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 Department: Department of Chemistry
Photochemical and Photophysical Properties of Mononuclear and Multinuclear Closed Shell D10 Coinage Metal Complexes and Their Metallo-organometallic Adducts
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This dissertation covers the studies of two major topics: the photochemistry of mononuclear and multinuclear gold(I) complexes and synthetic approaches to tailor photophysical properties of cyclic trinuclear d10 complexes. First a detailed photochemical examination into the photoreactivity of neutral mononuclear and multinuclear gold(I) complexes is discussed, with the aim of gold nanoparticle size and shape control for biomedical and catalysis applications. Next is a comprehensive systematic synthetic approach to tailor the photophysical properties of cyclic trinuclear d10 complexes. This synthetic approach includes an investigation of structure-luminescence relationships between cyclic trinuclear complexes, an examination into their π-acid/π-base reactivity with heavy metal cations and an exploration into the photophysical properties of new heterobimetallic cyclic trinuclear complexes. These photophysical properties inspections are used to screen materials for their employment in molecular electronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and thin film transistors (OTFTs).
Studies on the Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine Modified on Sno2 Photoelectrochemical Cells
The world is facing a tough challenge regarding fulfilling human energy needs. Scientists are motivated to find alternative ways to the fossil fuel at a lower cost with little or no environmental pollution. Among the available renewable resources, the solar energy is an alternative energy to fossil fuel. Scientists are engaged in mimicking the photosynthesis to create the new energy devices such as dye sensitized solar cells. The fundamental theory and properties of the dye sensitized solar cells is given in the first chapter. In this research, the application of the different methods for surface alteration of SnO2 with water soluble porphyrins and phthalocyanine is studied. Using optical absorbance and steady state fluorescence studies, the formation of porphyrins and phthalocyanine discuss on the SnO2 surface is shown. Moreover, the different results of photoelectrochemical cells are show on chapter 2 to understand the porphyrin and phthalocyanine modified on SnO2 as electron injector. In summary, the application porphyrin and phthalocyanine of dimers as a broad band capturing photosensitized dye is discussed.
Determination of Molecular Descriptors for Illegal Drugs by Gc-fid Using Abraham Solvation Model
The Abraham solvation parameter model is a good approach for analyzing and predicting biological activities and partitioning coefficients. The general solvation equation has been used to predict the solute property (SP) behavior of drug compounds between biological barriers. Gas chromatography (GC) retention time can be used to predict molecular descriptors, such as E, S, A, B & L for existing and newly developed drug compounds. In this research, six columns of different stationary phases were used to predict the Abraham molecular descriptors more accurately. The six stationary phases used were 5% phenylmethyl polysiloxane, 6% cyanopropylphenyl 94% dimethylpolysiloxane, 5% diphenyl 95% dimethylpolysiloxane, 100% dimethylpolysiloxane, polyethylene glycol and 35% diphenyl 65% dimethylpolysiloxane. Retention times (RT) of 75 compounds have been measured and logarithm of experimental average retention time Ln(RTexp) are calculated. The Abraham solvation model is then applied to predict the process coefficients of these compounds using the literature values of the molecular descriptors (Acree Compilation descriptors). Six correlation equations are built up as a training set for each of the six columns. The six equations are then used to predict the molecular descriptors of the illegal drugs as a test set. This work shows the ability to extract molecular information from a new compound by utilizing commonly used GC columns available with the desired stationary phases. One can simply run the new compound in GC using these columns to get the retention time. Plugging in the retention time into the developed equations for each of the column will predict the molecular descriptors for the test compound and will give some information about the properties of the compound.
Miniature Mass Spectrometry: Theory, Development and Applications
As mass analyzer technology has continued to improve over the last fifty years, the prospect of field-portable mass spectrometers has garnered interest from many research groups and organizations. Designing a field portable instrument entails more than the scaling down of current commercial systems. Additional considerations such as power consumption, vacuum requirements and ruggedization also play key roles. In this research, two avenues were pursued in the initial development of a portable system. First, micrometer-scale mass analyzers and other electrostatic components were fabricated using silicon on insulator-deep reactive ion etching, and tested. Second, the dimensions of an ion trap were scaled to the millimeter level and fabricated from common metals and commercially available vacuum plastics. This instrument was tested for use in ion isolation and collision induced dissociation for secondary mass spectrometry and confirmatory analyses of unknowns. In addition to portable instrumentation, miniature mass spectrometers show potential for usage in process and reaction monitoring. To this end, a commercial residual gas analyzer was used to monitor plasma deposition and cleaning inside of a chamber designed for laser ablation and soft landing-ion mobility to generate metal-main group clusters. This chamber was also equipped for multiple types of spectral analysis in order to identify and characterize the clusters. Finally, a portion of this research was dedicated to method development in sample collection and analysis for forensic study. A new method for the analysis of illicit chemistries collected via electrostatic lifting is presented. This method incorporates surface-enhanced Raman microscopy as a prescreening tool for nanoextraction and nanospray ionization mass spectrometry.
Carbon Nanostructure Based Donor-acceptor Systems for Solar Energy Harvesting
Carbon nanostructure based functional hybrid molecules hold promise in solarenergy harvesting. Research presented in this dissertation systematically investigates building of various donor-acceptor nanohybrid systems utilizing enriched single walled carbon nanotube and graphene with redox and photoactive molecules such as fullerene, porphyrin, and phthalocyanine. Design, synthesis, and characterization of the donor-acceptor hybrid systems have been carefully performed via supramolecular binding strategies. Various spectroscopic studies have provided ample information in terms of establishment of the formation of donor-acceptor hybrids and their extent of interaction in solution and eventual rate of photoinduced electron and/or energy transfer. Electrochemical studies enabled construction of energy level diagram revealing energetic details of the possible different photochemical events supported by computational studies carried out to establish the HOMO-LUMO levels in the donor acceptor systems. Transient absorption studies confirmed formation of charge separated species in the donor-acceptor systems which have been supported by electron mediation experiments. Based on the photoelectrochemical studies, IPCE of 8% was reported for enriched SWCNT(7,6)-ZnP donor-acceptor systems. In summary, the present investigation on the various nanocarbon sensitized donor-acceptor hybrids substantiates tremendous prospect, that could very well become the next generation of materials in building efficient solar energy harvesting devices andphotocatalyst.
