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 Resource Type: Book
The Story of North Texas : from Texas Normal College, 1890, to the University of North Texas system, 2001
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A history of the institution of the University of North Texas, featuring photographs of people and events on campus and charting its development from the Texas Normal College to its role in the sciences, mathematics, humanities, social sciences and teacher education, amongst others. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287876/
War in the Pacific: A Chronology January 1, 1941 through September 30, 1945
Text outlining major events in the Pacific Theater throughout World War II, organized by date. It also includes text for the Instrument of Surrender, appendices containing military and war data, a bibliography, and list of related Web sites. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc283775/
Guidelines for Digital Newspaper Preservation Readiness
The Guidelines for Digital Newspaper Preservation Readiness address a specific set of preservation challenges faced by libraries, archives, historical societies, and other organizations that curate substantial collections of digital newspaper content. The Guidelines are intended to inform curators and collection managers at libraries, archives, historical societies, and other such memory organizations about various practical readiness activities that they can take. They provide links to technical resources that curators can either implement themselves or work with their technical staff to implement. The Guidelines (Version 1.0) only deal with digital newspapers at this point, not broadcast or other forms of digital news. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282586/
Guidance Documents for Lifecycle Management of ETDs
In 2011, a research team led by the University of North Texas, the Educopia Institute/MetaArchive Cooperative, and the worldwide Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD), began studying the production, dissemination, and preservation of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs). The original intent was to develop and disseminate documentation for academic libraries that would help curators better understand and address the preservation challenges presented by these new digital collections. As researchers from the libraries of University of North Texas, Virginia Tech, Rice University, Boston College, Indiana State University, Penn State, and the University of Arizona began to grapple with ETD lifecycle management issues, they quickly realized that librarians were but one of many academic stakeholder groups that work collaboratively to produce and maintain ETD collections. Studying the library role in isolation was neither feasible nor helpful. The scope of our work increased to encompass the roles and responsibilities of core stakeholders in the ETD lifecycle: students, faculty, administrators, technologists, commercial vendors, and librarians. The resulting Guidance Documents address areas of interest to ETD program planners, managers, and curators. They will help this extended set of stakeholders understand, document, and address the administrative, legal, and technical challenges presented by ETDs—from submission to long-term preservation. The authors have aimed to be comprehensive in their treatment of ETD programs, and encourage readers to review all of the Guidance Document to gain a holistic view. However, they have also highlighted the sections of each document relevant to 4 roles in ETD programs: institutional administrators, submission staff, access and repository staff, and IT staff. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282598/
Participatory Design in Academic Libraries: New Reports and Findings
This report looks at how staff at eight academic institutions gained new insight about how students and faculty use their libraries, and how the staff are using these findings to improve library technologies, space, and services. Participatory design is a relatively recent approach to understanding library user behavior. It is based on techniques used in anthropological and ethnographic observation. The report is based on a series of presentations at the second CLIR Seminar on Participatory Design of Academic Libraries, held at the University of Rochester’s River Campus June 5-7, 2013. Chapters focus on projects at the University of Colorado, Boulder; Colby College; University of Connecticut; Columbia University; Rush University Medical Center; Purdue University; Northwestern University; and the University of Rochester. David Lindahl, of the University of Missouri-Kansas City, provided the keynote. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282584/
Isidore of Seville's Etymologies : the Complete English Translation of Isidori Hispalensis Episcopi Etymologiarum Sive Originum Libri XX
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This book contains St. Isidore's work translated from the Latin by Priscilla Throop with an index. Saint Isidore of Seville (c.560-636) was Archbishop of Seville for more than three decades and has the reputation of being one of the great scholars of the early Middle Ages. This translation is based on Wallace M. Lindsay’s edition of Isidori Hispalensis episcopi etymologiarum sive originum (Oxford, 1911). For his edition, Lindsay used all available 8th century manuscripts and fragments, as well as some from the 9th century. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276255/
Hacking Secret Ciphers with Python
The book teaches complete beginners how to program in the Python programming language and it features the source code to several ciphers and hacking programs for these ciphers. The programs include the Caesar cipher, transposition cipher, simple substitution cipher, multiplicative and affine ciphers, Vigenere cipher, and hacking programs for each of these ciphers. The final chapters cover the modern RSA cipher and public key cryptography. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272206/
Does Every Research Library Need a Digital Humanities Center?
