upon the physical experiment. Both three dimensional cases and cases with reduced dimensionality are run. From power supply ripple data and an electrical model of the magnet string, I compute tune modulation depths, and a subset of these are run. I conclude that tune modulation from power supply ripple is not a significant source of transport for this system. In Chapter 6, the intensities of the beams are used to compare the experimental and numerical runs, using both exponential and algebraic decays, and the algebraic form is seen to provide a better fit. The agreement between numerical and experimental results is best for fully threedimensional runs, but the numerical results show slower decay than the experimental. Individual particles are examined, whose motion consists of stochastic motion interspersed with regular motion, suggestive of a Continuous Time Random Walk process. A pausing time distribution is extracted which is algebraic in time, which is consistent with dispersive transport observed elsewhere. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277803/
 Z1 Dependence of IonInduced Electron Emission
 Knowledge of the atomic number (Zt) dependence of ioninduced electron emission yields (Y) can be the basis for a general understanding of ionatom interaction phenomena and, in particular, for the design of Zrsensitive detectors that could be useful, for example, in the separation of isobars in accelerator mass spectrometry. The Zx dependence of ioninduced electron emission yields has been investigated using heavy ions of identical velocity (v = 2 v0, with v0 as the Bohr velocity) incident in a normal direction on sputtercleaned carbon foils. Yields measured in this work plotted as a function of the ion's atomic number reveal an oscillatory behavior with pronounced maxima and minima. This nonmonotonic dependence of the yield on Zx will be discussed in the light of existing theories. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277977/
 Numerical Investigations of Quantum Effects of Chaos
 The quantum dynamics of minimum uncertainty wave packets in a system described by the surfacestateelectron (SSE) Hamiltonian are studied herein. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc278488/
 A New Approach for Transition Metal Free Magnetic Sic: Defect Induced Magnetism After Selfion Implantation
 SiC has become an attractive wide bandgap semiconductor due to its unique physical and electronic properties and is widely used in high temperature, high frequency, high power and radiation resistant applications. SiC has been used as an alternative to Si in harsh environments such as in the oil industry, nuclear power systems, aeronautical, and space applications. SiC is also known for its polytypism and among them 3CSiC, 4HSiC and 6HSiC are the most common polytypes used for research purposes. Among these polytypes 4HSiC is gaining importance due to its easy commercial availability with a large bandgap of 3.26 eV at room temperature. Controlled creation of defects in materials is an approach to modify the electronic properties in a way that new functionality may result. SiC is a promising candidate for defectinduced magnetism on which spintronic devices could be developed. The defects considered are of room temperature stable vacancy types, eliminating the need for magnetic impurities, which easily diffuse at room temperature. Impurity free vacancy type defects can be created by implanting the host atoms of silicon or carbon. The implantation fluence determines the defect density, which is a critical parameter for defect induced magnetism. Therefore, we have studied the influence of low fluence low energy silicon and carbon implantation on the creation of defects in ntype 4HSiC. The characterization of the defects in these implanted samples was performed using the techniques, RBSchanneling and Raman spectroscopy. We have also utilized these characterization techniques to analyze defects created in much deeper layers of the SiC due to implantation of high energy nitrogen ions. The experimentally determined depths of the Si damage peaks due to low energy (60 keV) Si and C ions with low fluences (< 1015 cm2) are consistent with the SRIM2011 simulations. From RBSC Si sublattice measurements for different fluences (1.1×1014 cm2 to 3.2×1014 cm2) of Si implantation in 4HSiC, the Si vacancy density is estimated to range from 1.29×1022 cm3 to 4.57×1022 cm2, corresponding to average vacancy distances of 4.26 Å to 2.79 Å at the damage peak (50±5 nm). Similarly, for C implanted fluences (1.85×1014 cm2 to 1×1015 cm2), the Si vacancy density varies from 1.37×1022 cm3 to 4.22×1022 cm3 with the average vacancy distances from 4.17 Å to 2.87 Å at the damage peak (110±10 nm). From the Raman spectroscopy, the implantationinduced lattice disorders calculated along the caxis (LO mode) and perpendicular to caxis (TO mode) in 4HSiC are found to be similar. Furthermore, the results obtained from SQUID measurements in C implanted ntype 4HSiC sample with fluences ranging from 1×1012 to 1.7×1016 ions/cm2 have been discussed. The implanted samples showed diamagnetism similar to the unimplanted sample. To date, to our best of knowledge, no experimental work has been reported on investigating defect induced magnetism for selfion implantation in ntype 4HSiC. These first reports of experimental results can provide useful information in future studies for a better understanding of selfion implantation in SiCbased DMS. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271849/
 Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Nonlinear Bioimaging, Cell Detection and Selective Cell Destruction

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Light matter interactions have led to a great part of our current understanding of the universe. When light interacts with matter it affects the properties of both the light and the matter. Visible light, being in the region that the human eye can "see," was one of the first natural phenomenon we used to learn about our universe. The application of fundamental physics research has spilled over into other fields that were traditionally separated from physics, being considered two different sciences. Current physics research has applications in all scientific fields. By taking a more physical approach to problems in fields such as chemistry and biology, we have furthered our knowledge of both. Nanocrystals have many interesting optical properties. Furthermore, the size and properties of nanocrystals has given them applications in materials ranging from solar cells to sunscreens. By understanding and controlling their interactions with systems we can utilize them to increase our knowledge in other fields of science, such as biology. Nanocrystals exhibit optical properties superior to currently used fluorescent dyes. By replacing molecular dyes with nanoparticles we can reduce toxicity, increase resolution and have better cellular targeting abilities. They have also shown to have toxicity to cancer and antibacterial properties. With the understanding of how to target specific cells in vitro as well as in vivo, nanoparticles have the potential to be used as highly cell specific nanodrugs that can aid in the fight against cancer and the more recent fight against antibiotic resistant bacteria. This dissertation includes our work on bioimaging as well as our novel drug delivery system. An explanation of toxicity associated with ZnO nanoparticles and how we can use it and the nonlinear optical properties of ZnO for nanodrugs and nanoprobes is presented. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271908/  Criticality in Cooperative Systems
 Cooperative behavior arises from the interactions of single units that globally produce a complex dynamics in which the system acts as a whole. As an archetype I refer to a flock of birds. As a result of cooperation the whole flock gets special abilities that the single individuals would not have if they were alone. This research work led to the discovery that the function of a flock, and more in general, that of cooperative systems, surprisingly rests on the occurrence of organizational collapses. In this study, I used cooperative systems based on selfpropelled particle models (the flock models) which have been proved to be virtually equivalent to sociological network models mimicking the decision making processes (the decision making model). The critical region is an intermediate condition between a highly disordered state and a strong ordered one. At criticality the waiting times distribution density between two consecutive collapses shows an inverse power law form with an anomalous statistical behavior. The scientific evidences are based on measures of information theory, correlation in time and space, and fluctuation statistical analysis. In order to prove the benefit for a system to live at criticality, I made a flock system interact with another similar system, and then observe the information transmission for different disturbance values. I proved that at criticality the transfer of information gets the maximal efficiency. As last step, the flock model has been shown that, despite its simplicity, is sufficiently a realistic model as proved via the use of 3D simulations and computer animations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271910/
 Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Peg Based Thermo Sensitive Hydro Microgel
 Poly ethylene glycol (PEG) based microgels were synthesized and investigated. The PEG microgel has the same phase transition as the traditional poly Nisopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM). As a good substitute of PNIPAM, PEG microgel exhibits many advantages: it is easier to control the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the microgel by changing the component of copolymers; it has a more solid spherical coreshell structure to have a double thermo sensitivity; it is straightforward to add other sensitivities such as pH, magnetic field or organic functional groups; it readily forms a photonic crystal structure exhibiting Bragg diffraction; and, most importantly, the PEG microgel is biocompatible with human body and has been approved by FDA while PNIPAM has not. PEG microgels with coreshell structure are synthesized with a twostep free radical polymerization and characterized with DLS, SLS and UV–Vis. The dynamic mechanics of melting and recrystallizing of the PEG coreshell microgel are presented and discussed. Photonic crystals of PEG microgels were synthesized and characterized. The crystal can be isolated in a thin film or a bulk column. The phase transition of PEG microgel was simulated with the mean field theory. The enthalpy and entropy of phase transition can be estimated from the best fit to theoretical calculation with experimental data. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc177187/