Substitution Effects of Phenothiazine and Porphyrin Dyes in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells
The details of dye sensitized solar cells was explained and phenothiazine and porphyrin based dyes were synthesized for use in DSSCs. DSSCs offer a unique and cost effective method of renewable energy. DSSCs are characterized through various tests, with the overall efficiency, η, bearing the greatest importance. Incident photon to current conversion efficiency, or IPCE, is also another important characterization of DSSCs. Effect of positioning of the cyanoacrylic acid anchoring group on ring periphery of phenothiazine dye on the performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is reported. The performances of the cells are found to be prominent for solar cells made out of Type-1 dyes compared to Type-2 dyes. This trend has been rationalized based on spectral, electrochemical, computational and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results. Free-base and zinc porphyrins bearing a carboxyl anchoring group at the para, meta, or ortho positions of one of the meso-phenyl rings were synthesized for DSSCs. Photoelectrochemical studies were performed after immobilization of porphyrins onto nanocrystalline TiO2. The performance of DSSCs with the porphyrin anchoring at the para or meta position were found to greatly exceed those in the ortho position. Additionally, zinc porphyrin derivatives outperformed the free-base porphyrin analogs, including better dye regeneration efficiency for the zinc porphyrin derivatives and for the meta and para derivatives through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. The overall structure-performance trends observed for the present porphyrin DSSCs have been rationalized based on spectral, electrochemical, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and transient spectroscopy results.
Studies on High Potential Porphyrin-fullerene Supramolecular Dyads
Photoinduced electron transfer in self-assembled via axial coordination porphyrin-fullerene dyads is investigated. Fullerene functionalized with imidazole and fullerenes functionalized with pyridine are chosen as electron acceptors, while zinc pophyrin derivatives are utilized as electron donors. The electron withdrawing ability of halogen atoms make the porphyrin ring electrophilic, which explained the binding of (F20TPP)Zn with fullerene derivatives having the highest binding constant around 105M-1. Another important observation is that the fullerene imidazole binding to zinc pophyrin had higher stability than fullerene pyridine-porphyrin dyad. Computational DFT B3LYP-21G(*) calculations are used to study the geometric and electronic structures. The HOMO and LUMO was found to be located on the porphyrin and fullerene entities, respectively. Photoinduced electron transfer is investigated by the steady-state absorption and emission, differential pulse voltammetry, and nanosecond and femtosecond transient absorption studies. The measurements provided the same conclusion that the increasing number of the halogen atoms on the porphyrin ring leads to the higher binding of porphyrin-fullerene supramolecular dyads and efficient charge separation and charge recombination processes.
Transition Metal Mediated C-o Bond Cleavage: From Co2 Activation to Lignin Degradation
CO2 activation and conversion mediated by transition metal (TM) catalysts were investigated. Homogeneous catalysis of the reverse water gas shift reaction CO2+H2→H2O+CO was studied as a means to reduce CO2.  β-diketiminato metal models L'MI ( L' =C3N2H5-; M = first-row TMs) were considered as potential catalysts. The thermodynamics of prototypical reaction pathways were simulated using B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ. Results show that middle series metal complexes result in more thermodynamically favorable properties; therefore, more detailed thermodynamic and kinetic studies were carried out for Mn, Fe, and Co complexes. On the other hand, heterogeneous catalysis of the reduction of CO2 to CO was carried out on Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu surfaces, using the PBE functional. Reaction barriers were calculated using the climbing image nudged elastic band method. Late 3d and 4d transition metal ion (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag) mediated activation of dimethyl ether was studied to investigate the intrinsic catalytic properties of metals for C-O bond cleavage. A set of density functional theory (DFT) methods (BLYP, B3LYP, M06, M06-L, B97-1, B97-D, TPSS, and PBE) with aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets was calibrated with CCSD(T)/CBS calculations on reaction energies and barriers.
Design, Synthesis and Screening of Homoleptic and Heteroleptic Platinum(ii) Pyridylazolate Complexes for N-type Semiconducting and Light-emitting Devices
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A series of heteroleptic and homoleptic platinum(II) complexes has been synthesized and characterized towards their use in thin film devices such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). Pyridylpyrazolate- and pyridyltetrazolate-containing ligands were selected due to their structural rigidity and ease of functionalization. Single-crystal x-ray diffraction studies of two selected heteroleptic complexes show strong aggregation with preferential stacking into vertical columns with a varying degree of overlap of the neighboring square planar molecular units. It is shown that the close proximity of the molecules to one another in the stack increases semiconducting character, phosphorescence quantum yields, and shorter radiative lifetimes. The potential for these materials towards incorporation into high-efficiency doping free white OLEDs (DFW-OLEDs) for solid-state lighting and display applications has been realized and will be expanded upon by present and future embodiments of materials in this thesis.