The essay discusses specific concerns of digital humanists in hopes of bridging the gap between how library directors and digital humanities researchers think. It suggests many ways to respond to the needs of digital humanists, and creating a Digital Humanities center is appropriate in relatively few circumstances. The essay recommends that a “Digital Humanities-friendly” environment may be more effective than a Digital Humanities Center but that library culture may need to evolve in order for librarians to be seen as effective Digital Humanities partners. The authors conclude that what we call “The Digital Humanities” today will soon be considered “The Humanities.” Supporting Digital Humanities scholarship is not much different than supporting digital scholarship in any discipline. Increasingly, digital scholarship is simply scholarship. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272207/
Library Publishing Directory 2014
The first edition of the Library Publishing Directory provides a snapshot of the publishing activities of 115 academic and research libraries, including information about the number and types of publications they produce, the services they offer authors, how they are staffed and funded, and the future plans of institutions that are engaged in this emerging field. In documenting the breadth and depth of activities in this field, this resource aims to articulate the unique value of library publishing; establish it as a significant and growing community of practice; and to raise its visibility within a number of stakeholder communities, including administrators, funding agencies, other scholarly publishers, librarians, and content creators. Specifically it is hoped that this Directory will: • Introduce all readers to the emerging field of library publishing and help articulate its unique characteristics as a distinctive "publishing field." • Facilitate collaboration among library publishers and other publishing entities, especially the university presses and learned societies that share their values. • Alert authors of scholarly content to a range of potential publishing partners dedicated to supporting their experimentation with new forms of scholarly communication and open access business models. The Directory is also available Open Access in several electronic formats through www.librarypublishing.org. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc234934/
Appraising our digital investment : sustainability of digitized special collections in ARL libraries
Sponsored by the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and conducted by Ithaka S+R, this study provides insight into how ARL libraries are managing and funding the hundreds of digitized special collections they have created and that they believe to be critical to their futures. This is the first survey of ARL institutions that specifically attempts to understand and benchmark the activities and costs of supporting these collections after they are created. By looking at questions of management, costs, funding sources, impact, and outreach, the survey offers data that will deliver insight to all those engaged in sustaining digitized special collections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc234942/
Born Digital: Guidance for Donors, Dealers, and Archival Repositories
The report provides recommendations to help ensure the physical and intellectual well-being of materials created and managed in digital form ("born digital") that are transferred from donors to archival repositories. The report is presented in four sections, each of which provides an overview of a key area of concern: initial collection review, privacy and intellectual property, key stages in acquiring digital materials, and post-acquisition review by the repository. Each section concludes with two lists of recommendations: one for donors and dealers, and a second for repository staff. Appendixes provide more specific information about possible staffing activities, as well as a list of resources and ready-to-use checklists that incorporate recommendations from throughout the report. Ten archivists and curators from institutions in the United States and United Kingdom collaborated on the report. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc234935/
The Ithaka S+R US Faculty Survey 2012
The Ithaka S+R US Faculty Survey has focused since its inception on capturing an accurate picture of faculty members' practices, attitudes, and needs. In the fifth triennial cycle, fielded in fall 2012, the survey focused on research and teaching practices broadly, as well as the dissemination, collecting, discovery, and access of research and teaching materials. Findings from this cycle of the Ithaka S+R US Faculty Survey will provide colleges and universities, libraries, learned societies, and academic publishers with insight into the evolving attitudes and practices of faculty members in the context of substantial environmental change for higher education. The development of the 2012 questionnaire was guided by an advisory committee of librarians, publishers, policy makers, and a scholarly society executive. The overall project was supported by some 20 colleges and universities, learned societies, and publishers / vendors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc234917/
Research Data Management Principles, Practices, and Prospects
This report examines how research institutions are responding to data management requirements of the National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, and other federal agencies. It also considers what role, if any, academic libraries and the library and information science profession should have in supporting researchers’ data management needs. University of North Texas (UNT) Library Director Martin Halbert opens the report with an overview of the DataRes Project, a two-year investigation of data management practices conducted at UNT with colleagues Spencer D. C. Keralis, Shannon Stark, and William E. Moen. His introduction is followed by a series of papers that were presented at the DataRes Symposium that UNT organized in December 2012. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc234929/