 Investigation of the Uniaxial Stress Dependence of the Effective Mass in NType InSb Using the Magnetophonon Effect
 The magnetophonon effect was used to investigate the uniaxial stress dependence of the effective mass in ntype InSb (indium antimonide). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164537/
 A Study of Minority Atomic Ion Recombination in the Helium Afterglow
 Electronion recombination has been under study for many years, but comparisons between theory and experiment have been very difficult, especially for conditions where the ion under evaluation was a minority in concentration. This study describes a direct measurement of the recombinationrate coefficient for the recombination of minority as well as majority ions in the afterglow. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc164590/
 Gamma Ray Distribution from Neutron Excitation in Cesium
 The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the gamma rays resulting from excitation of Cs133 by the inelastic scattering of 14 MeV neutrons and to determine the relative intensity of each gamma ray. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc163933/
 Gamma Rays Resulting from Neutron Scattering in Cesium
 The purpose of this investigation was to attempt to resolve the energy levels of Cs133 that can be excited by inelastic scattering of 14 Mev neutrons. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc163901/
 A Study of the Celestial Gammaray Flux
 This thesis is a study of the celestial gammaray flux. It reviews several of the proposed mechanisms for producing high energy gamma rays and describes several of the attempts to detect their presence. Also included is a short historical review of the spark chamber, along with a qualitative description of its operation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc163905/
 The Temperature Dependence of Magnetic Susceptibility of Galvinoxyl
 The twofold purpose of this investigation was to design and construct an apparatus for direct magnetic susceptibility measurements as a function of temperature and to provide the complete susceptibility characterization of the free radical galvinoxyl in the room temperatureliquid nitrogen range. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc163921/
 The Dielectric Constant of Galvinoxyl
 The molecules in many substances are know to undergo at characteristic temperatures a change in their rotational freedom in the solid state, signifying either a change in structure of the material of the onset of limited rotation of the molecule about some symmetry axis. The purpose of this research was to determine from dielectric constant measurements over the 100°K420°K temperature range whether or not the organic free radical galvinoxyl and its diamagnetic parent molecule, dihydroxydiphenylmethane, undergo any such transitions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc163926/
 Microwave Cavity Method for Measuring Plasma Properties
 This discussion is concerned primarily with communications blackout during spacecraft entry into a planetary atmosphere. The gas in the shock layer, between shock wave and vehicle surface, ionizes from the intense heating which takes place in the bow shock wave and a viscous region of high gas enthalpy. This ionization may persist throughout the subsequent flow over the vehicle and into the wake, thus completely engulfing the vehicle and its communications elements. The problem will be to simulate a plasma model that will be of interest for hypervelocity reentry vehicles and to provide meaningful expressions for the various plasma parameters of interest (electron density, electron temperature, collision frequency, etc.) in terms of the microwave measurables (amplitude, phase shifts, frequency shifts, polarization, etc.) digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc163950/
 Temperature Dependence of the Magnetic Susceptibility of the Organic Free Radical Galvinoxyl
 This thesis examines temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility of the organic free radical galvinoxyl. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc163874/
 Design and Testing of a Corona Column and a Closed Gas Distribution System for a Tandem Van de Graaff Voltage Generator
 The purpose of this study had been to design and test a corona column and an insulating gas distribution system for a small tandem Van de Graaff. The intent of this paper is to describe the gas handling system and to compare experimentally the effects of corona electrode shape on the corona current carried between adjacent sections of the column. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc163849/
 A Microwave Spectrometer for Narrowline Electron Spin Resonance Studies
 This thesis explores the basic theory, design and construction of electron spin resonance spectrometer. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc163881/
 A Vacuum Tube for an Electrostatic Generator
 The purpose of this study has been to construct two accelerating tubes with small beam apertures for the Van de Graaff, modifying the prototype tube designed and tested by Wiley (20), to design and construct a vacuum system for evacuating the tubes, and to determine the characteristics of the tube under operating conditions while installed in the generator. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc163894/