Synthetic and Structural Chemistry of Ligand-substituted Triosmium Clusters and a Rhenium(i) Complex
The reaction of 2-[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]-6-methylpyridine (PN) with Os3(CO)12-n(MeCN)n [where n = 0 (1), 1 (2), 2 (3)] has been investigated. Os3(CO)12 reacts with PN in the presence of Me3NO to afford the clusters Os3(CO)11(1-PN) (4) and 1,2-Os3(CO)10(1-PN)2 (5). X-ray diffraction analyses confirm the equatorial coordination of the phosphine(s) in 4 and 5, with the two phosphines in the latter cluster exhibiting a 1,2-trans orientation about the Os-Os vector that contains the two ligands. Treatment of the MeCN-substituted cluster Os3(CO)11(MeCN) and PN (1:1 ratio) in CH2Cl2 gives clusters 4 and 5, in addition to HOs3(η1-Cl)(CO)10(1-PN) (6) as a result of competitive activation of the reaction solvent. Cluster 6 contains 48e- and the diffraction structure reveals the presence of axial chloride and equatorial phosphine ligands which are located on adjacent osmium atoms. The bridging hydride ligand in 6 spans the Cl,P-substituted Os-Os vector. The reaction of Os3(CO)10(MeCN)2 with PN furnishes 5, 6, and 1,1-Os3(CO)10(2-PN) (7) in yields that are dependent on the reagent stoichiometry and reaction solvent. The solid-state structure of 7 confirms the chelation of the PN ligand to a single osmium atom via the pyridine and phosphine moieties at axial and equatorial sites, respectively. The bonding in 7 relative to other possible stereoisomers has been explored by DFT calculations, and the diffraction structure is computed as the thermodynamically most stable form of this cluster. Cluster 4 is photosensitive and CO loss gives 7, in addition to the formation of the dihydride H2Os3(CO)8[µ-CH(NC5H3)CH2PPh2] (8), whose origin derives from the double metalation of the C-6 methyl group of the PN ligand in 7. Photolysis of 7 yields 8 without detectable observation of the expected intermediate hydride HOs3(CO)9[µ-CH2(NC5H3)CH2PPh2]. The PN ligand in 7 undergoes P-C bond activation in toluene at 110 °C to afford the 50e cluster Os3(CO)9(µ-C6H4)(µ-PPh), which contains face-capping benzyne and phosphinidene moieties. The bonding between the benzyne moiety and the opened Os3 frame in 9 has been examined computationally, and these data are discussed relative to and π bonding contributions from the metalated aryl ring to the cluster polyhedron. Thermolysis of BrRe(CO)5 with 4-(2,2-dimethylhydrazino)dimethylhydrazone-3(Z)-penten-2-one in toluene at 70 °C furnishes the new β-diketimine-substituted complex fac-BrRe(CO)3[(Me2NNCMe)2CH2] (1) in 50-70 isolated yield. Product 1 is also obtained in comparable yield when the same reactants are irradiated at 366 nm at room temperature in fluid solution. Treatment of the parent ligand with the "lightly stabilized" rhenium compound fac-BrRe(CO)3(THF)2 affords 1 as the sole observable rhenium product. Complex 1 has been characterized in solution by IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy, and the molecular structure has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.
Development of Novel Semi-conducting Ortho-carborane Based Polymer Films: Enhanced Electronic and Chemical Properties
A novel class of semi-conducting ortho-carborane (B10C2H12) based polymer films with enhanced electronic and chemical properties has been developed. The novel films are formed from electron-beam cross-linking of condensed B10C2H12 and B10C2H12 co-condensed with aromatic linking units (Y) (Y=1,4-diaminobenzene (DAB), benzene (BNZ) and pyridine (PY)) at 110 K. The bonding and electronic properties of the novel films were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and Mulliken charge analysis using density functional theory (DFT). These films exhibit site-specific cross-linking with bonding, in the pure B10C2HX films, occurring at B sites non-adjacent to C in the B10C2H12 icosahedra. The B10C2H12:Y films exhibit the same phenomena, with cross-linking that creates bonds primarily between B sites non-adjacent to C in the B10C2H12 icosahedra to C sites in the Y linking units. These novel B10C2HX: Y linked films exhibit significantly different electron structure when compared to pure B10C2HX films as seen in the UPS spectra. The valence band maxima (VBM) shift from - 4.3 eV below the Fermi level for pure B10C2HX to -2.6, -2.2, and -1.7 for B10C2HX:BNZ, B10C2HX:PY, and B10C2HX:DAB, respectively. The top of the valence band is composed of states derived primarily from the Y linking units, suggesting that the bottom of the conduction band is composed of states primarily from B10C2H12. Consequently these B10C2HX:Y films may exhibit longer electron-hole separation lifetimes as compared to pure B10C2HX films. This research should lead to an enhancement of boron carbide based neutron detectors, and is of potential significance for microelectronics, spintronics and photo-catalysis.
Computational Studies of Inorganic Systems with a Multiscale Modeling Approach: From Atomistic to Continuum Scale
Multiscale modeling is an effective tool for integrating different computational methods, creating a way of modeling diverse chemical and physical phenomena. Presented are studies on a variety of chemical problems at different computational scales and also the combination of different computational methods to study a single phenomenon. The methods used encompass density functional theory (DFT), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and finite element analysis (FEA). The DFT studies were conducted both on the molecular level and using plane-wave methods. The particular topics studied using DFT are the rational catalyst design of complexes for C—H bond activation, oxidation of nickel surfaces and the calculation of interaction properties of carbon dioxide containing systems directed towards carbon dioxide sequestration studies. Second and third row (typically precious metals) transition metal complexes are known to possess certain electronic features that define their structure and reactivity, and which are usually not observed in their first-row (base metal) congeners. Can these electronic features be conferred onto first-row transition metals with the aid of non-innocent and/or very high-field ligands? Using DFT, the impact of these electronic features upon methane C—H bond activation was modeled using the dipyridylazaallyl (smif) supporting ligand for late, first-row transition metal (M) imide, oxo and carbene complexes (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu; E = O, NMe, CMe2). To promote a greater understanding of the process and nature of metal passivation, first-principles analysis of partially oxidized Ni(111) and Ni(311) surface and ultra-thin film NiO layers on Ni(111) was performed. A bimodal theoretical strategy that considers the oxidation process using either a fixed GGA functional for the description of all atoms in the system, or a perturbation approach, that perturbs the electronic structure of various Ni atoms in contact with oxygen by application of the GGA+U technique was applied. Binding energy of oxygen to the nickel surfaces, charge states of nickel and oxygen, and the preferred binding mode of oxygen to nickel were studied to gain a better understanding of the formation of oxide layers. Using density functional theory, the thermodynamic properties for developing interaction potentials for molecular dynamics simulations of carbon dioxide systems were calculated. The interactions considered are Ni + H2O, Ni + Ni, Ni + CO2, CO2 + CO2, CO2 + H2O and H2O + H2O. These systems were chosen as the possible interactions that can occur when carbon dioxide is stored in the ocean. Molecular dynamics simulations using the results from the DFT studies were also conducted. Finally, thermal conduction analysis was performed on layered functionally graded materials (FGM) subjected to thermal shock by sudden cooling of the material in order to investigate the results obtained from three different mixing laws: linear, quadratic, and half-order. The functionally graded material considered was a composite of nickel and carbon nanotubes at different compositions varying from two to five layers. The middle layers for the three to five layers are composed of graded (i.e., gradually changing) percentages of nickel and carbon nanotube. The thermal conductivity, specific heat and density for the composites were calculated depending on the percentages of materials in each layer, and assuming different rules of mixture.