Searching for Sustainability: Strategies from Eight Digitized Special Collections
This report aims to address one of the biggest challenges facing libraries and cultural heritage organizations: how to move their special collections into the 21st century through digitization while developing successful strategies to make sure those collections remain accessible and relevant over time. Through a cooperative agreement as part of the National Leadership Grants Program, the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) funded the Association of Research Libraries (ARL), in partnership with Ithaka S+R, to undertake in-depth case studies of institutions that have worked to build the audience, infrastructure, and funding models necessary to maintain and grow their digital collections. The eight collections profiled provide useful models and examples of good practice for project leaders to consider when digitizing their own materials. We hope that these case studies will encourage greater discussion among individuals in the academic library and cultural heritage communities about the reasons why they invest so much time and energy in the creation and ongoing management of their digitized special collections, the goals they set for them, and the planning needed to realize those aims. These questions become even more pressing in an environment where the traditional sources of funding for digitization are beginning to wane. In the coming years, the ability to identify secure sources of support and to demonstrate impact over time will undoubtedly become increasingly important. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc234918/
ASIS&T SIG-III's 30th Anniversary Commemorative Publication
Book published for the American Society for Information Science and Technology (ASIS&T) Special Interest Group for International Information Issues (SIG-III). As part of the celebrations for the 75th ASIS&T anniversary and 30th anniversary of SIG-III), this special commemorative publication was created. In this anniversary publication, current and past SIG-III officers attempt to capture some of the SIG-III activities and highlight the challenges as well as the successes that the ASIS&T community has had in the last 30 years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc226877/
Ma`rid as-Sanatain al-`Arabi al-auwal
Exhibition catalog for the first biennial Arab art festival, held in Baghdad, Iraq by the Arab Artist Union. The catalog includes a list of the entry titles, materials, creation dates, and dimensions for each artist, with photographs of selected pieces. The entries are organized by country of origin. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc155614/
Policy Guidelines for the Development and Promotion of Open Access
UNESCO issued this publication to demystify the concept of Open Access (OA) and to provide concrete steps on putting relevant policies in place. Building capacities in Member States for Open Access is a necessary but not sufficient condition for promotion of the concept. Creating an enabling policy environment for OA is therefore a priority. This publication will serve the needs of OA policy development at the government, institutional and funding agency level. The overall objective of the Policy Guidelines is to promote Open Access in Member States by facilitating understanding of all relevant issues related to Open Access. The guidelines are not prescriptive in nature, but are suggestive to facilitate knowledge-based decision-making to adopt OA policies and strengthen national research systems. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc141806/
The Digital Squeeze: Libraries at the Crossroads: the Library Resource Guide Benchmark Study on 2012 Library Spending Plans
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The second annual benchmark study of library spending plans from Library Resource Guide explores the wide range of spending and priorities decision-making taking place in 2012 budgets for public, academic and special libraries. Includes year-to-year comparative data. Learn where peer institutions are focusing their scarce investments, based on a study of over 700 participating North American institutions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc133018/
Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS)
This document has been approved for publication by the Management Council of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) and represents the consensus technical agreement of the participating CCSDS Member Agencies. The procedure for review and authorization of CCSDS documents is detailed in the Procedures Manual for the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, and the record of Agency participation in the authorization of this document can be obtained from the CCSDS Secretariat at the address below. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc123534/
The Digital Public Domain: Foundations for an Open Culture
Digital technology has made culture more accessible than ever before. Texts, audio, pictures and video can easily be produced, disseminated, used and remixed using devices that are increasingly user-friendly and affordable. However, along with this technological democratization comes a paradoxical flipside: the norms regulating culture's use — copyright and related rights — have become increasingly restrictive. This book brings together essays by academics, librarians, entrepreneurs, activists and policy makers, who were all part of the EU-funded Communia project. Together the authors argue that the Public Domain — that is, the informational works owned by all of us, be that literature, music, the output of scientific research, educational material or public sector information — is fundamental to a healthy society. The essays range from more theoretical papers on the history of copyright and the Public Domain, to practical examples and case studies of recent projects that have engaged with the principles of Open Access and Creative Commons licensing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc123530/
Oral Literature in Africa