Stoichiometry and Deposition Temperature Dependence of the Microstructural and Electrical Properties of Barium Strontium Titanate Thin Films
Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) was deposited on Pt/ZrO2 / SiO2/Si substrates using liquid source metal organic chemical vapor deposition. A stoichiometry series was deposited with various GrII/Ti ratios (0.658 to 1.022) and a temperature series was deposited at 550 to 700°C. The thin films were characterized using transmission electron microscopy. Both series of samples contained cubic perovskite BST and an amorphous phase. The grain size increased and the volume fraction of amorphous phase decreased with increasing deposition temperature. The electrical and microstructural properties improved as the GrII/Ti ratio approached 1 and deteriorated beyond 1. This research demonstrates that BST thin films are a strong candidate for future MOS transistor gate insulator applications.
Survey of the Solid State Conformation of Calix[4]arenes
The characteristics of seventy-six calix[4]arene crystal structures derived from the Cambridge Crystallographic Database are presented. This survey is a discussion of the inter and intramolecular effects on the solid state cavity shape and molecular recognition ability of the compounds. In addition to this survey, four new calix[4]arene crystal structures are presented. The conformational characteristics of these four calixarenes are determined by a complicated array of inter and intramolecular interactions in the crystal packing.
Interactions of Clean and Sulfur-modified Reactive Metal Surfaces with Aqueous Vapor and Liquid Environments : A Combined Ultra-high Vacuum/electrochemistry Study
The focus of this research is to explore the molecular-level interactions between reactive metal surfaces and aqueous environments by combined ultra-high vacuum/electrochemistry (UHV-EC) methodology. The objectives of this work are to understand (1) the effects of sulfate ions on the passivity of metal oxide/hydroxide surface layer, (2) the effects of sulfur-modification on the evolution of metal oxide/hydroxide surface layer, and (3) the effects of sulfur adsorbate on cation adsorption at metal surfaces.
Chemical Equilibria in Binary Solvents
Dissertation research involves development of Mobile Order Theory thermodynamic models to mathematically describe and predict the solubility, spectral properties, protonation equilibrium constants and two-phase partitioning behavior of solutes dissolved in binary solvent mixtures of analytical importance. Information gained provide a better understanding of solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions at the molecular level, which will facilitate the development of better chemical separation methods based upon both gas-liquid and high-performance liquid chromatography, and better analysis methods based upon complexiometric and spectroscopic methods. Dissertation research emphasizes chemical equilibria in systems containing alcohol cosolvents with the understanding that knowledge gained will be transferable to more environmentally friendly aqueous-organic solvent mixtures.
Mobile Order Theory as Applied to Polycyclic Aromatic Heterocycles
Experimental mole fraction solubilities of benzil, thianthrene, trans-stilbene, thioxanthen-9-one, diphenyl sulfone and dibenzothiophene sulfone are determined in pure noncomplexing and complexing solvents. Predicted solubility values are calculated for benzil, thianthrene, trans-stilbene and thioxanthen-9-one using expressions derived from Mobile Order theory. Large deviations between experimental and predicted solubilities in alcohol solvents exist, therefore optimized solute - solvent association constants are determined. Previously measured thianthrene solubilities in five binary alkane + cyclohexane solvent mixtures are compared with values predicted from Mobile Order theory using the measured solubility in each of the pure solvents as input parameters. The experimental mole fraction solubility of benzil in eight binary alcohol + 1-octanol solvent mixtures are also measured and compared with predicted values.
Kinetics and Mechanisms of Metal Carbonyls
Pulsed laser flash photolysis with both visible and infrared detection has been applied to the study of the displacement of weakly coordinating ligands (Lw) by strongly "trapping" nucleophiles (Ls) containing either an olefinic functionality (Ls = 1-hexene, 1-decene, 1-tetradecene) or nitrogen (Ls = acetonitrile, hydrocinnamonitrile) from the photogenerated 16 electron pentacarbonylchromium (0) intermediate. 5-Chloropent-l-ene (Cl-ol), a potentially bidentate ligand, has been shown to form (ol-Cl) pentacarbonylchromium (0), in which Cl-ol is bonded to Cr via a lone pair on the chlorine, and isomerize to (Cl-ol) pentacarbonylchromium (0), in which Cl-ol is bonded to the olefinic functionality on the submillisecond time scale. This process has been studied in both the infrared and visible region employing both fluorobenzene or n-heptane as the "inert" diluent. Parallel studies employing 1-chlorobutane and 1-hexene were also evaluated and showed great similiarity with the Cl-ol system. The data supported a largely dissociative process with a possibility of a small interchange process involving the H's on the alkyl chain. Studies were also carried out for various Cr(CO)6/arene/Ls systems (arene = various alkyl or halogenated substituted benzenes). The data indicated that for both C6H5R (R=various alkyl chains) or multi-alkyl substituted arenes (i.e. o-xylene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene) containing an "unhindered" ring-edge, bonding to the the Cr(CO)5 moiety occurs "edge on" via a partially delocalized center of unsaturation on the ring. The data indicated that both electronic and steric properties of the arenes influence the kinetics, and that an interchange pathway takes place at least, in part, through the alkyl chains on both the arenes and "trapping" nucleophiles. Moreover, halogenated arenes bond through the lone pair on the halogen for both CI- and Br- derivatives but "edge-on" for the fluorinated arenes. Finally, in the case of arene complexes without and "unhindered" ring-edge (i.e., 1,2,3,4,5-pentamethylbenzene) bonding can occur either "edge-on" or through the ring center of the arene or combination of the two. Carbonyl stretching frequencies for the arenes are also indicative of the type of bonding.