This revised edition makes Finnegan’s ground-breaking research available to the next generation of scholars. It includes a new introduction, additional images and an updated bibliography, as well as its original chapters on poetry, prose, "drum language” and drama, and an overview of the social, linguistic and historical background of oral literature in Africa. This volume is complemented by original recordings of stories and songs from the Limba country (Sierra Leone), collected by Finnegan during her fieldwork in the late 1960s, digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc123529/
Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS)
This document is a technical Recommended Practice for use in developing a broader consensus on what is required for an archive to provide permanent, or indefinite Long Term, preservation of digital information. This Recommended Practice establishes a common framework of terms and concepts which make up an Open Archival Information System (OAIS). It allows existing and future archives to be more meaningfully compared and contrasted. It provides a basis for further standardization within an archival context and it should promote greater vendor awareness of, and support of, archival requirements. CCSDS has changed the classification of Reference Models from Blue (Recommended Standard) to Magenta (Recommended Practice). Through the process of normal evolution, it is expected that expansion, deletion, or modification of this document may occur. This Recommended Practice is therefore subject to CCSDS document management and change control procedures, which are defined in the Procedures Manual for the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems. Current issue updates document based on input from user community (note). Current versions of CCSDS documents are maintained at the CCSDS Web site: http://www.ccsds.org/ digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc123535/
Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS)
This document is a technical Recommendation for use in developing a broader consensus on what is required for an archive to provide permanent, or indefinite long-term, preservation of digital information. This Recommendation establishes a common framework of terms and concepts which comprise an Open Archival information System (OAIS). It allows existing and future archives to be more meaningfully compared and contrasted. It provides a basis for further standardization within an archival context and it should promote greater vendor awareness of, and support of, archival requirements. Through the process of normal evolution, it is expected that expansion, deletion, or modification of this document may occur. This Recommendation is therefore subject to CCSDS document management and change control procedures which are defined in Procedures Manual for the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems. Current versions of CCSDS documents are maintained at the CCSDS Web site: http://www.ccsds.org/ digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc123533/
al-Muʾtamar al-awwal lil-Ittiḥād al-ʻĀmm lil-Fannānīn al-Tashkīlīyīn al-ʻArab
Proceedings of the first conference for the Arab Artists Association in Baghdad, Iraq. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc119356/
Marie Antoinette
Biography of Marie Antoinette, starting with the death of Charles VI, emperor of Austria, in 1770. It includes a description of her childhood, her life as queen, and her trial and execution. Each chapter heading includes a short summary of events. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98136/
Strategies for Sustaining Digital Libraries
This book is a collection of essays on sustaining digital libraries. The essays report on early findings from pioneers who have worked to establish digital libraries, not merely as experimental projects, but as ongoing services and collections intended to be sustained over time in ways consistent with the long-held practices of print-based libraries. Particularly during this period of extreme technological transition, it is imperative that programs across the nation and indeed the world - actively share their innovations, experiences, and techniques in order to begin cultivating new standard practices. The collective sentiment of the field is that we must begin to transition from a punctuated, project-based mode of advancing innovative information services to an ongoing programmatic mode of sustaining digital libraries for the long haul. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc97962/
Free Culture and the Digital Library Symposium Proceedings 2005
This book of proceedings includes seventeen papers from a symposium held at Emory University. The symposium papers discuss subjects relating to free culture in digital libraries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc97947/
Common Ground: Solutions for reducing the human, economic and conservation costs of human wildlife conflict
This report deals with the conflicts between wildlife and human development. Three cases studies are included, in Namibia, Nepal and Indonesia, respectively. Each location has different problems and contexts, but in all three countries, human lives and economic livelihoods are at stake, as well as the loss of habitat of threatened species. The authors advocate a species conservation approach based on land use planning integrated with human needs in order continue sustainable development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc32900/
Atrazine Monitoring and Modeling in the Lake Lavon Watershed
This report describes a study to identify the distribution and extent of areas potentially at risk for atrazine (a broad leaf weedkiller) runoff in the Lake Lavon watershed, which is a major water supply for the Dallas area. The report presents the results of the study and makes recommendations for how information can be used in a cost-effective watershed atrazine reduction strategy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29479/
Ecological Studies of the Hudson River Near Indian Point