Aluminum and Copper Chemical Vapor Deposition on Fluoropolymer Dielectrics and Subsequent Interfacial Interactions
This study is an investigation of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of aluminum and copper on fluoropolymer surfaces and the subsequent interfacial interactions.
Syntheses of Antimetabolites
In these studies several different types of antimetabolites were synthesized, and their biological effects were examined in various assay systems. More extensive investigations were done in microbial systems in which many of the compounds proved to be inhibitory to growth, and attempts were made to determine the mode of biochemical action by adding supplements of the appropriate natural metabolite.
Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Polycarbocyclic Compounds
Part I. Diels-Alder cycloadditions of 1,2,3,4,9,9-hexachloro-1α,4α,4aα,8aβ-tetrahydro-l,4-methanonaphthalene (32) and 1,2,3,4,9,9-hexachloro-lα,4α,6,7- tetrahydro-l,4-methanonaphthalene (33) to 4-methyl- and 4-phenyl-l,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione [MTAD and PTAD, respectively] and to N-methylmaleimide (NMM) have been studied. The structures of several of the resulting cycloadducts were determined by X-ray crystallographic methods. The observed stereoselectivity of each of these Diels-Alder reactions was further investigated via application of theoretical methods. Thus, semiempirical (AMI) and ab initio molecular orbital calculations were used to calculate relative energies. Ab initio calculations were employed to perform frontier molecular orbital analyses of diene-dienophile interactions.
An Approach Towards the Total Synthesis of Clonostachydiol
The syntheses of the unsymmetrical 14-membered bismacrolides have been reviewed. A total synthesis of clonostachydiol, the latest to join this family, has been attempted using trimethylsilyl acetylene as the builiding block and palladium catalyzed reactions for the formation of key bonds. The alkyne groups were introduced by Stille coupling of trimethylstannylethynyltrimethylsilane with an acid chloride for one fragment and by addition of lithiotrimethylsilyl acetylene to an aldehyde for the other. Lactic acid derivatives were chosen as starting materials for both fragments, thus introducing two of the chiral centers. The remaining stereocenters were introduced using stereoselective reductions of ketones.
Magnetic Exchange in Oxovanadium(IV) Complexes with N-Salicylideneamino Acids
Copper(II) and oxovanadium(IV) ions resemble one another magnetically in having one unpaired electron in their complexes irrespective of their geometrical structures and bond types involved. Copper(II) complexes with antiferromagnetic exchange are well known. On the contrary, antiferromagnetic exchange in oxovanadium(IV) complexes is rather new and not well established. Very few oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been reported to have this anomalous magnetic property. In the investigation of the magnetic properties of oxovanadium(IV) complexes, we have successfully prepared two series of new oxovanadium(IV) complexes with N-salicylideneamino acids.
Conformational Analogs of Some Phytoactive Compounds
In an effort to determine if there is a specific conformational structure which is most effective at the appropriate active physiological site, the synthesis of a group of sterically restricted analogs was undertaken. A portion of the polymethylene carbon skeleton of glutaric acid was replaced by selected aromatic carbons in benzenedicarboxylic acids to produce a series of ridged conformers, and the relative plant growth regulating properties of these derivatives were determined.
Thermodynamic Properties of Nonelectrolyte Solutes in Ternary Solvent Mixtures
The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the thermodynamic properties of nonelectrolyte solutes dissolved in ternary solvent mixtures, and to develop mathematical expressions for predicting and describing that behavior in the solvent mixtures. Thirty-four ternary solvent systems were studied containing either alcohol (1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and 2-butanol), alkane (cyclohexane, heptane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane) or alkoxyalcohol (2-ethoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol) cosolvents. Approximately 2500 experimental measurements were performed. Expressions were derived from the Combined Nearly Ideal Multiple Solvent (NIMS)/Redlich-Kister, the Combined Nearly Ideal Multiple Solvent (NIMS)/Bertrand, Acree and Burchfield (BAB) and the Modified Wilson models for predicting solute solubility in ternary solvent (or even higher multicomponent) mixtures based upon the model constants calculated from solubility data in sub-binary solvents. Average percent deviation between predicted and observed values were less than 2%, documenting that these models provide a fairly accurate description of the thermodynamic properties of nonelectrolyte solutions. Moreover, the models can be used for solubility prediction in solvent mixtures in order to find the optimum solvent composition for solubilization or desolubilization of a solute. From a computational standpoint, the Combined Nearly Ideal Multiple Solvent/Redlich-Kister equation is preferred because the needed model constants can be calculated with a simple linear regressional analysis. Model constants for the Modified Wilson equation had to be calculated using a reiterative trial-and-error method. The C++ program for the Modified Wilson equation applied to ternary and heptanary solvent mixtures is attached.
Synthesis and Study of Bioactive Compounds: I. Pyrethroids; II. Glutathione Derivatives
Part I: In the first study of pyrethroids, twenty-one novel pyrethroid esters bearing strong electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., halomethylketo and nitro groups) in the double bond side chain of the cyclopropane acid moiety have been synthesized and evaluated for insect toxicity. Rather than the usually employed Wittig reaction for these syntheses, the novel pyrethroid acid moieties were prepared by amino acidcatalyzed Knoevenagel condensations under mild conditions. In the second study of pyrethroids, fourteen pyrethroid-like carbonates were synthesized by condensation of a variety of alcohols and the chloroformates of the corresponding known pyrethroid alcohols.
Substitution Chemistry of the Cobalt Complexes [Co₂(CO)₆(PhC≡CR) (R=Ph, H) and PhCCo₃(CO)₉] with the Diphosphine Ligands [Bis(diphenylphosphino)maleic Anhydride (BMA) and (Z)-Ph₂PCH=CHPPh₂]. Reversible Chelate-to-Bridge Diphosphine Ligand Exchange, Phosphorus-Carbon Bond Cleavage and Phosphorus-Carbon Bond Formation
The tricobalt cluster PhCCo3(CO)9 (1) reacts with the bidentate phosphine ligand 2,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)maleic anhydride (bma) in the presence of added Me3NO to give the diphosphine-substituted cluster PhCCo3(CO)7(bma) (2). Cluster 2 is unstable in solution, readily losing CO to afford Co3(CO)6[(μ2-η2/η1-C(Ph)C=C(PPh2)C(O)OC(O)](μ2-PPh2) (3) as the sole observed product. VT-31P NMR measurements on cluster 2 indicate that the bma ligand functions as both a chelating and a bridging ligand. At -97 °C, 31P NMR analysis of 2 reveals a Keq of 5.7 in favor of the bridging isomer. The bridged bma cluster 2 is the only observed species above -50°C. The solid-state structure of 2 does not correspond to the major bridging isomer observed in solution but rather the minor chelating isomer. The conversion of 2 to 3 followed first-order kinetics, with the reaction rates being independent of the nature of the reaction solvent and strongly suppressed by added CO, supporting a dissociative loss of CO as the rate-determining step. The activation parameters for CO loss were determined to be ΔH≠ = 29.9 ± 2.2 kcal/mol and ΔS≠ = 21.6 ± 6 eu.
Ligand Substitution Studies in the Tetracobalt Cluster Co₄(CO)₁₀([mu]₄-PPh₂) and Synthesis and Reactivity Studies in the Fe₂Pt and FeCo₂ Mixed-metal Clusters
The kinetics of ligand substitution for CO in Co4(CO)10(mu4-PPh2) , 1, have been investigated for the ligands P(OMe)3, P(OEt)3, PPh2H, P(0-i-Pr)3, P(n-Bu)3, PPh3, P(i-Pr)3, and PCy3 over a wide temperature range.
Adsorbate-enhanced Corrosion Processes at Iron and Iron Oxide Surfaces
This study was intended to provide a fuller understanding of the surface chemical processes which result in the corrosion of ferrous materials.
Spectroscopic Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds
The fluorescence spectrum of many polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) depends upon solvent polarity. The emission spectrum of PAC monomers consists of several major vibronic bands labeled I, II, etc., in progressive order. Emission intensity enhancement of select bands is observed in polar solvents.
Discontinuous Thermal Expansions and Phase Transformations in Crystals at Higher Temperatures
The purpose of this investigation is to make more detailed studies of transformations. Fourteen compounds have been examined by high temperature X-ray diffraction for this purpose. The investigations have been carried out in such a way as to reveal: 1. the existence of transformations, 2. the influence of polarizability on thermal expansion, 3. the anisotropy of expansion, and 4. the discontinuity of thermal expansion.
Thermodynamic and Structural Studies of Layered Double Hydroxides
The preparation of layered double hydroxides via titration with sodium hydroxide was thoroughly investigated for a number of M(II)/M(III) combinations. These titration curves were examined and used to calculate nominal solubility product constants and other thermodynamic quantities for the various LDH chloride systems.
A Quenchofluorometric Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Molecularly Organized Media
Detection, identification and separation of polycyclic aromatic compounds in environmental samples are of extreme importance since many of these compounds are well known for their potential carcinogenic and/or mutagenic activities. Selective quenching of molecular fluorescence can be utilized effectively to analyze mixtures containing different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Molecularly organized assemblies are used widely in detection and separation of these compounds mainly because of less toxicity and enhanced solubilization capabilities associated with these media. Feasibility of using nitromethane and the alkylpyridinium cation as selective fluorescence quenching agents for discriminating between alternant versus nonalternant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is critically examined in several molecularly organized micellar solvent media. Fluorescence quenching is used to probe the structural features in mixed micelles containing the various combinations of anionic, cationic, nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants. Experimental results provide valuable information regarding molecular interactions between the dissimilar surfactants.
Substituent Effects on Diazeniumdiolate Anions: an AB Initio and DFT Study
Nitroglycerin and isoamyl nitrate have been used as nitrovasodilators since the nineteeth century. However, not until recently has it been known that these compounds were useful since they promoted the release of NO in the body. More recently, a new class of drugs, NO donors, has been developed. These include S-nitrosothiols (RSNO), sydnonimines, and nucleophilic NO adducts.
Molecular Modeling Study of Oxidative Degradation of Polyperfluoroethers Catalyzed by Iron Fluoride Surfaces : An Extended Hückel Theory Approach
Extended Hückel methods are known to be a useful tool in understanding surface phenomena. Important quantities about atoms and chemical bonds can be obtained from this computationally simple method, although caution must be exercised in interpreting the results. Application of Extended Hückel calculations to large metal clusters reveals the role of d orbitals in solids. Basic ideas of constructing model compounds have been developed. Several model systems for surface chemisorption processes are constructed in order to understand the surface catalyzed oxidative degradation of polyperfluoroethers. The activation of oxygen molecules can be explained. The Lewis acid character of the iron fluoride surface can be predicted. Based on these results, mechanisms of the degradation processes are discussed.
Investigation of Ultratrace Metallic and Organic Contaminants in Semiconductor Processing Environments
Detection of ultratrace levels of metallic ion impurities in hydrofluoric acid solutions and alkaline hydrogen peroxide solution was demonstrated using a silicon-based sensing electrode. The sensor's operation principle is based on direct measurements of the silicon open-circuit potential shift generated by the interaction between metallic ions and the silicon-based sensing surface. The new sensor can have practical applications in the on-line monitoring of microelectronic chemical processing. The detection of Ag+ content in KODAK waste water was carried out successfully by this novel sensor. Trace levels of organic impurities in the hydrofluoric acid solutions and in the cleanroom air were characterized by multiple internal reflection infrared spectroscopy (MIRIS) using an organics probe prepared directly from a regular silicon wafer.