"The general purpose of [this study is] to determine the ecological responses of the [Hudson] River to various classes of potential pollutants, so that the discharge of waste heat and radionuclides from the Indian Point Power Plant can be evaluated in context with these" (p. 1). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29385/
The Effects of Changes in Hydrostatic Pressure on Some Hudson River Biota: Progress Report for 1974
This research report represents the findings on a study conducted over the effect of hydrostatic pressure and hydroelectric generators on various types of fish and other aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29388/
How Healthy is the Upper Trinity River?: Biological and Water Quality Perspectives
This conference report contains discussions and papers from a symposium hosted at Texas Christian University, in Fort Worth, Texas, examining the ecological health of the Upper Trinity River, and the impacts of various human activity, such as agriculture, urbanization, and waste management. The papers cover the effect of water quality on urban rivers, long-term water quality trends in the Trinity River, solutions that may improve water quality in the river, as well as biological, agricultural and waste-water issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29406/
Regional Assessment of Water Quality: Trinity River Basin
The purpose of this study is "to identify significant issues affecting water quality" within the Trinity River watershed, located in the eastern half of Texas, "and to provide sufficient information for the Commission, river authorities, and other local government bodies to take appropriate corrective action necessary to maintain and improve the quality of [the] state's water resources" (p. [1]). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29403/
Radioecological Studies of the Hudson River
"This report summarizes the results of the Hudson River radioecological studies conducted in 1973" (p. 1). The study investigates the behavior of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the Hudson River and the accumulation of natural alpha-emitting radionuclides. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29392/
Effects of Entrainment by the Indian Point Power Plant on Biota in the Hudson River Estuary, August 1976
"This report presents the final results of studies conducted at Indian Point during 1973 using the full complement of available striped bass ichthyoplankton data. These procedures were undertaken in order to present data for river and plant comparisons in the proper perspective of time and space" (p. ii). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29387/
Mortality of Striped Bass Eggs and Larvae in Nets: A Special Report to Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc.
This report summarizes the results of studies conducted to determine the net-induced mortality rates of striped bass in the Hudson River. In the study, an experimental flume was constructed to test the "efficacy of devices designed to reduce fish impingement at the Indian Point generating station" (p. 2). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29390/
Effects of Entrainment by the Indian Point Power Plant on Biota in the Hudson River Estuary, March 1975
"The data presented in this report represent an analysis of the abundance of four life-history stages of striped bass collected in the Hudson River at Indian Point and the intakes and discharge canal at the Indian Point Power Station" (p. 54). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29389/
IPCC Expert Meeting On Industrial Technology Development, Transfer And Diffusion
This meeting summary report presents the major findings and discussion from the IPCC Expert Meeting on "Industrial Technology Development, Transfer and Diffusion." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29369/
Report of the Joint IPCC WG II & III Expert meeting on the integration of Adaptation, Mitigation and Sustainable Development into the 4th IPCC Assessment Report
This report summarizes a meeting to develop the 4th IPCC Assessment Report. The meeting was attended by international experts in adaptation, mitigation and/or sustainable development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29371/
IPCC Expert Meeting on Emission Scenarios
This report summarizes the Expert Meeting on Emission Scenarios to help inform the fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29384/
Climate Change Impacts on the United States: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change
This assessment examines how global climate climate change affects the United States, and describes strategies for adaptation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29334/
Ting and the Possible Futures
This is a children's book where the characters build a time machine that lets them visit alternate futures based on the decisions they make in the present. The story provides a glimpse of a post-apocalyptic dystopia as a result of severe global climate change, as well as a future utopian ideal that comes as a result of implementing massive changes to land use and food and energy production. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc28542/
A Guide to Distributed Digital Preservation
This text is a collection of essays that gives an overview of the reasons for considering distributed digital preservation (a system which maintains copies of digital objects in multiple geographic locations) as well as considerations for implementing this kind of digital preservation. According to the back cover, "Readers may use this guide to gain both a philosophical and practical understanding of the emerging field of distributed digital preservation, including how to establish or join a network." digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12850/
Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage
This report provides information for policy makers, scientists and engineers in the field of climate change and reduction of CO2 emissions. It describes sources, capture, transport, and storage of CO2, as well as the costs, economic potential, and societal issues of the technology, including public perception and regulatory aspects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12051/
Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems
This document is part of the Synthesis and Assessment Products (SAP) described in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Strategic Plan. This report is meant to synthesize and communicate the current state of understanding about the characteristics and implications of uncertainty related to climate change and variability to an audience of policymakers, decision makers, and members of the media and general public with an interest in developing a fundamental understanding of the issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12033/
Past Climate Variability and Change in the Arctic and at High Latitudes
This Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product addresses current capabilities to integrate observations of the climate system into a consistent description of past and current conditions through the method of reanalysis. In addition, the Product assesses present capabilities to attribute causes for climate variations and trends over North America during the reanalysis period, which extends from the mid-twentieth century to the present. This Product reviews Past Climate Variability and Change in the Arctic and at High Latitudes. Paleoclimate records play a key role in our understanding of Earth's past and present climate system and in our confidence in predicting future climate changes. Paleoclimate data help to elucidate past and present active mechanisms of climate change by placing the short instrumental record into a longer term context and by permitting models to be tested beyond the limited time that instrumental measurements have been available. Recent observations in the Arctic have identified large ongoing changes and important climate feedback mechanisms that multiply the effects of global-scale climate changes. As discussed in this report, paleoclimate data show that land and sea ice have grown with cooling temperatures and have shrunk with warming ones, amplifying temperature changes while causing and responding to ecosystem shifts and sea-level changes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12018/
Our Changing Planet: The U.S. Climate Change Science Program for Fiscal Year 2009
The report describes activities and plans of the Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), highlighting recent progress in each of the program's research and observational elements. The document also describes how observational and predictive capabilities are being improved and used to create tools to support decision making at local, regional, and national scales to cope with environmental variability and change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc11984/
Trends in Emissions of Ozone-Depleting Substances, Ozone Layer Recovery, and Implications for Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure
This Synthesis and Assessment Product (SAP 2.4) focuses on the Climate models. Depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer by human-produced ozone-depleting substances has been recognized as a global environmental issue for more than three decades, and the international effort to address the issue via the United Nations Montreal Protocol marked its 20-year anniversary in 2007. Scientific understanding underpinned the Protocol at its inception and ever since. As scientific knowledge advanced and evolved, the Protocol evolved through amendment and adjustment. Policy-relevant science has documented the rise, and now the beginning decline, of the atmospheric abundances of many ozone-depleting substances in response to actions taken by the nations of the world. Projections are for a return of ozone-depleting chemicals (compounds containing chlorine and bromine) to their "pre-ozone-depletion" (pre-1980) levels by the middle of this century for the midlatitudes; the polar regions are expected to follow suit within 20 years after that. Since the 1980s, global ozone sustained a depletion of about 5 percent in the midlatitudes of both the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere, where most of the Earth's population resides; it is now showing signs of turning the corner towards increasing ozone. The large seasonal depletions in the polar regions are likely to continue over the next decade but are expected to subside over the next few decades. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12023/
Climate Projections Based on Emissions Scenarios for Long-Lived and Short-Lived Radiatively Active Gases and Aerosols
This report focuses on the Climate Projections Based on Emissions Scenarios. The influence of greenhouse gases and particle pollution on our present and future climate has been widely examined. While both long-lived (e.g., carbon dioxide) and short-lived (e.g., soot) gases and particles affect the climate, other projections of future climate, such as the IPCC reports focus largely on the long-lived gases. This U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product provides a different emphasis. The authors examine the effect of long-lived greenhouse gases on the global climate based on updated emissions scenarios produced by another CCSP Synthesis and Assessment Product (SAP 2.1a). In these scenarios, atmospheric concentrations of the long-lived greenhouse gases leveled off, or stabilized, at predetermined levels by the end of the twenty-first century (unlike in the IPCC scenarios). However, the projected future temperature changes fall within the same range as those projected for the latest IPCC report. The authors confirm the robust future warming signature and other associated changes in the climate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12025/
Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts
This report critically reviews current knowledge about global distributions and properties of atmospheric aerosols as they relate to aerosol impacts on climate. It assesses possible steps to substantially reduce uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing estimates. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc12022/
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