I. On the Mechanism of Acid Promoted Rearrangement of PCU-Derived Pinacols II. Synthesis of a Trimethyltrishomocubyl Helical Tubuland Diol
I. Reductive dimerization of pentacyclo[^2,6.0^3,10.0^5'9]undecane-8-one-(PCU-8-one, 53) affords a mixture of meso and d,l pinacols (55a and 55b respectively). Acid promoted rearrangement of 55a and 55b conceivably can proceed with migration of C(7)-C(8) and/or C(8)-C(9) to form the corresponding pinacolone(s). In our hands, acid promoted rearrangement of 55a and 55b each proceeds with exclusive migration of C(7)- C(8) bond, thereby affording 58a and 59a respectively. Mechanistic features of this rearrangement are discussed. II. 4,7,1 l-trimethylpentacyclo[^2,6.0^3,l0.0^5,9]undecane-exo-4,exo-7-diol (23a) was successfully synthesized. This diol crystallizes in a helical tubuland lattice although its molecular structure does not possess C2 rotational symmetry.
Investigation of Copper Out-Plating Mechanism on Silicon Wafer Surface
As the miniaturization keeps decreasing in semiconductor device fabrication, metal contamination on silicon surfaces becomes critical. An investigation of the fundamental mechanism of metal contamination process on silicon surface is therefore important. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the copper out-plating process on silicon surfaces in diluted HF solutions are both evaluated by several analytical methods.
New Adventures in the Chemistry of Polycarboncyclic Ring Systems
I. Diels-Alder reactions of 1,2,3,4,9,9-hexachloro-1,4,4a,8a-tetrahydro-1,4-metha- nonaphthalene (16) and 1,2,3,4,9,9-hexachloro-1,4,6,7-tetrahydro-1,4-methanonaphthalene (17) toward dienophiles N-methyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (MTAD), N-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) and/or N-methylmaleimide (NMM) have been examined. II. Epoxides derived from functionalized 1,4,4a,9a-tetrahydro-9,10-dioxo-1,4-methanoanthracenes (1a and 1b) undergo acid- and base-promoted intramolecular nucleophilic ring-opening to form new polycyclic alcohols. III. The title cycloalkylidenecarbene has been generated via reaction of 8-methylenepentacyclo[^{2,6}.0^{3,10}. 0^{5.9}]undecan-11-one (44) with diethyl diazomethyl-phosphonate (DAMP). This species could be trapped in situ by cyclohexene, thereby affording the corresponding cycloadduct 46a and 46b.
Surface and Interfacial Studies of Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition of Copper
The nucleation and successful growth of copper (Cu) thin films on diffusion barrier/adhesion promoter substrates during metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are strongly dependent on the initial Cu precursor-substrate chemistry and surface conditions such as organic contamination and oxidation. This research focuses on the interactions of bis(1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoroacetylacetonato)copper(II), [Cu(hfac)2], with polycrystalline tantalum (Ta) and polycrystalline as well as epitaxial titanium nitride (TiN) substrates during Cu MOCVD, under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions and low substrate temperatures (T < 500 K). The results obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) measurements indicate substantial differences in the chemical reaction pathways of metallic Cu formation from Cu(hfac)2 on TiN versus Ta surfaces.
Structural Elucidation of tert-Butyllithium/Lithium Alkoxide and Lithium Hydride/Lithium Alkoxide Mixed Aggregates
The effects of lithium alkoxides on the rates of reactions and on the structures of a series of tert-butyllithium/lithium alkoxide mixed aggregates were studied, where the alkoxides were iso-butoxide, tert-butoxide and menthoxide. It was found that their effects depend not only on their amount present, but also on their steric bulk. The tert-butyllithium/lithium alkoxide mixed aggregates were exposed to UV light or heat to form lithium hydride/lithium alkoxide mixed aggregates. The aggregation states were assigned from either 13C-6Li coupling or a new technique based on the relative intensity of NMR peaks using different nuclei. The compounds formed depend upon the method of formation and the alkoxide. The unique properties of the lithium hydride/lithium alkoxide mixed aggregates are their high solubility in hydrocarbon solutions, very reactive bases, showing 6Li-1H couplings, and having only one hydride ion per aggregate. Their formation, reactivity, solubility, and aggregation states were found to depend on the size of lithium alkoxides. X-ray crystal structures of lithium tert-butoxide and lithium menthoxide were also studied and found to be hexameric.
Part I: Solid State Studies of Larger Calixarenes : Part II: Synthesis and Characterization of Metallocalixarenes
Calixarenes are a class of macrocyclic compounds that have garnered interest in large part because of their ability to form host-guest complexes with various types of molecules. For all of the studies of complex formation by calixarenes, most of the work to date has concentrated upon the smaller calixarenes, and little is understood about the relationship between the complexes formed when in solution and that observed in the solid state. The first part of the study, presented in Chapter 3, is of the solid-state properties of two of the larger calixarenes, and in comparison to other reported structures reveals patterns to the observed conformations both in the solid state and in solution. The formation of metal complexes has also been investigated and has focused extensively upon the metals as guests. Thus, the ability of the calixarenes to act as ligands in inorganic complexes has been virtually untapped, despite the polyoxo binding site they can easily provide, and very few metallocalixarenes have been reported. The second part of this study goes beyond the simple solid-state properties of such compounds, and involves the synthesis of several metallocalixarenes as part of a project directed at the functionalization of calixarenes with the components of a class of catalysts known to polymerize various olefins. These catalysts, commonly referred to as Ziegler-Natta catalysts, are introduced in Chapter 4. The new compounds presented here--three new aluminocalixarenes in Chapter 5 and a new titanocalixarene in Chapter 6--were synthesized so as to contain some of the same components observed in several of the other catalysts. These new compounds have been characterized crystallographically as well as through proton and multinuclear NMR, and observed conformational patterns are discussed.
Mixed Alkyllithim/Lithium Alkoxide Aggregates with Less Sterically Crowded Alkyl Groups
Mixed alkyllithium / lithium alkoxide aggregates in the form (RLi)n(ROLi)m were formed by addition of corresponding alcohol compounds at different Li/O ratios. Variable temperature 13C and 6Li NMR spectroscopy were used to verify the formation of the mixed aggregates and to study their behavior in hydrocarbon solution. Spectra for the lithium n-propoxide / n-propyllithium and iso-butyllithium / lithium iso-butoxide systems each indicated at least one mixed aggregate.
Solvent and Ionic Complexes of the Calix[6]arenes
One of the more attractive attributes of calixarenes is their wide variety of possible conformations and hence cavity shapes. However, the flexibility that allows this long-range benefit gives rise to major synthetic challenges when working with the larger members of the family. O-alkylations have proven to be the most widely employed synthetic routes to "functionalization" of the calixarenes, and these have shown a dependence upon both solvent and the metal ions present. Surprisingly, there have been no structural data presented concerning the complexes between the simple unsubstituted calix[6]arenes and the metal ions of groups 1 and 2. The structures of four complexes, containing cesium, rubidium, and calcium are reported as determined by X-ray crystallography. The solution behavior of the complexes for both representative groups is also discussed, in particular with regard to conformational stabilization of the calix[6]arenes and the role of solvent upon this stabilization. These complexes are also investigated as starting materials for the selective functionalization of the calix[6]arenes.
A Study of Intra- and Interaggregate Exchange Processes of Alkyllithium Compounds Using One- and Two- Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy
One- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, including 13C{6Li}{1H} triple resonance techniques, were used to characterize a series of mixed alkyllithium aggregates and to study their exchange processes.
Preparation and Stereochemistry of Reactive Intermediates Containing a Silicon-Carbon Double Bond
1,1-Dimethyl-2-neopentylsilene reacted with the N-methylimine of benzophenone to give 1,2,2-trimethyl-3- neopentyl-4,4-diphenyl-l-aza-2-silacyclobutane, I, and 2,3,4,4a-tetrahydro-2,3,3-trimethyl-1-phenyl-4-neopentyl-2- aza-3-silanephthalene, II, in 35% and 20% yields, respectively. Compounds I and II did not serve as thermal silene precursors. Heating I and II to over 280°C did not yield 1,3-disilacyclobutanes. In the presence of 2,3- dimethyl-1,3-butadiene typical silene products were not obtained. However, I and II reacted rapidly with methanol at room temperature to give the ring-opened products (E)-2- methoxy-2,5,5-trimethyl-2-silahex-3-ene, III, 1,1- diphenyldimethylamine, IV, and 2-methoxy-2,5,5-trimethyl-3- (N-methylaminodiphenyl) methyl-2-silahexane, V.
Sulfur-induced Corrosion at Metal and Oxide Surfaces and Interfaces
Sulfur adsorbed on metallic and oxide surfaces, whether originating from gaseous environments or segregating as an impurity to metallic interfaces, is linked to the deterioration of alloy performance. This research dealt with investigations on the interactions between sulfur and iron or iron alloy metallic and oxide surfaces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Sulfur was either intentionally dosed from a H2S source on an atomically clean metal surface, or segregated out as an impurity from the bulk to the metal surface by annealing at elevated temperatures.
Characterization of Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds in Enzyme Catalysis: an Ab Initio and DFT Investigation
Hartree-Fock, Moller-Plesset, and density functional theory calculations have been carried out using 6-31+G(d), 6-31+G(d,p) and 6-31++G(d,p) basis sets to study the properties of low-barrier or short-strong hydrogen bonds (SSHB) and their potential role in enzyme-catalyzed reactions that involve proton abstraction from a weak carbon-acid by a weak base. Formic acid/formate anion, enol/enolate and other complexes have been chosen to simulate a SSHB system. These complexes have been calculated to form very short, very short hydrogen bonds with a very low barrier for proton transfer from the donor to the acceptor. Two important environmental factors including small amount of solvent molecules that could possibly exist at the active site of an enzyme and the polarity around the active site were simulated to study their energetic and geometrical influences to a SSHB. It was found that microsolvation that improves the matching of pK as of the hydrogen bond donor and acceptor involved in the SSHB will always increase the interaction of the hydrogen bond; microsolvation that disrupts the matching of pKas, on the other hand, will lead to a weaker SSHB. Polarity surrounding the SSHB, simulated by SCRF-SCIPCM model, can significantly reduce the strength and stability of a SSHB. The residual strength of a SSHB is about 10--11 kcal/mol that is still significantly stable compared with a traditional weak hydrogen bond that is only about 3--5 kcal/mol in any cases. These results indicate that SSHB can exist under polar environment. Possible reaction intermediates and transition states for the reaction catalyzed by ketosteroid isomerase were simulated to study the stabilizing effect of a SSHB on intermediates and transition states. It was found that at least one SSHB is formed in each of the simulated intermediate-catalyst complexes, strongly supporting the LBHB mechanism proposed by Cleland and Kreevoy. Computational results on the activation energy for catalyzed and uncatalyzed model reactions shows that strong hydrogen bonding between catalyst and the substrate at the transition state can significantly reduce the activation energy. This implies that LBHBs are possibly playing a crucial role in enzyme catalysis by supplying significant stabilizing energy to the reaction transition state.
Raman and NMR Investigation of Molecular Reorientation and Internal Rotation in Liquids
Molecular rotational motions are known to influence both Raman scattering of light and nuclear spin relaxation. Therefore, the application of Raman bandshape analysis and NMR relaxation time measurements to probe molecular dynamics in liquids will provide us with a deeper understanding of the dynamical behavior and structure of molecules in the liquid phase. Presented here are (i) studies of molecular reorientation of acetonitrile in the neat liquid phase and in solution by Raman bandshape analysis and NMR relaxation; (ii) studies of reorientational dynamics and internal rotation in transition metal clusters by NMR relaxation.
Synthesis and Alkali Metal Extraction Properties of Novel Cage-functionalized Crown Coronands and Cryptands
A novel crown ether precursor was developed in which a rigid 4-oxahexacyclo(,10.05,9.08,11)dodecyl cage moiety ("cage functionality") wasincorporated.